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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416810/the-joint-impact-of-cognitive-performance-in-adolescence-and-familial-cognitive-aptitude-on-risk-for-major-psychiatric-disorders-a-delineation-of-four-potential-pathways-to-illness
#1
K S Kendler, H Ohlsson, R S E Keefe, K Sundquist, J Sundquist
How do joint measures of premorbid cognitive ability and familial cognitive aptitude (FCA) reflect risk for a diversity of psychiatric and substance use disorders? To address this question, we examined, using Cox models, the predictive effects of school achievement (SA) measured at age 16 and FCA-assessed from SA in siblings and cousins, and educational attainment in parents-on risk for 12 major psychiatric syndromes in 1 140 608 Swedes born 1972-1990. Four developmental patterns emerged. In the first, risk was predicted jointly by low levels of SA and high levels of FCA-that is a level of SA lower than would be predicted from the FCA...
April 18, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414014/do-dsm-5-section-ii-personality-disorders-and-section-iii-personality-trait-domains-reflect-the-same-genetic-and-environmental-risk-factors
#2
T Reichborn-Kjennerud, R F Krueger, E Ystrom, F A Torvik, T H Rosenström, S H Aggen, S C South, M C Neale, G P Knudsen, K S Kendler, N O Czajkowski
BACKGROUND: DSM-5 includes two conceptualizations of personality disorders (PDs). The classification in Section II is identical to the one found in DSM-IV, and includes 10 categorical PDs. The Alternative Model (Section III) includes criteria for dimensional measures of maladaptive personality traits organized into five domains. The degree to which the two conceptualizations reflect the same etiological factors is not known. METHODS: We use data from a large population-based sample of adult twins from the Norwegian Institute of Public Health Twin Panel on interview-based DSM-IV PDs and a short self-report inventory that indexes the five domains of the DSM-5 Alternative Model plus a domain explicitly targeting compulsivity...
April 17, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406579/disparities-in-pharmacotherapy-for-alcohol-use-disorder-in-the-context-of-universal-healthcare-a-swedish-register-study
#3
Katherine J Karriker-Jaffe, Jianguang Ji, Jan Sundquist, Kenneth S Kendler, Kristina Sundquist
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Pharmacotherapy can be an important part of the continuum of care for alcohol use disorder (AUD). The Swedish universal healthcare system emphasizes provision of care to marginalized groups. The primary aim was to test associations of neighbourhood deprivation and disadvantaged social status with receipt of AUD pharmacotherapy in this context. DESIGN: Data from linked population registers were used to follow an open cohort over 7 years. SETTING: Sweden...
April 12, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397619/clarifying-the-role-of-neuroticism-in-suicidal-ideation-and-suicide-attempt-among-women-with-major-depressive-disorder
#4
L M Rappaport, J Flint, K S Kendler
BACKGROUND: Prior research consistently demonstrates that neuroticism increases risk for suicidal ideation, but the association between neuroticism and suicidal behavior has been inconsistent. Whereas neuroticism is recommended as an endophenotype for suicidality, the association of neuroticism with attempted suicide warrants clarification. In particular, prior research has not distinguished between correlates of attempted suicide, correlates of suicidal ideation, and correlates of comorbid psychopathology...
April 11, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374657/dsm-disorders-and-their-criteria-how-should-they-inter-relate
#5
K S Kendler
While the changes in psychiatric diagnosis introduced by Diagnostic and Statistical Manual third edition (DSM-III) have had major benefits to the field of psychiatry, the reification of its diagnostic criteria and the widespread adoption of diagnostic literalism have been problematic. I argue that, at root, these developments can be best understood by contrasting two approaches to the relationship between DSM disorders and their criteria. In a constitutive relationship, criteria definitively define the disorder...
April 4, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360924/molecular-genetic-influences-on-normative-and-problematic-alcohol-use-in-a-population-based-sample-of-college-students
#6
Bradley T Webb, Alexis C Edwards, Aaron R Wolen, Jessica E Salvatore, Fazil Aliev, Brien P Riley, Cuie Sun, Vernell S Williamson, James N Kitchens, Kimberly Pedersen, Amy Adkins, Megan E Cooke, Jeanne E Savage, Zoe Neale, Seung B Cho, Danielle M Dick, Kenneth S Kendler
Background: Genetic factors impact alcohol use behaviors and these factors may become increasingly evident during emerging adulthood. Examination of the effects of individual variants as well as aggregate genetic variation can clarify mechanisms underlying risk. Methods: We conducted genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in an ethnically diverse sample of college students for three quantitative outcomes including typical monthly alcohol consumption, alcohol problems, and maximum number of drinks in 24 h. Heritability based on common genetic variants (h(2)SNP) was assessed...
