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Probiotics short bowel syndrome

J Łukasik, S Salminen, H Szajewska
AIM: Extensive on-going research on probiotics and infant formulas raises a number of safety questions. One concern is the potential influence of D-lactic acid-containing preparations on the health of infants and children. The aim of this review was to summarise the available knowledge on the ingestion of D-lactic acid-producing bacteria, acidified infant formulas and fermented infant formulas as a potential cause of paediatric D-lactic acidosis. METHODS: A Medline database search was performed in July 2017, with no restrictions on the language, article type or publication date...
March 30, 2018: Acta Paediatrica
Ian A Downs, Olga C Aroniadis, Libusha Kelly, Lawrence J Brandt
Postinfection irritable bowel syndrome (PI-IBS) is a diarrheal disease that develops after infectious gastroenteritis (IGE). Profound alterations in the microbiota accompany IGE yet only 10% of IGE patients progress to PI-IBS. This review explores research linking IGE severity, psychological comorbidity, PI-IBS, and the microbiome in various patient populations. Selective pressures caused by inflammation and increased gastrointestinal motility during gastroenteritis can alter intestinal bacterial phyla including Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, and Proteobacteria...
November 2017: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
Zohreh Tamanai-Shacoori, Imen Smida, Latifa Bousarghin, Olivier Loreal, Vincent Meuric, Shao Bing Fong, Martine Bonnaure-Mallet, Anne Jolivet-Gougeon
The genus Roseburia consists of obligate Gram-positive anaerobic bacteria that are slightly curved, rod-shaped and motile by means of multiple subterminal flagella. It includes five species: Roseburia intestinalis, R. hominis, R. inulinivorans, R. faecis and R. cecicola. Gut Roseburia spp. metabolize dietary components that stimulate their proliferation and metabolic activities. They are part of commensal bacteria producing short-chain fatty acids, especially butyrate, affecting colonic motility, immunity maintenance and anti-inflammatory properties...
February 2017: Future Microbiology
M G Gareau
There is increasing evidence that the composition of the resident bacteria within the gastrointestinal tract can influence the brain and behavior, particularly with respect to cognitive function. Cognitive function encompasses the life-long process of learning, both long- and short-term processes. Cognition was originally thought to be exclusively regulated by the central nervous system, with long-term potentiation and neurogenesis contributing to the creation and storage of memories, but now other systems, including, for example, the immune system and the intestinal microbiome may also be involved...
2016: International Review of Neurobiology
Yan Zhang, Lixiang Li, Chuanguo Guo, Dan Mu, Bingcheng Feng, Xiuli Zuo, Yanqing Li
BACKGROUND: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is one of the most common functional gastroenterological diseases, affecting 11.2 % of people worldwide. Previous studies have shown that probiotic treatment may benefit IBS patients. However, the effect of probiotics and the appropriate type, dose, and treatment duration for IBS are still unclear. The aim of the current study was to assess the efficacy of different probiotic types, doses and treatment durations in IBS patients diagnosed by Rome III criteria via a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs)...
June 13, 2016: BMC Gastroenterology
Bojana Bogovič Matijašić, Tanja Obermajer, Luka Lipoglavšek, Tjaša Sernel, Igor Locatelli, Mitja Kos, Alenka Šmid, Irena Rogelj
We conducted a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled multicentric study to investigate the influence of a synbiotic fermented milk on the fecal microbiota composition of 30 adults with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). The synbiotic product contained Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5, Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis BB-12, Streptococcus thermophilus, and dietary fiber (90% inulin, 10% oligofructose), and a heat-treated fermented milk without probiotic bacteria or dietary fiber served as placebo. Stool samples were collected after a run-in period, a 4-wk consumption period, and a 1-wk follow-up period, and were subjected to real-time PCR and 16S rDNA profiling by next-generation sequencing...
July 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
Heidi M Staudacher, Kevin Whelan
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional bowel disorder characterised by abdominal pain or discomfort with disordered defecation. This review describes the role of the gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota in the pathogenesis of IBS and how dietary strategies to manage symptoms impact on the microbial community. Evidence suggests a dysbiosis of the luminal and mucosal colonic microbiota in IBS, frequently characterised by a reduction in species of Bifidobacteria which has been associated with worse symptom profile...
