Read by QxMD icon Read


Rose S Bono, Andrew J Barnes, Danielle M Dick, Kenneth S Kendler
BACKGROUND: For American college students, alcohol and cigarette use are important health concerns, and employment concurrent with school attendance is on the rise. Given the lifelong importance of employment and substance use trajectories begun in college, parsing out the relationship between the two is meaningful. OBJECTIVES: This study's purpose is to determine whether employment during college is associated with substance use. METHODS: Cross-sectional associations between employment (work hours, earnings) and substance use (drinking frequency, drinking quantity, smoking frequency) were estimated using partial proportional odds models in a sample of N = 1457 freshmen attending a large, public 4-year university in 2011, after accounting for demographics, personality, social environment, and parental influences...
October 18, 2016: Substance Use & Misuse
Richard Noll, Kenneth S Kendler
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 1, 2016: American Journal of Psychiatry
K G Chartier, N S Thomas, K S Kendler
BACKGROUND: Both a family history of alcoholism and migration-related factors like US v. foreign nativity increase the risk for developing alcohol use disorders in Hispanic Americans. For this study, we integrated these two lines of research to test whether the relationship between familial alcoholism and alcohol dependence changes with successive generations in the United States. METHOD: Data were from the waves 1 and 2 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC)...
September 29, 2016: Psychological Medicine
A H Conley, C M Overstreet, S E Hawn, K S Kendler, D M Dick, A B Amstadter
OBJECTIVE: This study examined the prevalence and correlates of precollege, college-onset, and repeat sexual assault (SA) within a representative student sample. PARTICIPANTS: A representative sample of 7,603 students. METHODS: Incoming first-year students completed a survey about their exposure to broad SA prior to college, prior trauma, personality, relationships, and mental health. Broad SA was then reassessed each spring semester while enrolled...
September 14, 2016: Journal of American College Health: J of ACH
Kenneth S Kendler
Importance: This article aims to determine the degree to which modern operationalized diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia reflect the main clinical features of the disorder as described historically by diagnostic experts. Observations:, the National Library of Medicine, and were searched for articles written or translated into English from 1900 to 1960. Clinical descriptions of schizophrenia or dementia praecox appearing in 16 textbooks or review articles published between 1899 and 1956 were reviewed and compared with the criteria for schizophrenia from 6 modern US operationalized diagnostic systems...
October 1, 2016: JAMA Psychiatry
M B First
From DSM-III onward, successive DSM editions have strived to ground the diagnostic definitions in empirical evidence. DSM-IV established a three-stage process of empirical review, consisting of comprehensive and systematic literature reviews, secondary analyses of datasets, and field trials to provide reliability and validity data for the most substantial or controversial proposals. DSM-IV Work Group members were required to review the empirical literature to document explicitly the evidence supporting the text and criteria published in DSM-IV...
September 13, 2016: Psychological Medicine
Kenneth S Kendler, Nancy A Morris, Henrik Ohlsson, Sara Larsson Lönn, Jan Sundquist, Kristina Sundquist
BACKGROUND: Criminal offending is strongly transmitted across generations. AIMS: To clarify the contribution of rearing environment to cross-generational transmission of crime. METHOD: Using Swedish national registries, we identified 1176 full-sibling and 3085 half-sibling sets from high-risk families where at least one sibling was adopted and the other raised by the biological parents. RESULTS: Risk for criminal conviction was substantially lower in the full- and half-siblings who were adopted v...
October 2016: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
Kristian Amundsen Østby, Nikolai Czajkowski, Gun Peggy Knudsen, Eivind Ystrøm, Line C Gjerde, Kenneth S Kendler, Ragnhild E Ørstavik, Ted Reichborn-Kjennerud
BACKGROUND: Results from observational studies suggest that people who drink little or no alcohol are less healthy than medium drinkers. This has been demonstrated for many different measures of health, including sick leave. However, whether these associations are causal or due to confounding remains to be clarified. The aim of this study was to use a discordant twin design to determine whether the increased level of sick leave associated with a low level of alcohol consumption, as compared to those with a medium level of consumption, reflects a causal mechanism or is due to genetic or environmental confounding...
