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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734091/prediction-of-alcohol-use-disorder-using-personality-disorder-traits-a-twin-study
#1
Tom Rosenström, Fartein Ask Torvik, Eivind Ystrom, Nikolai Olavi Czajkowski, Nathan A Gillespie, Steven H Aggen, Robert F Krueger, Kenneth S Kendler, Ted Reichborn-Kjennerud
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The DSM-IV Personality Disorders (PDs) are comorbid with Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD) and with each other. It remains unclear which PD criteria are most likely to drive onset and recurrence of AUD and which are merely confounded with those criteria. We determine which individual PD criteria predict AUD and the degree of underlying genetic and/or environmental etiology. DESIGN: A prospective observational twin study. SETTING: Norway 1999-2011...
July 22, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714599/the-utility-of-empirically-assigning-ancestry-groups-in-cross-population-genetic-studies-of-addiction
#2
Roseann E Peterson, Alexis C Edwards, Silviu-Alin Bacanu, Danielle M Dick, Kenneth S Kendler, Bradley T Webb
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Given moderate heritability and significant heterogeneity among addiction phenotypes, successful genome-wide association studies (GWAS) are expected to need very large samples. As sample sizes grow, so can genetic diversity leading to challenges in analyzing these data. Methods for empirically assigning individuals to genetically informed ancestry groups are needed. METHODS: We describe a strategy for empirically assigning ancestry groups in ethnically diverse GWAS data including extensions of principal component analysis (PCA) and population matching through minimum Mahalanobis distance...
July 17, 2017: American Journal on Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714051/contributions-of-genes-and-environment-to-developmental-change-in-alcohol-use
#3
E C Long, B Verhulst, S H Aggen, K S Kendler, N A Gillespie
The precise nature of how genetic and environmental risk factors influence changes in alcohol use (AU) over time has not yet been investigated. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to examine the nature of longitudinal changes in these risk factors to AU from mid-adolescence through young adulthood. Using a large sample of male twins, we compared five developmental models that each makes different predictions regarding the longitudinal changes in genetic and environmental risks for AU. The best-fitting model indicated that genetic influences were consistent with a gradual growth in the liability to AU, whereas unique environmental risk factors were consistent with an accumulation of risks across time...
July 17, 2017: Behavior Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691841/shared-familial-risk-between-bulimic-symptoms-and-alcohol-involvement-during-adolescence
#4
Jessica H Baker, Melissa A Munn-Chernoff, Paul Lichtenstein, Henrik Larsson, Hermine Maes, Kenneth S Kendler
Twin studies show the established relation between bulimic symptoms and problematic alcohol involvement in adult females is partly due to shared familial factors, specifically shared genetic effects. However, it is unclear if similar shared etiological factors exist during adolescence or in males. We examined the familial overlap (i.e., genetic and common environmental correlations) between bulimic symptoms and various levels of alcohol involvement in 16- to 17-year-old female and male same-sex twin pairs using sex-specific biometrical twin modeling...
July 2017: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666429/common-adult-psychiatric-disorders-in-swedish-primary-care-where-most-mental-health-patients-are-treated
#5
Jan Sundquist, Henrik Ohlsson, Kristina Sundquist, Kenneth S Kendler
BACKGROUND: The overall aim of this study is to present descriptive data regarding the treated prevalence of nine common psychiatric and substance use disorders in the first Primary Care Registry (PCR) in Sweden: Major Depression (MD), Anxiety Disorders (AD), Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD), Adjustment Disorder (AdjD), Eating Disorders (ED), Personality Disorder (PD), Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD) and Drug Abuse (DA). METHOD: We selected 5,397,675 individuals aged ≥18...
