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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919307/patterns-and-correlates-of-major-depression-in-chinese-adults-a-cross-sectional-study-of-0-5-million-men-and-women
#1
Y Chen, D Bennett, R Clarke, Y Guo, C Yu, Z Bian, L Ma, Y Huang, Q Sun, N Zhang, X Zheng, J Chen, R Peto, K S Kendler, L Li, Z Chen
BACKGROUND: Worldwide 350 million people suffer from major depression, with the majority of cases occurring in low- and middle-income countries. We examined the patterns, correlates and care-seeking behaviour of adults suffering from major depressive episode (MDE) in China. METHOD: A nationwide study recruited 512 891 adults aged 30-79 years from 10 provinces across China during 2004-2008. The 12-month prevalence of MDE was assessed by the Modified Composite International Diagnostic Interview-short form...
December 6, 2016: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918840/resilience-and-risk-for-alcohol-use-disorders-a-swedish-twin-study
#2
Elizabeth C Long, Sara L Lönn, Jianguang Ji, Paul Lichtenstein, Jan Sundquist, Kristina Sundquist, Kenneth S Kendler
BACKGROUND: Resilience has been shown to be protective against alcohol use disorders (AUDs), but the magnitude and nature of the relationship between these 2 phenotypes are not clear. The aim of this study was to examine the strength of this relationship and the degree to which it results from common genetic or common environmental influences. METHODS: Resilience was assessed on a 9-point scale during a personal interview in 1,653,721 Swedish men aged 17 to 25 years...
December 5, 2016: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917730/social-and-economic-consequences-of-alcohol-use-disorder-a-longitudinal-cohort-and-co-relative-analysis
#3
K S Kendler, H Ohlsson, K J Karriker-Jaffe, J Sundquist, K Sundquist
BACKGROUND: Although alcohol use disorder (AUD) is associated with future risk for psychosocial dysfunction, the degree to which this arises from a direct causal effect of AUD on functioning v. from correlated risk factors (also known as confounders) is less clearly established. METHOD: AUD was assessed from Swedish medical, criminal and pharmacy registries. In a large general population cohort, using Cox proportional hazard and regression models, we predicted from the onset of AUD four outcomes: early retirement, unemployment, social assistance, and individual income...
December 5, 2016: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900519/early-dynamic-imaging-in-68-ga-psma-11-pet-ct-allows-discrimination-of-urinary-bladder-activity-and-prostate-cancer-lesions
#4
Christian Uprimny, Alexander Stephan Kroiss, Clemens Decristoforo, Josef Fritz, Boris Warwitz, Lorenza Scarpa, Llanos Geraldo Roig, Dorota Kendler, Elisabeth von Guggenberg, Jasmin Bektic, Wolfgang Horninger, Irene Johanna Virgolini
PURPOSE: PET/CT with (68)Ga-labelled prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA)-ligands has been proven to establish a promising imaging modality in the work-up of prostate cancer (PC) patients with biochemical relapse. Despite a high overall detection rate, the visualisation of local recurrence may be hampered by high physiologic tracer accumulation in the urinary bladder on whole body imaging, usually starting 60 min after injection. This study sought to verify whether early dynamic (68)Ga-PSMA-11 (HBED-CC)PET/CT can differentiate pathologic PC-related tracer uptake from physiologic tracer accumulation in the urinary bladder...
November 29, 2016: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892595/the-rate-of-change-in-alcohol-misuse-across-adolescence-is-heritable
#5
Alexis C Edwards, Jon Heron, Vladimir Vladimirov, Aaron R Wolen, Daniel E Adkins, Fazil Aliev, Matthew Hickman, Kenneth S Kendler
BACKGROUND: Alcohol use typically begins during adolescence and escalates into young adulthood. This represents an important period for the establishment of alcohol use and misuse patterns, which can have psychosocial and medical consequences. Although changes in alcohol use during this time have been phenotypically characterized, their genetic nature is poorly understood. METHODS: Participants of the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children completed the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) 4 times from age 16 to 20...
November 28, 2016: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851854/the-future-of-the-dsm-implementing-a-continuous-improvement-model
#6
Michael B First, Kenneth S Kendler, Ellen Leibenluft
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 16, 2016: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849409/gender-and-direction-of-effect-of-alcohol-problems-and-internalizing-symptoms-in-a-longitudinal-sample-of-college-students
#7
Lina E Homman, Alexis C Edwards, Seung Bin Cho, Danielle M Dick, Kenneth S Kendler
BACKGROUND: Alcohol problems and internalizing symptoms are consistently found to be associated but how they relate to each other is unclear. OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to address limitations in the literature of comorbidity of alcohol problems and internalizing symptoms by investigating the direction of effect between the phenotypes and possible gender differences in college students. METHOD: We utilized data from a large longitudinal study of college students from the United States (N = 2607)...
