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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734784/drug-delivery-innovations-to-address-global-health-challenges-for-pediatric-and-geriatric-populations-through-improvements-in-patient-compliance
#1
Joshua Boateng
Despite significant advances in pharmaceutical and biotechnological drug discovery, the global population is plagued with many challenging diseases. These are further compounded by anticipated explosion in an ageing population, which presents several problems such as polypharmacy, dysphagia and neurological conditions, resulting in non-compliance and disease complications. For antibiotics, poor compliance, can result in development of drug resistant infections which can be fatal. Further, children, especially, in developing countries die unnecessarily from easily treatable diseases (e...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711342/birmingham-hip-resurfacing-vs-total-hip-arthroplasty-a-matched-pair-comparison-of-clinical-outcomes
#2
Victor R Ortiz-Declet, David A Iacobelli, Leslie C Yuen, Itay Perets, Austin W Chen, Benjamin G Domb
BACKGROUND: Birmingham hip resurfacing (BHR) has proven to be a good alternative for younger patients with osteoarthritis. Some have asserted that BHR may yield outcomes which are superior to total hip arthroplasty (THA), and that some studies which failed to show a difference were plagued by ceiling effects and lack of sensitivity of outcome measures. The purpose of this study is to compare outcomes of BHR and THA using the "Forgotten Joint" Score-12 (FJS), a more sensitive score with lesser vulnerability to the ceiling effect...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Arthroplasty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569291/misadventure-in-muirhouse-hiv-infection-a-modern-plague-and-persisting-public-health-problem
#3
R Robertson
This story is of particular interest and importance to Edinburgh and Scottish medicine. It describes the events in one general medical practice in Edinburgh, the Muirhouse Medical Group, and their impact and relationship to the AIDS pandemic. For many, the origin of HIV in the UK is now history. Since the introduction of HIV/AIDS into the intravenous illegal drug using community, much has changed but problems remain that should concern policy makers and clinicians. Reflections on the recent history of the HIV epidemic among drug users in the UK provide important insights into risks for current policy making and the potentially problematic direction that policy has taken...
March 2017: Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28451245/protecting-micrornas-from-rnase-degradation-with-steric-dna-nanostructures
#4
H Qian, C Y Tay, M I Setyawati, S L Chia, D S Lee, D T Leong
Tumor suppressive microRNAs are potent molecules that might cure cancer, one day. Despite the many advanced strategies for delivery of these microRNAs to the cell, there are few therapeutic microRNAs in clinical use. Progress in microRNA bioapplications is hindered by a high vulnerability of exogeneous microRNA molecules to RNase degradation that occurs in extra- and intracellular physiological conditions. In this proof-of-concept study, we use a programmable self-assembled DNA nanostructure bearing a "shuriken" shape to not only deliver but more importantly protect a tumor suppressive microRNA-145 for a sufficiently long time to exert its therapeutic effect in human colorectal cancer cells...
February 1, 2017: Chemical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320263/duck-virus-enteritis-duck-plague-a-comprehensive-update
#5
Kuldeep Dhama, Naveen Kumar, Mani Saminathan, Ruchi Tiwari, Kumaragurubaran Karthik, M Asok Kumar, M Palanivelu, Muhammad Zubair Shabbir, Yashpal Singh Malik, Raj Kumar Singh
Duck virus enteritis (DVE), also called duck plague, is one of the major contagious and fatal diseases of ducks, geese and swan. It is caused by duck enteritis virus (DEV)/Anatid herpesvirus-1 of the genus Mardivirus, family Herpesviridae, and subfamily Alpha-herpesvirinae. Of note, DVE has worldwide distribution, wherein migratory waterfowl plays a crucial role in its transmission within and between continents. Furthermore, horizontal and/ or vertical transmission plays a significant role in disease spread through oral-fecal discharges...
December 2017: Veterinary Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262733/network-theory-may-explain-the-vulnerability-of-medieval-human-settlements-to-the-black-death-pandemic
#6
José M Gómez, Miguel Verdú
Epidemics can spread across large regions becoming pandemics by flowing along transportation and social networks. Two network attributes, transitivity (when a node is connected to two other nodes that are also directly connected between them) and centrality (the number and intensity of connections with the other nodes in the network), are widely associated with the dynamics of transmission of pathogens. Here we investigate how network centrality and transitivity influence vulnerability to diseases of human populations by examining one of the most devastating pandemic in human history, the fourteenth century plague pandemic called Black Death...
March 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132598/the-narcissism-spectrum-model
#7
Zlatan Krizan, Anne D Herlache
The narcissism spectrum model synthesizes extensive personality, social-psychological, and clinical evidence, building on existing knowledge about narcissistic grandiosity and vulnerability to reveal a view of narcissism that respects its clinical origins, embraces the diversity and complexity of its expression, and reflects extensive scientific evidence about the continuity between normal and abnormal personality expression. Critically, the proposed model addresses three key, inter-related problems that have plagued narcissism scholarship for more than a century...