June 30, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595490/the-protective-effect-of-pregnancy-on-risk-for-drug-abuse-a-population-co-relative-co-spouse-and-within-individual-analysis
#6
Kenneth S Kendler, Henrik Ohlsson, Dace S Svikis, Kristina Sundquist, Jan Sundquist
OBJECTIVE: The authors sought to determine whether pregnancy is an intrinsic motivator for cessation of drug abuse. METHOD: The authors conducted prospective cohort, co-relative, co-spouse, and within-person analyses of registration for drug abuse during pregnancy among Swedish women born between 1980 and 1990 who gave birth between ages 20 and 35 (N=149,512). Drug abuse was assessed from medical, criminal, and pharmacy registries. RESULTS: In the population, rates of drug abuse were lower during pregnancy (unadjusted odds ratio=0...
June 9, 2017: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589253/early-pet-imaging-with-68-ga-psma-11-increases-the-detection-rate-of-local-recurrence-in-prostate-cancer-patients-with-biochemical-recurrence
#7
Christian Uprimny, Alexander Stephan Kroiss, Josef Fritz, Clemens Decristoforo, Dorota Kendler, Elisabeth von Guggenberg, Bernhard Nilica, Johanna Maffey-Steffan, Gianpaolo di Santo, Jasmin Bektic, Wolfgang Horninger, Irene Johanna Virgolini
PURPOSE: PET/CT using (68)Ga-labelled prostate-specific membrane antigen PSMA-11 (HBEDD-CC) has emerged as a promising imaging method in the diagnostic evaluation of prostate cancer (PC) patients with biochemical recurrence. However, assessment of local recurrence (LR) may be limited by intense physiologic tracer accumulation in the urinary bladder on whole-body scans, normally conducted 60 min post-tracer injection (p.i.). It could be shown on early dynamic imaging studies that (68)Ga-PSMA-11 uptake in PC lesions occurs earlier than tracer accumulation in the urinary bladder...
June 6, 2017: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586358/parental-alcohol-use-and-risk-of-behavioral-and-emotional-problems-in-offspring
#8
Liam Mahedy, Gemma Hammerton, Alison Teyhan, Alexis C Edwards, Kenneth S Kendler, Simon C Moore, Matthew Hickman, John Macleod, Jon Heron
OBJECTIVE: The majority of studies that have examined parental alcohol use and offspring outcomes have either focused on exposure in the antenatal period or from clinical populations. This study sought to examine proximal and distal associations between parental alcohol use and offspring conduct problems and depressive symptoms in a population birth cohort. METHODS: We used prospective data from a large UK based population cohort (ALSPAC) to investigate the association between parental alcohol use, measured in units, (assessed at ages 4 and 12 years) with childhood conduct trajectories, (assessed on six occasions from 4 to 13...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578747/the-decomposition-of-shared-environmental-influences-on-externalizing-syndromes-in-the-swedish-population-a-multivariate-study
#9
Henrik Ohlsson, Kenneth S Kendler, Paul Lichtenstein, Jan Sundquist, Kristina Sundquist
Using information from Swedish population registries, we attempt to decompose the shared environment (C) into four subcomponents: close family, family, household, and community. Among pairs differing in their genetic and geographical/household relationships, we examine three externalizing syndromes: drug abuse (DA), criminal behavior (CB), and alcohol use disorders (AUD). The best-fitting common pathway model suggested that total estimates for C were higher for DA (21% for males and 18% for females) than for AUD (16% and 14%) and CB (17% and 10%)...
June 5, 2017: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550519/drug-abuse-associated-mortality-across-the-lifespan-a-population-based-longitudinal-cohort-and-co-relative-analysis
#10
Kenneth S Kendler, Henrik Ohlsson, Kristina Sundquist, Jan Sundquist
PURPOSE: Nationwide data have been lacking on drug abuse (DA)-associated mortality. We do not know the degree to which this excess mortality results from the characteristics of drug-abusing individuals or from the effects of DA itself. METHOD: DA was assessed from medical, criminal, and prescribed drug registries. Relative pairs discordant for DA were obtained from the Multi-Generation and Twin Registers. Mortality was obtained from the Swedish Mortality registry...