November 16, 2016: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797545/a-population-based-twin-study-of-dsm-5-maladaptive-personality-domains
#8
Susan C South, Robert F Krueger, Gun Peggy Knudsen, Eivind Ystrom, Nikolai Czajkowski, Steven H Aggen, Michael C Neale, Nathan A Gillespie, Kenneth S Kendler, Ted Reichborn-Kjennerud
Personality disorders (PDs) can be partly captured by dimensional traits, a viewpoint reflected in the most recent Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fifth Edition (DSM-5) Alternative (Section III) Model for PD classification. The current study adds to the literature on the Alternative Model by examining the magnitude of genetic and environmental influences on 6 domains of maladaptive personality: negative emotionality, detachment, antagonism, disinhibition, compulsivity, and psychoticism...
October 31, 2016: Personality Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27786512/posttraumatic-stress-disorder-symptoms-anxiety-sensitivity-and-alcohol-use-motives-in-college-students-with-a-history-of-interpersonal-trauma
#9
Erin C Berenz, Salpi Kevorkian, Nadia Chowdhury, Danielle M Dick, Kenneth S Kendler, Ananda B Amstadter
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms are associated with coping-motivated alcohol use in trauma-exposed samples. However, it is unclear which individuals experiencing PTSD symptoms are at greatest risk for alcohol-use problems following trauma exposure. Individuals endorsing high anxiety sensitivity, which is the fear of anxiety and related sensations, may be particularly motivated to use alcohol to cope with PTSD symptoms. In the current study, we examined the moderating role of anxiety sensitivity in the association between PTSD symptoms and coping motives in a sample of 295 young adults with a history of interpersonal trauma and current alcohol use...
November 2016: Psychology of Addictive Behaviors: Journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27779626/snp-based-heritability-estimates-of-the-personality-dimensions-and-polygenic-prediction-of-both-neuroticism-and-major-depression-findings-from-converge
#10
A R Docherty, A Moscati, R Peterson, A C Edwards, D E Adkins, S A Bacanu, T B Bigdeli, B T Webb, J Flint, K S Kendler
Biometrical genetic studies suggest that the personality dimensions, including neuroticism, are moderately heritable (~0.4 to 0.6). Quantitative analyses that aggregate the effects of many common variants have recently further informed genetic research on European samples. However, there has been limited research to date on non-European populations. This study examined the personality dimensions in a large sample of Han Chinese descent (N=10 064) from the China, Oxford, and VCU Experimental Research on Genetic Epidemiology study, aimed at identifying genetic risk factors for recurrent major depression among a rigorously ascertained cohort...
October 25, 2016: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27754728/drinking-cigarette-smoking-and-employment-among-american-college-freshmen-at-a-four-year-university
#11
Rose S Bono, Andrew J Barnes, Danielle M Dick, Kenneth S Kendler
BACKGROUND: For American college students, alcohol and cigarette use are important health concerns, and employment concurrent with school attendance is on the rise. Given the lifelong importance of employment and substance use trajectories begun in college, parsing out the relationship between the two is meaningful. OBJECTIVES: This study's purpose is to determine whether employment during college is associated with substance use. METHODS: Cross-sectional associations between employment (work hours, earnings) and substance use (drinking frequency, drinking quantity, smoking frequency) were estimated using partial proportional odds models in a sample of N = 1457 freshmen attending a large, public 4-year university in 2011, after accounting for demographics, personality, social environment, and parental influences...
October 18, 2016: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27690547/edward-cowles-1837-1919
#12
Richard Noll, Kenneth S Kendler
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 1, 2016: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27681653/interrelationship-between-family-history-of-alcoholism-and-generational-status-in-the-prediction-of-alcohol-dependence-in-us-hispanics
#13
K G Chartier, N S Thomas, K S Kendler
BACKGROUND: Both a family history of alcoholism and migration-related factors like US v. foreign nativity increase the risk for developing alcohol use disorders in Hispanic Americans. For this study, we integrated these two lines of research to test whether the relationship between familial alcoholism and alcohol dependence changes with successive generations in the United States. METHOD: Data were from the waves 1 and 2 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC)...
September 29, 2016: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27628533/prevalence-and-predictors-of-sexual-assault-among-a-college-sample
#14
A H Conley, C M Overstreet, S E Hawn, K S Kendler, D M Dick, A B Amstadter
OBJECTIVE: This study examined the prevalence and correlates of precollege, college-onset, and repeat sexual assault (SA) within a representative student sample. PARTICIPANTS: A representative sample of 7,603 students. METHODS: Incoming first-year students completed a survey about their exposure to broad SA prior to college, prior trauma, personality, relationships, and mental health. Broad SA was then reassessed each spring semester while enrolled...
