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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595490/the-protective-effect-of-pregnancy-on-risk-for-drug-abuse-a-population-co-relative-co-spouse-and-within-individual-analysis
#1
Kenneth S Kendler, Henrik Ohlsson, Dace S Svikis, Kristina Sundquist, Jan Sundquist
OBJECTIVE: The authors sought to determine whether pregnancy is an intrinsic motivator for cessation of drug abuse. METHOD: The authors conducted prospective cohort, co-relative, co-spouse, and within-person analyses of registration for drug abuse during pregnancy among Swedish women born between 1980 and 1990 who gave birth between ages 20 and 35 (N=149,512). Drug abuse was assessed from medical, criminal, and pharmacy registries. RESULTS: In the population, rates of drug abuse were lower during pregnancy (unadjusted odds ratio=0...
June 9, 2017: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589253/early-pet-imaging-with-68-ga-psma-11-increases-the-detection-rate-of-local-recurrence-in-prostate-cancer-patients-with-biochemical-recurrence
#2
Christian Uprimny, Alexander Stephan Kroiss, Josef Fritz, Clemens Decristoforo, Dorota Kendler, Elisabeth von Guggenberg, Bernhard Nilica, Johanna Maffey-Steffan, Gianpaolo di Santo, Jasmin Bektic, Wolfgang Horninger, Irene Johanna Virgolini
PURPOSE: PET/CT using (68)Ga-labelled prostate-specific membrane antigen PSMA-11 (HBEDD-CC) has emerged as a promising imaging method in the diagnostic evaluation of prostate cancer (PC) patients with biochemical recurrence. However, assessment of local recurrence (LR) may be limited by intense physiologic tracer accumulation in the urinary bladder on whole-body scans, normally conducted 60 min post-tracer injection (p.i.). It could be shown on early dynamic imaging studies that (68)Ga-PSMA-11 uptake in PC lesions occurs earlier than tracer accumulation in the urinary bladder...
June 6, 2017: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586358/parental-alcohol-use-and-risk-of-behavioral-and-emotional-problems-in-offspring
#3
Liam Mahedy, Gemma Hammerton, Alison Teyhan, Alexis C Edwards, Kenneth S Kendler, Simon C Moore, Matthew Hickman, John Macleod, Jon Heron
OBJECTIVE: The majority of studies that have examined parental alcohol use and offspring outcomes have either focused on exposure in the antenatal period or from clinical populations. This study sought to examine proximal and distal associations between parental alcohol use and offspring conduct problems and depressive symptoms in a population birth cohort. METHODS: We used prospective data from a large UK based population cohort (ALSPAC) to investigate the association between parental alcohol use, measured in units, (assessed at ages 4 and 12 years) with childhood conduct trajectories, (assessed on six occasions from 4 to 13...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578747/the-decomposition-of-shared-environmental-influences-on-externalizing-syndromes-in-the-swedish-population-a-multivariate-study
#4
Henrik Ohlsson, Kenneth S Kendler, Paul Lichtenstein, Jan Sundquist, Kristina Sundquist
Using information from Swedish population registries, we attempt to decompose the shared environment (C) into four subcomponents: close family, family, household, and community. Among pairs differing in their genetic and geographical/household relationships, we examine three externalizing syndromes: drug abuse (DA), criminal behavior (CB), and alcohol use disorders (AUD). The best-fitting common pathway model suggested that total estimates for C were higher for DA (21% for males and 18% for females) than for AUD (16% and 14%) and CB (17% and 10%)...
June 5, 2017: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550519/drug-abuse-associated-mortality-across-the-lifespan-a-population-based-longitudinal-cohort-and-co-relative-analysis
#5
Kenneth S Kendler, Henrik Ohlsson, Kristina Sundquist, Jan Sundquist
PURPOSE: Nationwide data have been lacking on drug abuse (DA)-associated mortality. We do not know the degree to which this excess mortality results from the characteristics of drug-abusing individuals or from the effects of DA itself. METHOD: DA was assessed from medical, criminal, and prescribed drug registries. Relative pairs discordant for DA were obtained from the Multi-Generation and Twin Registers. Mortality was obtained from the Swedish Mortality registry...