July 2017: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546097/10-years-of-denosumab-treatment-in-postmenopausal-women-with-osteoporosis-results-from-the-phase-3-randomised-freedom-trial-and-open-label-extension
#11
Henry G Bone, Rachel B Wagman, Maria L Brandi, Jacques P Brown, Roland Chapurlat, Steven R Cummings, Edward Czerwiński, Astrid Fahrleitner-Pammer, David L Kendler, Kurt Lippuner, Jean-Yves Reginster, Christian Roux, Jorge Malouf, Michelle N Bradley, Nadia S Daizadeh, Andrea Wang, Paula Dakin, Nicola Pannacciulli, David W Dempster, Socrates Papapoulos
BACKGROUND: Long-term safety and efficacy of osteoporosis treatment are important because of the chronic nature of the disease. We aimed to assess the long-term safety and efficacy of denosumab, which is widely used for the treatment of postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. METHODS: In the multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 FREEDOM trial, postmenopausal women aged 60-90 years with osteoporosis were enrolled in 214 centres in North America, Europe, Latin America, and Australasia and were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive 60 mg subcutaneous denosumab or placebo every 6 months for 3 years...
July 2017: Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542726/the-association-between-psychotic-experiences-and-disability-results-from-the-who-world-mental-health-surveys
#12
F Navarro-Mateu, J Alonso, C C W Lim, S Saha, S Aguilar-Gaxiola, A Al-Hamzawi, L H Andrade, E J Bromet, R Bruffaerts, S Chatterji, L Degenhardt, G de Girolamo, P de Jonge, J Fayyad, S Florescu, O Gureje, J M Haro, C Hu, E G Karam, V Kovess-Masfety, S Lee, M E Medina-Mora, A Ojagbemi, B-E Pennell, M Piazza, J Posada-Villa, K M Scott, J C Stagnaro, M Xavier, K S Kendler, R C Kessler, J J McGrath
OBJECTIVE: While psychotic experiences (PEs) are known to be associated with a range of mental and general medical disorders, little is known about the association between PEs and measures of disability. We aimed to investigate this question using the World Mental Health surveys. METHOD: Lifetime occurrences of six types of PEs were assessed along with 21 mental disorders and 14 general medical conditions. Disability was assessed with a modified version of the WHO Disability Assessment Schedule...
May 25, 2017: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541064/stability-and-change-in-etiological-factors-for-alcohol-use-disorder-and-major-depression
#13
Fartein Ask Torvik, Tom Henrik Rosenström, Eivind Ystrom, Kristian Tambs, Espen Røysamb, Nikolai Czajkowski, Nathan Gillespie, Gun Peggy Knudsen, Kenneth S Kendler, Ted Reichborn-Kjennerud
Alcohol use disorder (AUD) and major depressive disorder (MDD) are often comorbid. It is not understood how genetic risk factors for these disorders relate to each other over time and to what degree they are stable. Age-dependent characteristics of the disorders indicate that different genetic factors could be relevant at different stages of life, and MDD may become increasingly correlated with AUD over time. DSM-IV diagnoses of AUD and MDD were assessed by interviews of 2,801 young adult twins between 1999 and 2004 (T1) and 2,284 of the same twins between 2010 and 2011 (T2)...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522083/relationships-between-potentially-traumatic-events-sleep-disturbances-and-symptoms-of-ptsd-and-alcohol-use-disorder-in-a-young-adult-sample
#14
Mackenzie J Lind, Allison Baylor, Cassie M Overstreet, Sage E Hawn, Bruce D Rybarczyk, Kenneth S Kendler, Danielle M Dick, Ananda B Amstadter
OBJECTIVE: Traumatic events, particularly those that are interpersonal in nature, are associated with increased risk for co-occurring sequelae, including sleep disturbances, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and alcohol use disorder (AUD). However, the associations between these phenotypes have not been explored among college students. METHODS: We examined relationships between type of potentially traumatic event (PTE) exposure (pre-college) and sleep disturbances, as well as mediating effects of lifetime PTSD and AUD symptoms on these relationships, in a large undergraduate sample (N = 1599, 64...