August 2016: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
Sarika Rohatgi, Vineet Ahuja, Govind K Makharia, Tarun Rai, Prasenjit Das, Siddharth Dattagupta, Veena Mishra, Sushil Kumar Garg
BACKGROUND: The probiotic mixture VSL#3 has proven efficacious in inflammatory bowel diseases and irritable bowel syndrome; however, its efficacy in microscopic colitis (MC) is being investigated. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of a multistrain probiotic, VSL#3, in inducing clinical remission and achieving clinical response, as compared with mesalamine, in patients with active MC. METHODS: A randomised, open labelled study comparing the efficacy of 900 billion colony-forming units/day of VSL#3 (group (Gp) A) or 1...
2015: BMJ Open Gastroenterology
O F Ahmad, A Akbar
INTRODUCTION: Food is a recognized trigger for most patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). In recent years, an emerging evidence base has identified dietary manipulation as an important therapeutic approach in IBS. SOURCES OF DATA: Original and review articles were identified through selective searches performed on PubMed and Google Scholar. AREAS OF AGREEMENT: Randomized controlled trials have supported the use of a diet that restricts a group of short-chain carbohydrates known collectively as fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides and polyols (FODMAPs)...
March 2015: British Medical Bulletin
Per T Sangild, Denise M Ney, David L Sigalet, Andreas Vegge, Douglas Burrin
Intestinal failure (IF), due to short bowel syndrome (SBS), results from surgical resection of a major portion of the intestine, leading to reduced nutrient absorption and need for parenteral nutrition (PN). The incidence is highest in infants and relates to preterm birth, necrotizing enterocolitis, atresia, gastroschisis, volvulus, and aganglionosis. Patient outcomes have improved, but there is a need to develop new therapies for SBS and to understand intestinal adaptation after different diseases, resection types, and nutritional and pharmacological interventions...
December 15, 2014: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
Hongling Li, Changcheng Wang, Shuqing Liu, Dongsheng Xu, Ju Zhang, Hongmei Chen
BACKGROUND: The causes and mechanisms of chronic diarrhea are complex. This study aimed to explore the relationship between chronic diarrhea with normal colonoscopy findings and terminal ileum lesions. METHODS: All cases were collected from January 2009 to June 2010. The 40 patients in the patient group had chronic diarrhea with normal colonoscopy findings. Those who had hyperthyroidism, diabetes, chronic pancreatitis, cirrhosis, atrophic gastritis, short bowel syndrome and connective tissue diseases had been excluded...
2014: Chinese Medical Journal
H Fuchssteiner, K Nigl, A Mayer, B Kristensen, R Platzer, B Brunner, I Weiß, T Haas, M Benedikt, H P Gröchenig, A Eisenberger, P Hillebrand, W Reinisch, H Vogelsang
This is a consensus of the Austrian working group of IBD (inflammatory bowel diseases) of the ÖGGH on nutrition in IBD. Malnutrition should be assessed in case of IBD (in 20 - 70 % of Crohn's patients) and weight loss(> 5 % within 3 months) or nutritional deficiencies or after extensive bowel resection and afterwards also treated. Malnutrition should be treated with medical therapy of IBD and also adequate - as far as possible - with oral nutritional therapy particularly because of reduced life quality, risk of opportunistic infections, osteopenia/osteoporosis, longer hospitalisations and higher mortality...
April 2014: Zeitschrift Für Gastroenterologie
Vanessa J Kumpf
Diarrhea associated with short bowel syndrome (SBS) can have multiple etiologies, including accelerated intestinal transit, gastric acid hypersecretion, intestinal bacterial overgrowth, and malabsorption of fats and bile salts. As a result, patients may need multiple medications to effectively control fecal output. The armamentarium of antidiarrheal drugs includes antimotility agents, antisecretory drugs, antibiotics and probiotics, bile acid-binding resins, and pancreatic enzymes. An antidiarrheal regimen must be individualized for each patient and should be developed using a methodical, stepwise approach...