September 14, 2016: Journal of American College Health: J of ACH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27626788/phenomenology-of-schizophrenia-and-the-representativeness-of-modern-diagnostic-criteria
#15
Kenneth S Kendler
Importance: This article aims to determine the degree to which modern operationalized diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia reflect the main clinical features of the disorder as described historically by diagnostic experts. Observations: Amazon.com, the National Library of Medicine, and Forgottenbooks.com were searched for articles written or translated into English from 1900 to 1960. Clinical descriptions of schizophrenia or dementia praecox appearing in 16 textbooks or review articles published between 1899 and 1956 were reviewed and compared with the criteria for schizophrenia from 6 modern US operationalized diagnostic systems...
October 1, 2016: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27618978/the-dsm-revision-process-needing-to-keep-an-eye-on-the-empirical-ball
#16
M B First
From DSM-III onward, successive DSM editions have strived to ground the diagnostic definitions in empirical evidence. DSM-IV established a three-stage process of empirical review, consisting of comprehensive and systematic literature reviews, secondary analyses of datasets, and field trials to provide reliability and validity data for the most substantial or controversial proposals. DSM-IV Work Group members were required to review the empirical literature to document explicitly the evidence supporting the text and criteria published in DSM-IV...
September 13, 2016: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27539295/criminal-offending-and-the-family-environment-swedish-national-high-risk-home-reared-and-adopted-away-co-sibling-control-study
#17
Kenneth S Kendler, Nancy A Morris, Henrik Ohlsson, Sara Larsson Lönn, Jan Sundquist, Kristina Sundquist
BACKGROUND: Criminal offending is strongly transmitted across generations. AIMS: To clarify the contribution of rearing environment to cross-generational transmission of crime. METHOD: Using Swedish national registries, we identified 1176 full-sibling and 3085 half-sibling sets from high-risk families where at least one sibling was adopted and the other raised by the biological parents. RESULTS: Risk for criminal conviction was substantially lower in the full- and half-siblings who were adopted v...
October 2016: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27538396/does-low-alcohol-use-increase-the-risk-of-sickness-absence-a-discordant-twin-study
#18
Kristian Amundsen Østby, Nikolai Czajkowski, Gun Peggy Knudsen, Eivind Ystrøm, Line C Gjerde, Kenneth S Kendler, Ragnhild E Ørstavik, Ted Reichborn-Kjennerud
BACKGROUND: Results from observational studies suggest that people who drink little or no alcohol are less healthy than medium drinkers. This has been demonstrated for many different measures of health, including sick leave. However, whether these associations are causal or due to confounding remains to be clarified. The aim of this study was to use a discordant twin design to determine whether the increased level of sick leave associated with a low level of alcohol consumption, as compared to those with a medium level of consumption, reflects a causal mechanism or is due to genetic or environmental confounding...
2016: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27523503/kahlbaum-hecker-and-kraepelin-and-the-transition-from-psychiatric-symptom-complexes-to-empirical-disease-forms
#19
Kenneth S Kendler, Eric J Engstrom
The nosology for major psychiatric disorders developed by Emil Kraepelin in the 1890s has substantially shaped psychiatry. His theories, however, did not arise de novo, being strongly influenced by Karl Kahlbaum and Ewald Hecker. From the 1860-1880s, they articulated a paradigm shift in the conceptualization of psychiatric diagnosis, from symptom-based syndromes, popular since the late 18th century, to proto-disease entities. This effort was influenced by parallel developments in general medicine, especially the rise of bacterial theories of disease where different syndromes had distinctive symptoms, courses, and etiologies...
August 13, 2016: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27515133/a-national-swedish-twin-sibling-study-of-alcohol-use-disorders
#20
Kenneth S Kendler, MirNabi PirouziFard, Sara Lönn, Alexis C Edwards, Hermine H Maes, Paul Lichtenstein, Jan Sundquist, Kristina Sundquist
The relationship between the genetic and environmental risk factors for alcohol use disorders (AUD) detected in Swedish medical, pharmacy, and criminal registries has not been hitherto examined. Prior twin studies have varied with regard to the detection of shared environmental effects and sex differences in the etiology of AUD. In this report, structural equation modeling in OpenMx was applied to (1) the three types of alcohol registration in a population-based sample of male-male twins and reared-together full and half siblings (total 208,810 pairs), and (2) AUD, as a single diagnosis, in male-male, female-female, and opposite-sex (OS) twins and reared-together full and half siblings (total 787,916 pairs)...
October 2016: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
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