2017: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359721/western-osteoporosis-alliance-clinical-practice-series-evaluating-the-balance-of-benefits-and-risks-of-long-term-osteoporosis-therapies
#7
REVIEW
D A Hanley, M R McClung, K S Davison, L Dian, S T Harris, P D Miller, E M Lewiecki, D L Kendler
Osteoporosis is a chronic disease that requires life-long strategies to reduce fracture risk. Few trials have investigated the balance of benefits and risk with long-term use of osteoporosis therapies and fewer still have investigated the consequences of treatment discontinuation. The best available evidence suggests that up to 10 years of treatment with an oral bisphosphonate maintains the degree of fracture risk reduction observed in the three-year registration trials. With denosumab, 10 years of therapy appears to provide fracture risk reduction similar to or better than that observed in the three-year registration trial...
March 27, 2017: American Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350396/genetic-effects-influencing-risk-for-major-depressive-disorder-in-china-and-europe
#8
T B Bigdeli, S Ripke, R E Peterson, M Trzaskowski, S-A Bacanu, A Abdellaoui, T F M Andlauer, A T F Beekman, K Berger, D H R Blackwood, D I Boomsma, G Breen, H N Buttenschøn, E M Byrne, S Cichon, T-K Clarke, B Couvy-Duchesne, N Craddock, E J C de Geus, F Degenhardt, E C Dunn, A C Edwards, A H Fanous, A J Forstner, J Frank, M Gill, S D Gordon, H J Grabe, S P Hamilton, O Hardiman, C Hayward, A C Heath, A K Henders, S Herms, I B Hickie, P Hoffmann, G Homuth, J-J Hottenga, M Ising, R Jansen, S Kloiber, J A Knowles, M Lang, Q S Li, S Lucae, D J MacIntyre, P A F Madden, N G Martin, P J McGrath, P McGuffin, A M McIntosh, S E Medland, D Mehta, C M Middeldorp, Y Milaneschi, G W Montgomery, O Mors, B Müller-Myhsok, M Nauck, D R Nyholt, M M Nöthen, M J Owen, B W J H Penninx, M L Pergadia, R H Perlis, W J Peyrot, D J Porteous, J B Potash, J P Rice, M Rietschel, B P Riley, M Rivera, R Schoevers, T G Schulze, J Shi, S I Shyn, J H Smit, J W Smoller, F Streit, J Strohmaier, A Teumer, J Treutlein, S Van der Auwera, G van Grootheest, A M van Hemert, H Völzke, B T Webb, M M Weissman, J Wellmann, G Willemsen, S H Witt, D F Levinson, C M Lewis, N R Wray, J Flint, P F Sullivan, K S Kendler
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a common, complex psychiatric disorder and a leading cause of disability worldwide. Despite twin studies indicating its modest heritability (~30-40%), extensive heterogeneity and a complex genetic architecture have complicated efforts to detect associated genetic risk variants. We combined single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) summary statistics from the CONVERGE and PGC studies of MDD, representing 10 502 Chinese (5282 cases and 5220 controls) and 18 663 European (9447 cases and 9215 controls) subjects...
March 28, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345295/a-national-swedish-longitudinal-twin-sibling-study-of-alcohol-use-disorders-among-males
#9
E C Long, S L Lönn, J Sundquist, K Sundquist, K S Kendler
AIMS: To examine whether genetic influences on the development of alcohol use disorders (AUD) among men during emerging adulthood through mid-adulthood are stable or dynamic. DESIGN: A twin study modeling developmental changes in the genetic and environmental influences on AUD over three age periods (18-25, 26-33, and 33-41) as a Cholesky decomposition. SETTING: Sweden. PARTICIPANTS: Swedish male twin pairs (1,532 monozygotic and 1,940 dizygotic) and 66,033 full male sibling pairs born less than two years apart...
March 26, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334662/the-association-between-personality-disorders-with-alcohol-use-and-misuse-a-population-based-twin-study
#10
E C Long, S H Aggen, M C Neale, G P Knudsen, R F Krueger, S C South, N Czajkowski, R Nesvåg, E Ystrom, F A Torvik, K S Kendler, N A Gillespie, T Reichborn-Kjennerud
BACKGROUND: A clearer understanding of the etiological overlap between DSM-IV personality disorders (PDs) and alcohol use (AU) and alcohol use disorder (AUD) is needed. To our knowledge, no study has modeled the association between all 10 DSM-IV PDs and lifetime AU and AUD. The aim of the present study is to identify which PDs are most strongly associated with the phenotypic, genetic, and environmental risks of lifetime AU and AUD, and to determine if these associations are stable across time...