May 2014: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
N Ofek Shlomai, G Deshpande, S Rao, S Patole
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a major cause of mortality (25%) and morbidity including recurrent sepsis, dependence on parenteral nutrition, need for surgery, and survival with short bowel syndrome in preterm very low birth weight infants. Mortality (45-100%) and morbidity including the risk of long-term neurodevelopmental impairment are higher in extremely preterm infants needing surgery for NEC. Systematic reviews of randomized controlled trials (RCT) indicate that probiotics significantly reduce the risk of NEC (RR 0...
2014: Neonatology
Jessica Soldavini, Jonathan D Kaunitz
BACKGROUND: The lumen of the gastrointestinal tract contains many substances produced from the breakdown of foodstuffs, from salivary, esophageal, intestinal, hepatic, and pancreatic secretions, and from sloughed cells present in the gastrointestinal lumen. Although these substances were traditionally regarded as waste products, there is increasing realization that many can be biologically active, either as signalling compounds or as nutrients. For example, proteins are broken down into amino acids, which are then sensed by nutrient receptors...
October 2013: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
Malki Miller, Sathyaprasad Burjonrappa
INTRODUCTION: Short bowel syndrome (SBS) is an increasingly common condition encountered across neonatal intensive care units. Improvements in parenteral nutrition (PN), neonatal intensive care and surgical techniques, in addition to an improved understanding of SBS pathophysiology, have contributed in equal parts to the survival of this fragile subset of infants. Prevention of intestinal failure associated liver disease (IFALD) and promotion of intestinal adaptation are primary goals of all involved in the care of these patients...
May 2013: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
Kazuhiro Takahashi, Hideo Terashima, Keisuke Kohno, Nobuhiro Ohkohchi
Synbiotics are combinations of probiotics and prebiotics that have recently been used in the context of various gastrointestinal diseases, including infectious enteritis, inflammatory bowel disease, and bowel obstruction. We encountered a patient with recurrent D-lactic acidosis who was treated successfully for long periods using synbiotics. The patient was diagnosed as having short bowel syndrome and had recurrent episodes of neurologic dysfunction due to D-lactic acidosis. In addition to fasting, the patient had been treated with antibiotics to eliminate D-lactate-producing bacteria...
April 2013: International Surgery
Gwilym James Webb, Rachael Brooke, Aminda Niroshan De Silva
Radiation enteritis is defined as the loss of absorptive capacity of the intestine following irradiation, which is most commonly seen after radiotherapy for pelvic and abdominal malignancies. It is divided into acute and chronic forms and usually presents with diarrhea and malabsorption. Malnutrition is a common complication of chronic radiation enteritis (CRE). We reviewed the etiology, prevalence, symptoms, diagnosis and management of CRE and CRE with malnutrition in this article. Functional short bowel syndrome as a cause of malnutrition in CRE is also considered...
July 2013: Journal of Digestive Diseases
Lesley M Roberts, Deborah McCahon, Roger Holder, Sue Wilson, F D Richard Hobbs
BACKGROUND: Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) is a common condition characterised by pain, distension and altered bowel habit. Evidence suggests functional foods containing probiotics improve gastrointestinal transit, however, data are limited by short follow-up periods and evaluation in selected populations. METHODS: A multi-centre, randomized, double blind, controlled trial to evaluate the effect of a probiotic vs non-probiotic dairy product on symptoms in IBS with a constipation element (IBS-Constipation or IBS-Mixed profile)...
March 7, 2013: BMC Gastroenterology
Vudum S Reddy, Sanjay K Patole, Shripada Rao
Short bowel syndrome (SBS) is a cause of significant morbidity and mortality in children. Probiotics, due to their beneficial effects on the gastrointestinal tract (e.g., improving gut barrier function, motility, facilitation of intestinal adaptation and decreasing pathogen load and inflammation) may have a therapeutic role in the management of SBS. To conduct a systematic review of the current evidence for the effects of probiotic supplementation in children with SBS, the standard Cochrane methodology for systematic reviews was used...
March 5, 2013: Nutrients
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