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TGF-beta craniofacial malformation

Sara K Fuhrhop, Mark J McElroy, Harry C Dietz, Gretchen L MacCarrick, Paul D Sponseller
BACKGROUND: Loeys-Dietz syndrome is a connective tissue disorder characterized by vascular, craniofacial, and musculoskeletal malformation. Our goal was to report the manifestations, surgical treatment, and complications in the cervical spine in patients with Loeys-Dietz syndrome. METHODS: We reviewed the clinical and cervical spine imaging data of eighty patients with Loeys-Dietz syndrome who were seen at our institution from January 2005 through January 2014. Their mean age at presentation was 17...
March 4, 2015: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
Thach-Vu Ho, Junichi Iwata, Hoang Anh Ho, Weston C Grimes, Shery Park, Pedro A Sanchez-Lara, Yang Chai
Growth factor signaling regulates tissue-tissue interactions to control organogenesis and tissue homeostasis. Specifically, transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) signaling plays a crucial role in the development of cranial neural crest (CNC) cell-derived bone, and loss of Tgfbr2 in CNC cells results in craniofacial skeletal malformations. Our recent studies indicate that non-canonical TGFβ signaling is activated whereas canonical TGFβ signaling is compromised in the absence of Tgfbr2 (in Tgfbr2(fl/fl);Wnt1-Cre mice)...
April 15, 2015: Developmental Biology
Frank Davis, Debra L Rateri, Alan Daugherty
Loeys-Dietz syndrome (LDS) is a connective tissue disorder that is characterized by skeletal abnormalities, craniofacial malformations, and a high predisposition for aortic aneurysm. In this issue of the JCI, Gallo et al. developed transgenic mouse strains harboring missense mutations in the genes encoding type I or II TGF-β receptors. These mice exhibited several LDS-associated phenotypes. Despite being functionally defective, the mutated receptors enhanced TGF-β signaling in vivo, inferred by detection of increased levels of phosphorylated Smad2...
January 2014: Journal of Clinical Investigation
Zhongchen Song, Chao Liu, Junichi Iwata, Shuping Gu, Akiko Suzuki, Cheng Sun, Wei He, Rong Shu, Lu Li, Yang Chai, YiPing Chen
Cleft palate represents one of the most common congenital birth defects in humans. TGFβ signaling, which is mediated by Smad-dependent and Smad-independent pathways, plays a crucial role in regulating craniofacial development and patterning, particularly in palate development. However, it remains largely unknown whether the Smad-independent pathway contributes to TGFβ signaling function during palatogenesis. In this study, we investigated the function of TGFβ activated kinase 1 (Tak1), a key regulator of Smad-independent TGFβ signaling in palate development...
April 12, 2013: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Jun-ichi Iwata, Joseph G Hacia, Akiko Suzuki, Pedro A Sanchez-Lara, Mark Urata, Yang Chai
Patients with mutations in either TGF-β receptor type I (TGFBR1) or TGF-β receptor type II (TGFBR2), such as those with Loeys-Dietz syndrome, have craniofacial defects and signs of elevated TGF-β signaling. Similarly, mutations in TGF-β receptor gene family members cause craniofacial deformities, such as cleft palate, in mice. However, it is unknown whether TGF-β ligands are able to elicit signals in Tgfbr2 mutant mice. Here, we show that loss of Tgfbr2 in mouse cranial neural crest cells results in elevated expression of TGF-β2 and TGF-β receptor type III (TβRIII); activation of a TβRI/TβRIII-mediated, SMAD-independent, TRAF6/TAK1/p38 signaling pathway; and defective cell proliferation in the palatal mesenchyme...
March 2012: Journal of Clinical Investigation
A A Keaton, B D Solomon, E F Kauvar, K B El-Jaick, A L Gropman, Y Zafer, J M Meck, S J Bale, D K Grange, B R Haddad, G C Gowans, N J Clegg, M R Delgado, J S Hahn, D E Pineda-Alvarez, F Lacbawan, J I Vélez, E Roessler, M Muenke
Holoprosencephaly (HPE), which results from failed or incomplete midline forebrain division early in gestation, is the most common forebrain malformation. The etiology of HPE is complex and multifactorial. To date, at least 12 HPE-associated genes have been identified, including TGIF (transforming growth factor beta-induced factor), located on chromosome 18p11.3. TGIF encodes a transcriptional repressor of retinoid responses involved in TGF-β signaling regulation, including Nodal signaling. TGIF mutations are reported in approximately 1-2% of patients with non-syndromic, non-chromosomal HPE...
2010: Molecular Syndromology
Jun-ichi Iwata, Lily Tung, Mark Urata, Joseph G Hacia, Richard Pelikan, Akiko Suzuki, Liza Ramenzoni, Obaid Chaudhry, Carolina Parada, Pedro A Sanchez-Lara, Yang Chai
Cleft palate represents one of the most common congenital birth defects. Transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) signaling plays crucial functions in regulating craniofacial development, and loss of TGFβ receptor type II in cranial neural crest cells leads to craniofacial malformations, including cleft palate in mice (Tgfbr2(fl/fl);Wnt1-Cre mice). Here we have identified candidate target genes of TGFβ signaling during palatal formation. These target genes were selected based on combining results from gene expression profiles of embryonic day 14...
January 20, 2012: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Tiziano Baroni, Catia Bellucci, Cinzia Lilli, Furio Pezzetti, Francesco Carinci, Eleonora Lumare, Annalisa Palmieri, Giordano Stabellini, Maria Bodo
Nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CLP) is a frequent craniofacial malformation caused by both genetic and environmental factors. Maternal smoking during pregnancy is a known risk factor, due to the teratogenic role of nicotine. To assess and compare the impact of CLP and nicotine, we studied the quantitative expression of genes involved in signaling pathways and extracellular matrix (ECM) metabolism in human normal nicotine-treated (NicN) and CLP fibroblasts compared to normal control (CTRL) cells...