June 2017: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499112/polygenic-risk-personality-dimensions-and-adolescent-alcohol-use-problems-a-longitudinal-study
#15
James J Li, Jeanne E Savage, Kenneth S Kendler, Matthew Hickman, Liam Mahedy, John Macleod, Jaakko Kaprio, Richard J Rose, Danielle M Dick
OBJECTIVE: Alcohol use problems are common during adolescence and can predict serious negative outcomes in adulthood, including substance dependence and psychopathology. The current study examines the notion that alcohol use problems are driven by polygenic influences and that genetic influences may indirectly affect alcohol use problems through multiple pathways of risk, including variations in personality. METHOD: We used a genome-wide approach to examine associations between genetic risk for alcohol use problems, personality dimensions, and adolescent alcohol use problems in two separate longitudinal population-based samples, the Finnish Twin Cohort (FinnTwin12) and the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC)...
May 2017: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488144/does-parenting-influence-the-enduring-impact-of-severe-childhood-sexual-abuse-on-psychiatric-resilience-in-adulthood
#16
Mackenzie J Lind, Ruth C Brown, Christina M Sheerin, Timothy P York, John M Myers, Kenneth S Kendler, Ananda B Amstadter
This study examined the effect of parenting on the association between childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and psychiatric resilience in adulthood in a large female twin sample (n = 1423) assessed for severe CSA (i.e., attempted or completed intercourse before age 16). Severe CSA was associated with lower resilience to recent stressors in adulthood (defined as the difference between their internalizing symptoms and their predicted level of symptoms based on cumulative exposure to stressful life events). Subscales of the Parental Bonding Instrument were significantly associated with resilience...
May 9, 2017: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487351/gestational-high-fat-diet-and-bisphenol-a-exposure-heightens-mammary-cancer-risk
#17
Yuet-Kin Leung, Vinothini Govindarajah, Ana Cheong, Jennifer Veevers, Dan Song, Robin Gear, Xuegong Zhu, Jun Ying, Ady Kendler, Mario Medvedovic, Scott Belcher, Shuk-Mei Ho
In utero exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) increases mammary cancer susceptibility in offspring. High-fat diet is widely believed to be a risk factor of breast cancer. The objective of this study was to determine whether maternal exposure to BPA in addition to high-butterfat (HBF) intake during pregnancy further influences carcinogen-induced mammary cancer risk in offspring, and its dose-response curve. In this study, we found that gestational HBF intake in addition to a low-dose BPA (25 µg/kg BW/day) exposure increased mammary tumor incidence in a 50-day-of-age chemical carcinogen administration model and altered mammary gland morphology in offspring in a non-monotonic manner, while shortening tumor-free survival time compared with the HBF-alone group...
July 2017: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482691/the-philosophy-of-nosology
#18
Peter Zachar, Kenneth S Kendler
Many scholars believe that psychiatric nosology is undergoing a crisis of confidence. Some of the issues up for debate hark back to the introduction of the natural history approach to classification in the seventeenth century. Natural histories map sameness and difference rather than speculate about causes. In contrast, the natural classification approach aspires to carve nature at the joints by demarcating classifications by causes. Natural classifications are more ideal scientifically, but speculation about causality has had a poor track record in psychiatric nosology...
May 8, 2017: Annual Review of Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471244/aldh2-2-and-peer-drinking-in-east-asian-college-students
#19
Taryn O'Shea, Nathaniel Thomas, Bradley Todd Webb, Danielle M Dick, Kenneth S Kendler, Karen G Chartier
BACKGROUND: The ALDH2*2 allele (A-allele) at rs671 is more commonly carried by Asians and is associated with alcohol-related flushing, a strong adverse reaction to alcohol that is protective against drinking. Social factors, such as having friends who binge drink, also contribute to drinking in Asian youth. OBJECTIVES: This study examined the interplay between ALDH2*2, peer drinking, and alcohol consumption in college students. We hypothesized that the relationship between ALDH2*2 and standard grams of ethanol per month would vary based on the level of peer drinking...
May 4, 2017: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467524/causal-inference-in-psychiatric-epidemiology
#20
Kenneth S Kendler
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 3, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
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