May 26, 2017: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546097/10-years-of-denosumab-treatment-in-postmenopausal-women-with-osteoporosis-results-from-the-phase-3-randomised-freedom-trial-and-open-label-extension
#6
Henry G Bone, Rachel B Wagman, Maria L Brandi, Jacques P Brown, Roland Chapurlat, Steven R Cummings, Edward Czerwiński, Astrid Fahrleitner-Pammer, David L Kendler, Kurt Lippuner, Jean-Yves Reginster, Christian Roux, Jorge Malouf, Michelle N Bradley, Nadia S Daizadeh, Andrea Wang, Paula Dakin, Nicola Pannacciulli, David W Dempster, Socrates Papapoulos
BACKGROUND: Long-term safety and efficacy of osteoporosis treatment are important because of the chronic nature of the disease. We aimed to assess the long-term safety and efficacy of denosumab, which is widely used for the treatment of postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. METHODS: In the multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 FREEDOM trial, postmenopausal women aged 60-90 years with osteoporosis were enrolled in 214 centres in North America, Europe, Latin America, and Australasia and were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive 60 mg subcutaneous denosumab or placebo every 6 months for 3 years...
May 22, 2017: Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542726/the-association-between-psychotic-experiences-and-disability-results-from-the-who-world-mental-health-surveys
#7
F Navarro-Mateu, J Alonso, C C W Lim, S Saha, S Aguilar-Gaxiola, A Al-Hamzawi, L H Andrade, E J Bromet, R Bruffaerts, S Chatterji, L Degenhardt, G de Girolamo, P de Jonge, J Fayyad, S Florescu, O Gureje, J M Haro, C Hu, E G Karam, V Kovess-Masfety, S Lee, M E Medina-Mora, A Ojagbemi, B-E Pennell, M Piazza, J Posada-Villa, K M Scott, J C Stagnaro, M Xavier, K S Kendler, R C Kessler, J J McGrath
OBJECTIVE: While psychotic experiences (PEs) are known to be associated with a range of mental and general medical disorders, little is known about the association between PEs and measures of disability. We aimed to investigate this question using the World Mental Health surveys. METHOD: Lifetime occurrences of six types of PEs were assessed along with 21 mental disorders and 14 general medical conditions. Disability was assessed with a modified version of the WHO Disability Assessment Schedule...
May 25, 2017: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541064/stability-and-change-in-etiological-factors-for-alcohol-use-disorder-and-major-depression
#8
Fartein Ask Torvik, Tom Henrik Rosenström, Eivind Ystrom, Kristian Tambs, Espen Røysamb, Nikolai Czajkowski, Nathan Gillespie, Gun Peggy Knudsen, Kenneth S Kendler, Ted Reichborn-Kjennerud
Alcohol use disorder (AUD) and major depressive disorder (MDD) are often comorbid. It is not understood how genetic risk factors for these disorders relate to each other over time and to what degree they are stable. Age-dependent characteristics of the disorders indicate that different genetic factors could be relevant at different stages of life, and MDD may become increasingly correlated with AUD over time. DSM-IV diagnoses of AUD and MDD were assessed by interviews of 2,801 young adult twins between 1999 and 2004 (T1) and 2,284 of the same twins between 2010 and 2011 (T2)...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522083/relationships-between-potentially-traumatic-events-sleep-disturbances-and-symptoms-of-ptsd-and-alcohol-use-disorder-in-a-young-adult-sample
#9
Mackenzie J Lind, Allison Baylor, Cassie M Overstreet, Sage E Hawn, Bruce D Rybarczyk, Kenneth S Kendler, Danielle M Dick, Ananda B Amstadter
OBJECTIVE: Traumatic events, particularly those that are interpersonal in nature, are associated with increased risk for co-occurring sequelae, including sleep disturbances, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and alcohol use disorder (AUD). However, the associations between these phenotypes have not been explored among college students. METHODS: We examined relationships between type of potentially traumatic event (PTE) exposure (pre-college) and sleep disturbances, as well as mediating effects of lifetime PTSD and AUD symptoms on these relationships, in a large undergraduate sample (N = 1599, 64...
