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Mesothelioma, lung cancer,

Kentaro Inamura
Immunohistochemistry is a widely available technique that is less challenging and can provide clinically meaningful results quickly and cost-efficiently in comparison with other techniques. In addition, immunohistochemistry allows for the evaluation of cellular localization of proteins in the context of tumor structure. In an era of precision medicine, pathologists are required to classify lung cancer into specific subtypes and assess biomarkers relevant to molecular-targeted therapies. This review summarizes the hot topics of immunohistochemistry in lung cancer, including (i) adenocarcinoma vs squamous cell carcinoma; (ii) neuroendocrine markers; (iii) ALK, ROS1, and EGFR; (iv) PD-L1 (CD274); (v) lung carcinoma vs malignant mesothelioma; and (vi) NUT carcinoma...
March 14, 2018: Cancers
Clare Gilham, Christine Rake, John Hodgson, Andrew Darnton, Garry Burdett, James Peto Wild, Michelle Newton, Andrew G Nicholson, Leslie Davidson, Mike Shires, Tom Treasure, Julian Peto
Background: Occupational and environmental airborne asbestos concentrations are too low and variable for lifetime exposures to be estimated reliably, and building workers and occupants may suffer higher exposure when asbestos in older buildings is disturbed or removed. Mesothelioma risks from current asbestos exposures are therefore not known. Methods: We interviewed and measured asbestos levels in lung samples from 257 patients treated for pneumothorax and 262 with resected lung cancer, recruited in England and Wales...
March 9, 2018: International Journal of Epidemiology
Nanumi Han, Muhammad Baghdadi, Kozo Ishikawa, Hiraku Endo, Takuto Kobayashi, Haruka Wada, Keisuke Imafuku, Hiroo Hata, Ken-Ichiro Seino
Background: Immunotherapies that target immune-checkpoint molecules such PD-1 have helped to achieve durable responses in melanoma treatment. However, 25% of melanoma patients who showed objective responses to PD-1 blockade develop resistance and suffer from disease progression and ultimately death, which necessitates the identification of related resistance mechanisms.IL-34 is a cytokine that controls the biology of myeloid cell lineage through binding to CSF-1R. IL-34 is importantly involved in the pathogenesis of various diseases...
2018: Inflammation and Regeneration
Matea Pavic, Marta Bogowicz, Xaver Würms, Stefan Glatz, Tobias Finazzi, Oliver Riesterer, Johannes Roesch, Leonie Rudofsky, Martina Friess, Patrick Veit-Haibach, Martin Huellner, Isabelle Opitz, Walter Weder, Thomas Frauenfelder, Matthias Guckenberger, Stephanie Tanadini-Lang
BACKGROUND: Radiomics is a promising methodology for quantitative analysis and description of radiological images using advanced mathematics and statistics. Tumor delineation, which is still often done manually, is an essential step in radiomics, however, inter-observer variability is a well-known uncertainty in radiation oncology. This study investigated the impact of inter-observer variability (IOV) in manual tumor delineation on the reliability of radiomic features (RF). METHODS: Three different tumor types (head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC)) were included...
March 7, 2018: Acta Oncologica
Ines Ayedi, Hamed Chaabouni, Malek Akrout, Tahia Boudawara, Nabil Toumi, Afef Khanfir, Mounir Frikha
Cardiac metastases are rare. They are found in one to 10% of autopsies of patients withmalignant neoplasm. Adenocarcinoma represents the most common histologicaltype. The most common neoplasms that metastasize to the heart are lung andbreast cancers, melanoma, mesothelioma and lymphoma. However, Cardiacinvolvement is unusual in Hepatic, cutaneous and gastric cancer. We reportedthese three primary localizations in our cases.
June 2017: La Tunisie Médicale
Piergiorgio Solli, Jury Brandolini, Alessandro Pardolesi, Marco Nardini, Nicola Lacava, Sergio Forti Parri, Kenji Kawamukai, Barbara Bonfanti, Luca Bertolaccini
Extrapleural pneumonectomy (EPP) and pleurectomy-decortication (P/D) are both recognised surgical procedures for selected cases affected by malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM). Surgical techniques have ameliorated over the last years, remaining the complete macroscopic resection of the disease the main surgical principle. EPP is defined as an en-bloc resection of the visceral pleura, parietal pleura, pericardium and diaphragm alongside the pneumonectomy. The thoracic domain of the International Association for Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC) recently clarified the, previously confused, surgical terminology...
January 2018: Journal of Thoracic Disease
Fabio Falaschi, Chiara Romei, Sara Fiorini, Marco Lucchi
Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) in an uncommon neoplasia with high mortality rate, mostly related to professional asbestos exposure. Clinical manifestations are not specific so that diagnosis is performed at advanced stage and screening protocols are not feasible now. On the other hand, asbestos-exposed workers have a high incidence of developing lung cancer. Low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) is a volumetric acquisition technique with high spatial resolution and a low dose exposure; it is used in many trials to detect lung tumours at an early stage in screening protocols, reducing mortality rate in smoker subjects...