January 1, 2017: Personality and Social Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121134/molecular-imaging-of-vulnerable-atherosclerotic-plaques-in-vivo-with-osteopontin-specific-upconversion-nanoprobes
#8
Ruirui Qiao, Hongyu Qiao, Yan Zhang, Yabin Wang, Chongwei Chi, Jie Tian, Lifang Zhang, Feng Cao, Mingyuan Gao
Owing to the high mortality rate of cardiovascular diseases, developing novel noninvasive diagnostic methods becomes urgent and mandatory. It is well-known that the rupture of vulnerable plaques directly leads to deadly consequences. However, differentiating vulnerable plaques from stable plaques remains challenging in the clinic. In the current study, osteopontin (OPN), a secreted biomarker associated with macrophages and foamy macrophages, was selected as a target for identifying the vulnerable plaques. A dual modality imaging probe was constructed by covalently attaching an OPN antibody to NaGdF4:Yb,Er@NaGdF4 upconversion nanoparticles...
February 28, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27355784/peer-support-for-clinicians-a-programmatic-approach
#9
Jo Shapiro, Pamela Galowitz
Burnout is plaguing the culture of medicine and is linked to several primary causes including long work hours, increasingly burdensome documentation, and resource constraints. Beyond these, additional emotional stressors for physicians are involvement in an adverse event, especially one that involves a medical error, and malpractice litigation. The authors argue that it is imperative that health care institutions devote resources to programs that support physician well-being and resilience. Doing so after adverse and other emotionally stressful events, such as the death of a colleague or caring for victims of a mass trauma, is crucial as clinicians are often at their most vulnerable during such times...
September 2016: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27228555/multidrug-resistant-organisms-in-liver-transplant-mitigating-risk-and-managing-infections
#10
REVIEW
Jonathan Hand, Gopi Patel
Liver transplant (LT) recipients are vulnerable to infections with multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogens. Risk factors for colonization and infection with resistant bacteria are ubiquitous and unavoidable in transplantation. During the past decade, progress in transplantation and infection prevention has contributed to the decreased incidence of infections with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. However, even in the face of potentially effective antibiotics, vancomycin-resistant enterococci continue to plague LT...
August 2016: Liver Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27206731/global-health-partnerships-building-multi-national-collaborations-to-achieve-lasting-improvements-in-maternal-and-neonatal-health
#11
Rohit Ramaswamy, Brianne Kallam, Dragica Kopic, Borislava Pujic, Medge D Owen
BACKGROUND: In response to health care challenges worldwide, extensive funding has been channeled to the world's most vulnerable health systems. Funding alone is not sufficient to address the complex issues and challenges plaguing these health systems. To see lasting improvement in maternal and infant health outcomes in the developing world, a global commitment to the sharing of knowledge and resources through international partnerships is critical. But partnerships that merely introduce western medical techniques and protocols to low resource settings, without heeding the local contexts, are misguided and unsustainable...
2016: Globalization and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26875531/availability-a-metric-for-nucleic-acid-strand-displacement-systems
#12
Xiaoping Olson, Shohei Kotani, Jennifer E Padilla, Natalya Hallstrom, Sara Goltry, Jeunghoon Lee, Bernard Yurke, William L Hughes, Elton Graugnard
DNA strand displacement systems have transformative potential in synthetic biology. While powerful examples have been reported in DNA nanotechnology, such systems are plagued by leakage, which limits network stability, sensitivity, and scalability. An approach to mitigate leakage in DNA nanotechnology, which is applicable to synthetic biology, is to introduce mismatches to complementary fuel sequences at key locations. However, this method overlooks nuances in the secondary structure of the fuel and substrate that impact the leakage reaction kinetics in strand displacement systems...
January 20, 2017: ACS Synthetic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26867286/gender-differences-in-respiratory-health-of-school-children-exposed-to-rail-yard-generated-air-pollution-the-enrrich-study
#13
Rhonda Spencer-Hwang, Sam Soret, Mark Ghamsary, Nico Rizzo, Marti Baum, David Juma, Susanne Montgomery
Studies about environmental burdens often explore overall community risk. Increasing evidence suggests, however, differential burdens by gender and age. The purpose of the authors' research was to determine if gender-related difference exists among children in a region plagued with poor air quality and if increased exposure to pollutants from a major goods movement rail yard influences the relationship. Using a cross-sectional study design, the authors provided respiratory screening for children at two elementary schools...