June 2017: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499112/polygenic-risk-personality-dimensions-and-adolescent-alcohol-use-problems-a-longitudinal-study
#10
James J Li, Jeanne E Savage, Kenneth S Kendler, Matthew Hickman, Liam Mahedy, John Macleod, Jaakko Kaprio, Richard J Rose, Danielle M Dick
OBJECTIVE: Alcohol use problems are common during adolescence and can predict serious negative outcomes in adulthood, including substance dependence and psychopathology. The current study examines the notion that alcohol use problems are driven by polygenic influences and that genetic influences may indirectly affect alcohol use problems through multiple pathways of risk, including variations in personality. METHOD: We used a genome-wide approach to examine associations between genetic risk for alcohol use problems, personality dimensions, and adolescent alcohol use problems in two separate longitudinal population-based samples, the Finnish Twin Cohort (FinnTwin12) and the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC)...
May 2017: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488144/does-parenting-influence-the-enduring-impact-of-severe-childhood-sexual-abuse-on-psychiatric-resilience-in-adulthood
#11
Mackenzie J Lind, Ruth C Brown, Christina M Sheerin, Timothy P York, John M Myers, Kenneth S Kendler, Ananda B Amstadter
This study examined the effect of parenting on the association between childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and psychiatric resilience in adulthood in a large female twin sample (n = 1423) assessed for severe CSA (i.e., attempted or completed intercourse before age 16). Severe CSA was associated with lower resilience to recent stressors in adulthood (defined as the difference between their internalizing symptoms and their predicted level of symptoms based on cumulative exposure to stressful life events). Subscales of the Parental Bonding Instrument were significantly associated with resilience...
May 9, 2017: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487351/gestational-high-fat-diet-and-bisphenol-a-exposure-heightens-mammary-cancer-risk
#12
Yuet-Kin Leung, Vinothini Govindarajah, Ana Cheong, Jen Veevers, Dan Song, Robin Gear, Xuegong Zhu, Jun Ying, Ady Kendler, Mario Medvedovic, Scott Belcher, Shuk-Mei Ho
In utero exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) increases mammary cancer susceptibility in offspring. High fat diet is widely believed to be a risk factor of breast cancer. The objective of this study was to determine whether maternal exposure to BPA in addition to high-butterfat (HBF) intake during pregnancy further impacts carcinogen-induced mammary cancer risk in offspring, and its dose-response curve. In this study, we found that gestational HBF intake in addition to a low-dose BPA (25 µg/kg BW/day) exposure increased mammary tumor incidence in a 50-day-of-age chemical carcinogen administration model and altered mammary gland morphology in offspring in a non-monotonic manner, while shortening tumor-free survival time compared with the HBF-alone group...
May 9, 2017: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482691/the-philosophy-of-nosology
#13
Peter Zachar, Kenneth S Kendler
Many scholars believe that psychiatric nosology is undergoing a crisis of confidence. Some of the issues up for debate hark back to the introduction of the natural history approach to classification in the seventeenth century. Natural histories map sameness and difference rather than speculate about causes. In contrast, the natural classification approach aspires to carve nature at the joints by demarcating classifications by causes. Natural classifications are more ideal scientifically, but speculation about causality has had a poor track record in psychiatric nosology...
May 8, 2017: Annual Review of Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471244/aldh2-2-and-peer-drinking-in-east-asian-college-students
#14
Taryn O'Shea, Nathaniel Thomas, Bradley Todd Webb, Danielle M Dick, Kenneth S Kendler, Karen G Chartier
BACKGROUND: The ALDH2*2 allele (A-allele) at rs671 is more commonly carried by Asians and is associated with alcohol-related flushing, a strong adverse reaction to alcohol that is protective against drinking. Social factors, such as having friends who binge drink, also contribute to drinking in Asian youth. OBJECTIVES: This study examined the interplay between ALDH2*2, peer drinking, and alcohol consumption in college students. We hypothesized that the relationship between ALDH2*2 and standard grams of ethanol per month would vary based on the level of peer drinking...