January 2018: Journal of Thoracic Disease
Francesco Petrella, Lorenzo Spaggiari
Two main fields of clinical applications of stem cells in thoracic surgery have been explored: (a) regenerative medicine, that is a branch of translational research in tissue engineering and molecular biology dealing with the replacement, engineering or regeneration of cells, tissues and organs to restore normal function; (b) drug loading and delivery, that is an emerging field proposing stem cells as vectors to deliver anti-cancer agents for targeted therapies.Bronchopleural fistula is a pathological connection between the bronchus and the pleural cavity that may develop after lung resection, thus causing pleural empyema due to colonization by resident airway bacteria; stem cells and regenerative medicine approach can effectively contribute to impaired bronchial healing, thus preventive a septic and ventilator catastrophe...
March 1, 2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Andrew G Nicholson, Ming S Tsao, William D Travis, Deepa T Patil, Francoise Galateau-Salle, Mirella Marino, Sanja Dacic, Mary Beth Beasley, Kelly J Butnor, Yasushi Yatabe, Harvey I Pass, Valerie W Rusch, Frank C Detterbeck, Hisao Asamura, Thomas W Rice, Ramon Rami-Porta
CONTEXT: - The Staging and Prognostic Factors Committee of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer, in conjunction with the International Mesothelioma Interest Group, the International Thymic Malignancy Interest Group, and the Worldwide Esophageal Cancer Collaboration, developed proposals for the 8th edition of their respective tumor, node, metastasis (TNM) staging classification systems. OBJECTIVE: - To review these changes and discuss issues for the reporting pathologist...
February 26, 2018: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
Jo Bayly, Dominique Wakefield, Nilay Hepgul, Andrew Wilcock, Irene J Higginson, Matthew Maddocks
OBJECTIVES: International guidelines recommend that rehabilitation be offered to people with thoracic cancer to improve symptoms, function and quality of life. When rehabilitation interventions require a change in behaviour, the use of theory and behaviour change techniques (BCTs) enhance participation. Our objective was to systematically identify BCTs and examine their use in relation to the Capability,Opportunity,Motivation-Behaviour model and known enablers and barriers to engagement in this population...
February 24, 2018: Psycho-oncology
J Remon, N Vilariño, N Reguart
Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have been incorporated in the treatment strategy of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Beyond the already approved indications in first- and second-line setting of advanced NSCLC, new data has recently emerged demonstrating its efficacy in locally advanced disease as maintenance after chemo-radiotherapy and currently several trials are also exploring its efficacy in earlier stages of the disease to evaluate whether these results could be extrapolated to the adjuvant setting...
February 8, 2018: Cancer Treatment Reviews
Cecile Olivier, Jean-Marie Grosbois, Alexis B Cortot, Sophie Peres, Christophe Heron, Julie Delourme, Marianne Gierczynski, Anne Hoorelbeke, Arnaud Scherpereel, Olivier Le Rouzic
BACKGROUND: Patients with advanced lung cancer (LC) or malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) exhibit limitation of exercise capacities and alteration of quality of life (QoL) induced by cancer and its treatment. Few studies assessed pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) in these chemotherapy-treated patients, and none evaluated a home-based PR program. METHODS: In this prospective uncontrolled observational pilot study, patients treated by chemotherapy for LC or MPM were screened for a home-based PR program combining exercise training with global cares including therapeutic education and psychosocial management...
February 13, 2018: BMC Cancer
Mohammad Kazem Fathi Fathabadi, Ali Abdolahnejad, Hakimeh Teiri, Yaghoub Hajizadeh
Background Asbestos fiber is mainly released from friction product in brakes and clutch linings and from reinforcing agent in the asbestos-cement industry. It leads to serious health problem such as mesothelioma and lung cancer. The objectives of this study were to monitor the levels of asbestos fibers in ambient air of Shiraz, Iran during 2014, and to draw its GIS distribution map for the city. Methods Samples were collected by mixed cellulose ester filters mounted on an open-faced filter holder using a SKC sampling pump...
February 9, 2018: International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health
Naoko Kumagai-Takei, Shoko Yamamoto, Suni Lee, Megumi Maeda, Hidenori Masuzzaki, Nagisa Sada, Min Yu, Kei Yoshitome, Yasumitsu Nishimura, Takemi Otsuki
Asbestos is a known carcinogen and exposure can lead to lung cancer and malignant mesothelioma. To examine the effects of asbestos fibers on human immune cells, the human T cell leukemia/lymphoma virus (HTLV)-1 immortalized human T cell line MT-2 was employed. Following continuous exposure to asbestos fibers for more than eight months, MT-2 sublines showed acquisition of resistance to asbestos-induced apoptosis with decreased death signals and increased surviving signals. These sublines showed various characteristics that suggested a reduction in anti-tumor immunity...