2016: BMC Public Health
Kenneth S Kendler, Eric J Engstrom
The nosology for major psychiatric disorders developed by Emil Kraepelin in the 1890s has substantially shaped psychiatry. His theories, however, did not arise de novo, being strongly influenced by Karl Kahlbaum and Ewald Hecker. From the 1860-1880s, they articulated a paradigm shift in the conceptualization of psychiatric diagnosis, from symptom-based syndromes, popular since the late 18th century, to proto-disease entities. This effort was influenced by parallel developments in general medicine, especially the rise of bacterial theories of disease where different syndromes had distinctive symptoms, courses, and etiologies...
August 13, 2016: American Journal of Psychiatry
Kenneth S Kendler, MirNabi PirouziFard, Sara Lönn, Alexis C Edwards, Hermine H Maes, Paul Lichtenstein, Jan Sundquist, Kristina Sundquist
The relationship between the genetic and environmental risk factors for alcohol use disorders (AUD) detected in Swedish medical, pharmacy, and criminal registries has not been hitherto examined. Prior twin studies have varied with regard to the detection of shared environmental effects and sex differences in the etiology of AUD. In this report, structural equation modeling in OpenMx was applied to (1) the three types of alcohol registration in a population-based sample of male-male twins and reared-together full and half siblings (total 208,810 pairs), and (2) AUD, as a single diagnosis, in male-male, female-female, and opposite-sex (OS) twins and reared-together full and half siblings (total 787,916 pairs)...
October 2016: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
K S Kendler, H Ohlsson, A C Edwards, J Sundquist, K Sundquist
BACKGROUND: Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is a classic multifactorial syndrome and it is critical to understand the diversity of the relevant risk factors and how they inter-relate over development. METHOD: We examined 21 risk factors for AUD in four developmental tiers reflecting (i) birth, (ii) childhood and early adolescence, (iii) late adolescence, and (iv) early adulthood in 47 414 Swedish men of whom 3907 (8.2%) were registered for AUD at or after age 25 with a mean length of follow-up of 33...
October 2016: Psychological Medicine
Emily L Olivares, Kenneth S Kendler, Michael C Neale, Nathan A Gillespie
Our aim was to test the direction of causation between self-report parental monitoring (PM) and the liability to illicit drug initiation (DI) as indicated by cannabis, cocaine, and stimulants. We fitted a multiple indicator model to test causal and non-causal models based on a large, genetically informative cross-sectional sample of male twins. The sample comprised 1,778 males aged 24-62 years from the Virginia Adult Twin Study of Psychiatric and Substance Use Disorders. Data came from self-report measures of lifetime cannabis, stimulants, and cocaine initiation, and retrospective assessment of PM between ages 8-17 years...
August 2016: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
Ragnar Nesvåg, Ted Reichborn-Kjennerud, Nathan A Gillespie, Gun Peggy Knudsen, Jørgen G Bramness, Kenneth S Kendler, Eivind Ystrom
To investigate contributions of genetic and environmental risk factors and possible direction of causation for the relationship between symptoms of cannabis use disorders (CUD) and psychotic-like experiences (PLEs), a population-based sample of 2793 young adult twins (63.5% female, mean [range] age 28.2 [19-36] y) were assessed for symptoms of CUD and PLEs using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Latent risk of having symptoms of CUD or PLEs was modeled using Item Response Theory. Co-twin control analysis was performed to investigate effect of familiar confounding for the association between symptoms of CUD and PLEs...
July 18, 2016: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Cristina B Bares, Kenneth S Kendler, Hermine H M Maes
INTRODUCTION: Although epidemiologic studies suggest low levels of cigarette use among African American adolescents relative to White U.S. adolescents, it is not known whether this may be due to racial differences in the relative contribution of genes and environment to cigarette use initiation and progression to regular use. METHODS: Using data from White (n=2665) and African American (n=809) twins and full siblings sampled in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescents, we fitted age-, sex- and race-specific variance decomposition models to estimate the magnitude of genetic and environmental effects on cigarette use initiation and cigarette use quantity in Whites and African Americans across adolescence and adulthood...