January 2016: Journal of Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26737811/a-look-at-the-strength-of-micro-and-macro-eeg-analysis-for-distinguishing-insomnia-within-an-hiv-cohort
#14
Kristin M Gunnarsdottir, Yu Min Kang, Matthew S D Kerr, Sridevi V Sarma, Joshua Ewen, Richard Allen, Charlene Gamaldo, Rachel M E Salas
HIV patients are often plagued by sleep disorders and suffer from sleep deprivation. However, there remains a wide gap in our understanding of the relationship between HIV status, poor sleep, overall function and future outcomes; particularly in the case of HIV patients otherwise well controlled on cART (combined anti-retroviral therapy). In this study, we compared two groups: 16 non-HIV subjects (seronegative controls) and 12 seropositive HIV patients with undetectable viral loads. We looked at sleep behavioral (macro-sleep) features and sleep spectral (micro-sleep) features obtained from human-scored overnight EEG recordings to study whether the scored EEG data can be used to distinguish between controls and HIV subjects...
2015: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26708575/nobel-prize-for-the-artemisinin-and-ivermectin-discoveries-a-great-boost-towards-elimination-of-the-global-infectious-diseases-of-poverty
#15
EDITORIAL
Ernest Tambo, Emad I M Khater, Jun-Hu Chen, Robert Bergquist, Xiao-Nong Zhou
The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) made a marked transformation for neglected and vulnerable communities in the developing countries from the start, but infectious diseases of poverty (IDoPs) continue to inflict a disproportionate global public health burden with associated consequences, thereby contributing to the vicious cycle of poverty and inequity. However, the effectiveness and large-scale coverage of artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) have revolutionized malaria treatment just as the control of lymphatic filariasis (LF) and onchocerciasis have benefitted from harnessing the broad-spectrum effect of avermectin-based derivatives...
2015: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25975407/-the-epidemiology-and-etiology-research-of-tibetan-sheep-plague-in-qinghai-plateau
#16
Baiqing Wei, Haoming Xiong, Xiaoyan Yang, Yonghai Yang, Meiying Qi, Juan Jin, Youquan Xin, Xiang Li, Hanqing Yang, Xiumin Han, Ruixia Dai
OBJECTIVE: To identify the epidemiology and etiology characteristics of Tibetan sheep plague in Qinghai plateau. METHODS: The background materials of Qinghai Tibetan sheep plague found during 1975 to 2009 were summarized, the regional, time and interpersonal distribution, infection routes, ecological factors for the spread were used to analyze; followed by choosing 14 Yersinia pestis strains isolated from such sheep for biochemical test, toxicity test, virulence factors identification, plasmid analysis, and DFR genotype...
March 2015: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25667179/sepsis-in-vulnerable-populations
#17
REVIEW
Satish Bhagwanjee, Sebastian Ugarte
Despite the acquisition of a large body of evidence, there are many unanswered questions about sepsis. The definition of this disease is plagued by the lack of a simple pathophysiological description linking cause to effect and the activation of host immune responses that hinders disease progression at the same time producing multiorgan dysfunction. A plethora of inconsistent clinical features has served to obfuscate rather than illuminate. The Surviving Sepsis Guidelines (SSG) are a major advance because it comprehensively interrogates all aspects of care for the critically ill...
September 2014: Global Heart
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25510342/a-revolution-in-electrodes-recent-progress-in-rechargeable-lithium-sulfur-batteries
#18
Xin Fang, Huisheng Peng
As a promising candidate for future batteries, the lithium-sulfur battery is gaining increasing interest due to its high capacity and energy density. However, over the years, lithium-sulfur batteries have been plagued by fading capacities and the low Coulombic efficiency derived from its unique electrochemical behavior, which involves solid-liquid transition reactions. Moreover, lithium-sulfur batteries employ metallic lithium as the anode, which engenders safety vulnerability of the battery. The electrodes play a pivotal role in the performance of lithium-sulfur batteries...
April 2015: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25506807/in-vitro-dopaminergic-neurotoxicity-of-pesticides-a-link-with-neurodegeneration
#19
REVIEW
Harm J Heusinkveld, Martin van den Berg, Remco H S Westerink
Around the globe, chemical compounds are used to treat or repel pests and plagues that pose a threat to food and feed production. From epidemiological studies, it is known that there is a link between exposure to certain chemical classes of these so-called pesticides and the prevalence of neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson's disease in humans. However, which particular compound(s) account for this link or what underlying mechanisms are involved is still largely unresolved. The degenerative process in Parkinson's disease is largely limited to the dopaminergic neurons in the basal ganglia...
2014: Veterinary Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25458615/future-target-based-drug-discovery-for-tuberculosis
#20
REVIEW
Bavesh Davandra Kana, Petros C Karakousis, Tanya Parish, Thomas Dick
New drugs that retain potency against multidrug/extensively drug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, with the additional benefit of a shortened treatment duration and ease of administration, are urgently needed by tuberculosis (TB) control programs. Efforts to develop this new generation of treatment interventions have been plagued with numerous problems, the most significant being our insufficient understanding of mycobacterial metabolism during disease. This, combined with limited chemical diversity and poor entry of small molecules into the cell, has limited the number of new bioactive agents that result from drug screening efforts...
December 2014: Tuberculosis
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