March 7, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319814/time-specific-and-cumulative-effects-of-exposure-to-parental-externalizing-behavior-on-risk-for-young-adult-alcohol-use-disorder
#11
Alexis C Edwards, Sara L Lönn, Katherine J Karriker-Jaffe, Jan Sundquist, Kenneth S Kendler, Kristina Sundquist
BACKGROUND: Previous studies indicate that parental externalizing behavior (EB) is a robust risk factor for alcohol use disorder (AUD) in their children, and that this is due to both inherited genetic liability and environmental exposure. However, it remains unclear whether the effects of exposure to parental EB vary as a function of timing and/or chronicity. METHODS: We identified biological parents with an alcohol use disorder, drug abuse, or criminal behavior, during different periods of their child's upbringing, using Swedish national registries...
March 8, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317498/school-achievement-iq-and-risk-of-alcohol-use-disorder-a-prospective-co-relative-analysis-in-a-swedish-national-cohort
#12
Kenneth S Kendler, Henrik Ohlsson, Jan Sundquist, Kristina Sundquist
OBJECTIVE: Most studies suggest that poor cognitive functioning in adolescence increases risk of alcohol use disorders (AUDs). We seek to clarify the causes of this association. METHOD: In Swedish individuals born from 1972 to 1990 in whom cognitive functioning was assessed by school achievement at age 16 years (males and females, N = 1,796,048) and by IQ at ages 18-20 (males, N = 554,644), we examined the hazard ratio (HR) for AUD ascertained from public registries...
March 2017: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303776/familial-and-special-twin-influences-on-cigarette-use-initiation
#13
Cristina B Bares, Hermine H Maes, Kenneth S Kendler
BACKGROUND: Shared experiences within families play an important role in the initiation of cigarette use among adolescents. Behavioral genetic studies using various samples have implicated that the shared environment that twins experience is an important source of influence on whether adolescents initiate cigarette use. Whether the special twin environment, in addition to the shared environment, contributes significantly to making twin siblings more similar in cigarette initiation, and whether the influence of the special twin environment persists into adulthood, is less clear...
April 2017: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289276/david-skae-and-his-nineteenth-century-etiologic-psychiatric-diagnostic-system-looking-forward-by-looking-back
#14
K S Kendler
The Kraepelinian syndromal approach to diagnosis taken by DSM-III and its successors, which defines disorders by their clinical phenomenon, has come under rising criticism with increasing calls for an etiologically based nosology. The relative virtues of a syndromal versus etiologic psychiatric nosology have actually been debated within our field for a long time. To deepen and historically contextualize our current discussion, I review in detail the proposal for etiologic diagnostic systems for insanity by David Skae (1814-1873)...
March 14, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277603/safety-observations-with-3-years-of-denosumab-exposure-comparison-between-subjects-who-received-denosumab-during-the-randomized-freedom-trial-and-subjects-who-crossed-over-to-denosumab-during-the-freedom-extension
#15
Nelson B Watts, Jacques P Brown, Socrates Papapoulos, E Michael Lewiecki, David L Kendler, Paula Dakin, Rachel B Wagman, Andrea Wang, Nadia S Daizadeh, Shawna Smith, Henry G Bone
Denosumab is a fully human monoclonal antibody against receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) that decreases osteoclast formation, function and survival, and is approved for the treatment of postmenopausal women with osteoporosis at increased or high risk for fracture, among other indications. During the pivotal 3-year fracture trial FREEDOM, denosumab 60 mg subcutaneously every 6 months significantly reduced new vertebral (68%), hip (40%), and nonvertebral (20%) fractures; increased bone mineral density (BMD); and reduced bone turnover markers compared with placebo in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229455/maternal-perinatal-and-concurrent-depressive-symptoms-and-child-behavior-problems-a-sibling-comparison-study
#16
Line C Gjerde, Espen Moen Eilertsen, Ted Reichborn-Kjennerud, Tom A McAdams, Henrik Daae Zachrisson, Imac Maria Zambrana, Espen Røysamb, Kenneth S Kendler, Eivind Ystrom