March 2010: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Zsolt Urban, Vishwanathan Hucthagowder, Nura Schürmann, Vesna Todorovic, Lior Zilberberg, Jiwon Choi, Carla Sens, Chester W Brown, Robin D Clark, Kristen E Holland, Michael Marble, Lynn Y Sakai, Branka Dabovic, Daniel B Rifkin, Elaine C Davis
We report recessive mutations in the gene for the latent transforming growth factor-beta binding protein 4 (LTBP4) in four unrelated patients with a human syndrome disrupting pulmonary, gastrointestinal, urinary, musculoskeletal, craniofacial, and dermal development. All patients had severe respiratory distress, with cystic and atelectatic changes in the lungs complicated by tracheomalacia and diaphragmatic hernia. Three of the four patients died of respiratory failure. Cardiovascular lesions were mild, limited to pulmonary artery stenosis and patent foramen ovale...
November 2009: American Journal of Human Genetics
Ainara Vallejo-Illarramendi, Keling Zang, Louis F Reichardt
Neural crest cells (NCCs) participate in the remodeling of the cardiac outflow tract and pharyngeal arch arteries during cardiovascular development. Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) mediates signal transduction by integrin and growth factor receptors, each of which is important for normal cardiovascular development. To investigate the role of FAK in NCC morphogenesis, we deleted it in murine NCCs using Wnt1cre, yielding craniofacial and cardiovascular malformations resembling those observed in individuals with DiGeorge syndrome...
August 2009: Journal of Clinical Investigation
Nicole Dünker, Kerstin Krieglstein
Given all known biological activities, it is anticipated that transforming growth factors beta (TGF-betas) play important roles in many different developmental processes. As all three TGF-beta isoforms display overlapping expression patterns, deletion of one TGF-beta isoform might be compensated for by another. In the present study, targeted disruption of both Tgfbeta2 and Tgfbeta3 genes was undertaken to circumvent this problem and determine the essential roles of TGF-beta2 and TGF-beta3 in vivo. Tgfbeta2(-/-) Tgfbeta3(-/-) double knockout mice and their three-allelic Tgfbeta2(-/-) Tgfbeta3(+/-) littermates display a lack of distal parts of the rib, a lack of sternal primordia, and failure in ventral body wall closure, leading to an extrathoracic position of the heart and extrusion of the liver...
December 2002: Anatomy and Embryology
B Dabovic, Y Chen, C Colarossi, L Zambuto, H Obata, D B Rifkin
The latent transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta binding proteins (LTBP)-1, -3 and -4 bind the latent form of the multipotent cytokine TGF-beta. To examine the function of the LTBPs, we made a null mutation of Ltbp-3 by gene targeting. The homozygous mutant animals developed cranio-facial malformations by 12 days. By three months, there was a pronounced rounding of the cranial vault, extension of the mandible beyond the maxilla, and kyphosis. The mutant animals developed osteosclerosis of the long bones and vertebrae as well as osteoarthritis between 6 and 9 months of age...
October 2002: Journal of Endocrinology
Branka Dabovic, Yan Chen, Cristina Colarossi, Hiroto Obata, Laura Zambuto, Mary Ann Perle, Daniel B Rifkin
The TGF-betas are multifunctional proteins whose activities are believed to be controlled by interaction with the latent TGF-beta binding proteins (LTBPs). In spite of substantial effort, the precise in vivo significance of this interaction remains unknown. To examine the role of the Ltbp-3, we made an Ltbp-3-null mutation in the mouse by gene targeting. Homozygous mutant animals develop cranio-facial malformations by day 10. At 2 mo, there is a pronounced rounding of the cranial vault, extension of the mandible beyond the maxilla, and kyphosis...
January 21, 2002: Journal of Cell Biology
J Gelineau-van Waes, G D Bennett, R H Finnell
In utero exposure to the anticonvulsant drug phenytoin has been shown to alter normal embryonic development, leading to a pattern of dysmorphogenesis known as the Fetal Hydantoin Syndrome. This embryopathy is characterized by growth retardation, microcephaly, mental deficiency, and craniofacial malformations, although the precise mechanism(s) by which phenytoin alters normal developmental pathways remains unknown. To better understand the molecular events involved in the pathogenesis of phenytoin-induced congenital defects, alterations in gene expression were examined during critical periods of craniofacial development...
January 1999: Teratology
E Lemyre, N Lemieux, J C Décarie, M Lambert
Only few cases with an interstitial deletion of chromosome 14 have been described so far. We report on a 21-month-old girl with an interstitial deletion of the long arm of chromosome 14, del(14)(q22.1q23.2). She presented with bilateral anophthalmia, absent left external auditory canal, facial asymmetry, microretrognathia, hypotonia, and psychomotor retardation. Skeletal X-rays showed lambdoid craniosynostosis, a very small sella turcica and cervical vertebral anomalies. Brain MRI showed the absence of the optic chiasm, an hypoplastic pituitary gland, and cortical atrophy...
May 1, 1998: American Journal of Medical Genetics
L E Taylor, G D Bennett, R H Finnell
Retinoic acid (RA) in the form of isotretinoin (Accutane) and tretinoin (Retin-A) is a clinically important compound in the treatment of dermatologic disorders. However, it is also a potent teratogen associated with a number of serious congenital malformations. Generally, these malformations involve the craniofacial structures derived from the first and second branchial arches. To determine how altered gene expression may contribute to the observed RA-induced defects, pregnant LM/Bc mice were administered (5 mg/kg) all-trans RA on gestational day (GD) 8:12...
January 1995: Journal of Craniofacial Genetics and Developmental Biology
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