May 4, 2017: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467524/causal-inference-in-psychiatric-epidemiology
#15
Kenneth S Kendler
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 3, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466235/cannabis-and-depression-a-twin-model-approach-to-co-morbidity
#16
M Smolkina, K I Morley, F Rijsdijk, A Agrawal, J E Bergin, E C Nelson, D Statham, N G Martin, M T Lynskey
Cannabis use disorder (CUD) co-occurs with major depressive disorder (MDD) more frequently than would be expected by chance. However, studies to date have not produced a clear understanding of the mechanisms underlying this co-morbidity. Genetically informative studies can add valuable insight to this problem, as they allow the evaluation of competing models of co-morbidity. This study uses data from the Australian Twin Registry to compare 13 co-morbidity twin models initially proposed by Neale and Kendler (Am J Hum Genet 57:935-953, 1995)...
May 2, 2017: Behavior Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449133/maternal-alcohol-use-during-pregnancy-and-offspring-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-adhd-a-prospective-sibling-control-study
#17
Espen Moen Eilertsen, Line C Gjerde, Ted Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ragnhild E Ørstavik, Gun Peggy Knudsen, Camilla Stoltenberg, Nikolai Czajkowski, Espen Røysamb, Kenneth S Kendler, Eivind Ystrom
Background: Maternal alcohol use during pregnancy has repeatedly been associated with development of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in the offspring. It is, however not known whether this reflects a direct casual intra-uterine effect or a non-causal relationship due to confounding. We used three different approaches to control for measured and unmeasured confounding: statistical adjustment for covariates, negative control comparison against maternal pre-pregnancy alcohol use, and comparison among differentially exposed siblings...
April 24, 2017: International Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416810/the-joint-impact-of-cognitive-performance-in-adolescence-and-familial-cognitive-aptitude-on-risk-for-major-psychiatric-disorders-a-delineation-of-four-potential-pathways-to-illness
#18
K S Kendler, H Ohlsson, R S E Keefe, K Sundquist, J Sundquist
How do joint measures of premorbid cognitive ability and familial cognitive aptitude (FCA) reflect risk for a diversity of psychiatric and substance use disorders? To address this question, we examined, using Cox models, the predictive effects of school achievement (SA) measured at age 16 and FCA-assessed from SA in siblings and cousins, and educational attainment in parents-on risk for 12 major psychiatric syndromes in 1 140 608 Swedes born 1972-1990. Four developmental patterns emerged. In the first, risk was predicted jointly by low levels of SA and high levels of FCA-that is a level of SA lower than would be predicted from the FCA...
April 18, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414014/do-dsm-5-section-ii-personality-disorders-and-section-iii-personality-trait-domains-reflect-the-same-genetic-and-environmental-risk-factors
#19
T Reichborn-Kjennerud, R F Krueger, E Ystrom, F A Torvik, T H Rosenström, S H Aggen, S C South, M C Neale, G P Knudsen, K S Kendler, N O Czajkowski
BACKGROUND: DSM-5 includes two conceptualizations of personality disorders (PDs). The classification in Section II is identical to the one found in DSM-IV, and includes 10 categorical PDs. The Alternative Model (Section III) includes criteria for dimensional measures of maladaptive personality traits organized into five domains. The degree to which the two conceptualizations reflect the same etiological factors is not known. METHODS: We use data from a large population-based sample of adult twins from the Norwegian Institute of Public Health Twin Panel on interview-based DSM-IV PDs and a short self-report inventory that indexes the five domains of the DSM-5 Alternative Model plus a domain explicitly targeting compulsivity...
April 17, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406579/disparities-in-pharmacotherapy-for-alcohol-use-disorder-in-the-context-of-universal-health-care-a-swedish-register-study
#20
Katherine J Karriker-Jaffe, Jianguang Ji, Jan Sundquist, Kenneth S Kendler, Kristina Sundquist
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Pharmacotherapy can be an important part of the continuum of care for alcohol use disorder (AUD). The Swedish universal health-care system emphasizes provision of care to marginalized groups. The primary aim was to test associations of neighborhood deprivation and disadvantaged social status with receipt of AUD pharmacotherapy in this context. DESIGN: Data from linked population registers were used to follow an open cohort over 7 years. SETTING: Sweden...
April 12, 2017: Addiction
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