February 8, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
N Bayram, Y Karakan, M Uyar, B Ozyurt, A Filiz
INTRODUCTION: Pleural effusion is a common clinical problem with management difficulties. The aim of this study is to evaluate vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in differential diagnosis of pleural effusions and the presence of correlation between radiological features and biochemical properties. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study included patients with pleural effusion. VEGF levels in the pleural fluid were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS: A total of 97 patients who had exudative pleural effusion related to lung cancer (n = 17), nonpulmonary malignancies (n = 25), mesothelioma (n = 9), pneumonia (n = 14), tuberculosis (n = 8), miscellaneous causes (n = 6), and transudative effusion (n = 18) were included...
January 2018: Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice
Gaku Moriyama, Maya Tanigawa, Kosuke Sakai, Yusuke Hirata, Satoshi Kikuchi, Yuriko Saito, Hiroyuki Kyoyama, Kuniko Matsuda, Masahiro Seike, Akihiko Gemma, Kazutsugu Uematsu
It was previously revealed that Wnt signaling is activated in mesothelioma cells. Although epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is expressed in mesothelioma cells, EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are not effective for mesothelioma treatment. However, in non-small cell lung cancer, the blocking of Wnt signaling has been identified to enhance the anticancer effect of EGFR-TKIs. To confirm the anticancer effect of blocking Wnt signaling in combination with EGFR-TKI treatment in mesothelioma, the present study evaluated the effect of simultaneous suppression of human dishevelled-3 (Dvl-3) expression with Dvl-3 small interfering RNA (siRNA) and of EGFR inhibition with gefitinib on mesothelioma cell viability...
January 2018: Oncology Letters
Yao-Wen Chang, Mika K Kaneko, Shinji Yamada, Yukinari Kato
The mucin-type membrane glycoprotein podoplanin (PDPN) is frequently overexpressed in numerous malignant cancers, including squamous cell carcinoma, germinal neoplasia, mesothelioma, lung cancer, oral cancer, and brain tumor. PDPN expression is strongly associated with cancer progression and poor prognosis. Furthermore, PDPN binds to C-type lectin-like receptor 2 (CLEC-2) on platelets, followed by PDPN-mediated platelet aggregation to facilitate tumor metastasis. We have previously reported a novel anti-cat PDPN (cPDPN) monoclonal antibody (mAb), PMab-52, which specifically detects cPDPN using flow cytometry analysis and successfully identifies cPDPN in feline squamous cell carcinomas...
February 2, 2018: Monoclonal Antibodies in Immunodiagnosis and Immunotherapy
Heather L Gelhorn, Anne M Skalicky, Zaneta Balantac, Sonya Eremenco, Tricia Cimms, Katarina Halling, Patricia J Hollen, Richard J Gralla, Martin C Mahoney, Chris Sexton
PURPOSE: Obtaining qualitative data directly from the patient perspective enhances the content validity of patient-reported outcome (PRO) instruments. The objective of this qualitative study was to evaluate the content validity of the Lung Cancer Symptom Scale for Mesothelioma (LCSS-Meso) and its usability on an electronic device. METHODS: A cross-sectional methodological study, using a qualitative approach, was conducted among patients recruited from four clinical sites...
February 1, 2018: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
Ravi Salgia, Prakash Kulkarni, Prakash S Gill
The erythropoietin-producing hepatocellular carcinoma (Eph) receptors are the largest family of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) that include two major subclasses, EphA and EphB. They form an important cell communication system with critical and diverse roles in a variety of biological processes during embryonic development. However, dysregulation of the Eph/ephrin interactions is implicated in cancer contributing to tumour growth, metastasis, and angiogenesis. Here, we focus on EphB4 and review recent developments in elucidating its role in upper aerodigestive malignancies to include lung cancer, head and neck cancer, and mesothelioma...
January 21, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Erika E Doxtader, Sanjay Mukhopadhyay
BACKGROUND: Recent studies suggest that insulinoma-associated protein 1 (INSM1) is a sensitive and specific marker of neuroendocrine neoplasms. The aims of this study were to determine whether INSM1 can be reliably used in cytology (Cellient) cell blocks, to ascertain whether staining correlates with paired surgical pathology specimens, and to compare its sensitivity and specificity with those of synaptophysin (SYN), chromogranin (CHR), and CD56 for neuroendocrine lung tumors. METHODS: Seventy-four primary lung neoplasms diagnosed on cytology were stained with INSM1, SYN, CHR, and CD56: 41 small cell lung carcinomas (SCLCs), 1 large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC), 10 carcinoid tumors, 11 adenocarcinomas, 9 squamous cell carcinomas, 1 mesothelioma and 1 poorly differentiated non-small cell lung carcinoma, not otherwise specified...
January 23, 2018: Cancer Cytopathology
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