September 1, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Aileen M Gariepy, Lisbet S Lundsberg, Devin Miller, Nancy L Stanwood, Kimberly A Yonkers
BACKGROUND: Pregnancy planning and timing may be associated with psychiatric illness, psychological distress and support during pregnancy. METHODS: We performed secondary analyses of a prospective cohort of 2654 pregnant women evaluating the impact of depression on preterm birth. We used multivariable logistic regression to test associations between pregnancy planning ("Was this pregnancy planned? Yes/No") and/or timing ("Do you think this is a good time for you to be pregnant?") with Composite International Diagnostic Interview generated psychiatric diagnoses and measures of psychological distress and support...
June 27, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
Jan Sundquist, Cecilia Sjöstedt, Marilyn Winkleby, Xinjun Li, Kenneth S Kendler, Kristina Sundquist
AIMS: This study examines the association between the incidence of drug abuse (DA) and linking (communal) social capital, a theoretical concept describing the amount of trust between individuals and societal institutions. METHODS: We present results from an 8-year population-based cohort study that followed all residents in Sweden, aged 15-44, from 2003 through 2010, for a total of 1,700,896 men and 1,642,798 women. Linking social capital was conceptualized as the proportion of people in a geographically defined neighborhood who voted in local government elections...
December 2016: Addictive Behaviors
J Christopher Gallagher, Santiago Palacios, Kelly A Ryan, Ching-Ray Yu, Kaijie Pan, David L Kendler, Sebastian Mirkin, Barry S Komm
OBJECTIVE: Conjugated estrogens/bazedoxifene reduces vasomotor symptoms and prevents postmenopausal bone loss without stimulating the breast and endometrium. We analyzed changes in bone mineral density (BMD) and bone markers using pooled data from two phase-3 trials. METHODS: Selective Estrogens, Menopause, and Response to Therapy (SMART)-1 and SMART-5 were randomized, double-blind, placebo- and active-controlled studies conducted in postmenopausal nonhysterectomized women...
October 2016: Menopause: the Journal of the North American Menopause Society
P F Bouvy
BACKGROUND: The suggestion that schizophrenia does not exist has let to a discussion in Dutch national newspapers. According to several contributors, the diagnosis schizophrenia can wrongly lead to stigmatisation and defeatism with regard to treatment and should therefore be replaced by the broader concept, psychosis. This view strengthens the argument that 'schizophrenia does not exist'. In reaction to this view it has been suggested that in some articles that schizophrenia is now believed to have a definite biological basis...
2016: Tijdschrift Voor Psychiatrie
Ashlee A Moore, Cassie Overstreet, Kenneth S Kendler, Danielle M Dick, Amy Adkins, Ananda B Amstadter
OBJECTIVE: Impulsivity and extraversion have demonstrated associations with risky sexual behavior (RSB) and potentially traumatic events (PTEs). In addition, interpersonal trauma appears to be associated with RSB, but research on the relationship between RSB and noninterpersonal PTEs (e.g., accidental) is lacking. The current study aims to investigate the relationships between personality (i.e., impulsivity, extraversion), RSB and multiple types of PTEs (i.e., accidental, physical, or sexual)...
June 27, 2016: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
Megan E Cooke, Aashir Nasim, Seung Bin Cho, Kenneth S Kendler, Shaunna L Clark, Danielle M Dick
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess patterns of tobacco use across the first year of college, transitions in use, and associated predictors. METHODS: The frequency of tobacco use (cigarettes, cigars, smokeless tobacco, and hookah) during the fall and spring of 4073 college students' first year at college were used as indicators in latent class (LCA) and latent transition analyses (LTA). RESULTS: The LCA yielded 3 classes that represent levels of use frequency and not specific tobacco product classes: non-using, experimenting, and frequent using...
July 2016: American Journal of Health Behavior
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"