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have found significant associations between maternal prenatal and postpartum depression and child behavior problems (CBP). The present study investigates whether associations remain in a prospective, longitudinal design adjusted for familial confounding. METHODS: The sample comprised 11,599 families including 17,830 siblings from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort study. Mothers reported depressive symptoms at gestational weeks 17 and 30, as well as 6 months, 1...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226201/genomewide-association-study-of-alcohol-dependence-identifies-risk-loci-altering-ethanol-response-behaviors-in-model-organisms
#17
Amy E Adkins, Laura M Hack, Tim B Bigdeli, Vernell S Williamson, G Omari McMichael, Mohammed Mamdani, Alexis C Edwards, Fazil Aliev, Robin F Chan, Poonam Bhandari, Richard C Raabe, Joseph T Alaimo, GinaMari G Blackwell, Arden Moscati, Ryan S Poland, Benjamin Rood, Diana G Patterson, Dermot Walsh, John B Whitfield, Gu Zhu, Grant W Montgomery, Anjali K Henders, Nicholas G Martin, Andrew C Heath, Pamela A F Madden, Josef Frank, Monika Ridinger, Norbert Wodarz, Michael Soyka, Peter Zill, Marcus Ising, Markus M Nöthen, Falk Kiefer, Marcella Rietschel, Joel Gelernter, Richard Sherva, Ryan Koesterer, Laura Almasy, Hongyu Zhao, Henry R Kranzler, Lindsay A Farrer, Brion S Maher, Carol A Prescott, Danielle M Dick, Silviu A Bacanu, Laura D Mathies, Andrew G Davies, Vladimir I Vladimirov, Mike Grotewiel, M Scott Bowers, Jill C Bettinger, Bradley T Webb, Michael F Miles, Kenneth S Kendler, Brien P Riley
BACKGROUND: Alcohol dependence (AD) shows evidence for genetic liability, but genes influencing risk remain largely unidentified. METHODS: We conducted a genomewide association study in 706 related AD cases and 1,748 unscreened population controls from Ireland. We sought replication in 15,496 samples of European descent. We used model organisms (MOs) to assess the role of orthologous genes in ethanol (EtOH)-response behaviors. We tested 1 primate-specific gene for expression differences in case/control postmortem brain tissue...
February 22, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196550/genetic-and-environmental-influences-on-last-year-major-depression-in-adulthood-a-highly-heritable-stable-liability-but-strong-environmental-effects-on-1-year-prevalence
#18
K S Kendler, C O Gardner
BACKGROUND: This study seeks to clarify the contribution of temporally stable and occasion-specific genetic and environmental influences on risk for major depression (MD). METHOD: Our sample was 2153 members of female-female twin pairs from the Virginia Twin Registry. We examined four personal interview waves conducted over an 8-year period with MD in the last year defined by DSM-IV criteria. We fitted a structural equation model to the data using classic Mx. The model included genetic and environmental risk factors for a latent, stable vulnerability to MD and for episodes in each of the four waves...
February 15, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195579/11-670-whole-genome-sequences-representative-of-the-han-chinese-population-from-the-converge-project
#19
Na Cai, Tim B Bigdeli, Warren W Kretzschmar, Yihan Li, Jieqin Liang, Jingchu Hu, Roseann E Peterson, Silviu Bacanu, Bradley Todd Webb, Brien Riley, Qibin Li, Jonathan Marchini, Richard Mott, Kenneth S Kendler, Jonathan Flint
The China, Oxford and Virginia Commonwealth University Experimental Research on Genetic Epidemiology (CONVERGE) project on Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) sequenced 11,670 female Han Chinese at low-coverage (1.7X), providing the first large-scale whole genome sequencing resource representative of the largest ethnic group in the world. Samples are collected from 58 hospitals from 23 provinces around China. We are able to call 22 million high quality single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) from the nuclear genome, representing the largest SNP call set from an East Asian population to date...
February 14, 2017: Scientific Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152564/age-of-onset-and-family-history-as-indicators-of-polygenic-risk-for-major-depression
#20
Anna R Docherty, Alexis C Edwards, Fuzhong Yang, Roseann E Peterson, Chelsea Sawyers, Daniel E Adkins, Ashlee A Moore, Bradley T Webb, Silviu A Bacanu, Jonathan Flint, Kenneth S Kendler
BACKGROUND: The extent to which earlier age of onset (AO) is a reflection of increased genetic risk for major depression (MD) is still unknown. Previous biometrical research has provided mixed empirical evidence for the genetic overlap of AO with MD. If AO is demonstrated to be relevant to molecular polygenic risk for MD, incorporation of AO as a phenotype could enhance future genetic studies. METHODS: This research estimated the SNP-based heritability of AO in the China, Oxford and VCU Experimental Research on Genetic Epidemiology (CONVERGE) case-control sample (N = 9,854; MD case, n = 4,927)...
February 2, 2017: Depression and Anxiety
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