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Probiotics critical

Angélica Thomaz Vieira, Claudio Fukumori, Caroline Marcantonio Ferreira
The interaction between the gut microbiota and the host immune system is very important for balancing and resolving inflammation. The human microbiota begins to form during childbirth; the complex interaction between bacteria and host cells becomes critical for the formation of a healthy or a disease-promoting microbiota. C-section delivery, formula feeding, a high-sugar diet, a high-fat diet and excess hygiene negatively affect the health of the microbiota. Considering that the majority of the global population has experienced at least one of these factors that can lead to inflammatory disease, it is important to understand strategies to modulate the gut microbiota...
June 2016: Clinical & Translational Immunology
D Ayoub, L R Lopetuso, F Chamseddine, A Dajani, K Lahiri, H Mahmoud, M S Miqdady, G Zirizzotti, M A Sultan, F Franceschi, A Gasbarrini
OBJECTIVE: Gastroenteritis represents with respiratory tract infection the most common infectious disease syndrome of humans in developing countries. Gut microbiota regional variation and dysbiosis play a crucial role in triggering and worsening this devastating GI disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: With this manuscript, we want to explore and emphasize the critical aspect of acute gastroenteritis in Middle-East Countries and its correlation with the clinical aspect of gut microbiota modification and intestinal homeostasis...
September 2016: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Elaine D Berry, James E Wells
Preharvest strategies to reduce zoonotic pathogens in food animals are important components of the farm-to-table food safety continuum. The problem is complex; there are multiple pathogens of concern, multiple animal species under different production and management systems, and a variety of sources of pathogens, including other livestock and domestic animals, wild animals and birds, insects, water, and feed. Preharvest food safety research has identified a number of intervention strategies, including probiotics, direct-fed microbials, competitive exclusion cultures, vaccines, and bacteriophages, in addition to factors that can impact pathogens on-farm, such as seasonality, production systems, diet, and dietary additives...
August 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
Daniele Alberoni, Francesca Gaggìa, Loredana Baffoni, Diana Di Gioia
Nowadays, honey bees are stressed by a number of biotic and abiotic factors which may compromise to some extent the pollination service and the hive productivity. The EU ban of antibiotics as therapeutic agents against bee pathogens has stimulated the search for natural alternatives. The increasing knowledge on the composition and functions of the bee gut microbiota and the link between a balanced gut microbiota and health status have encouraged the research on the use of gut microorganisms to improve bee health...
October 8, 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Konstantin Schmidt, Philipp Engel
Gut symbionts are critical for host health and as such might be used as probiotics. In a recent study, Schwarz et al. showed that pretreatment of honey bees with a dominant gut bacterium causes dysbiosis and increases pathogen susceptibility, showing that probiotic applications for animal health can have unwanted effects.
September 30, 2016: Trends in Parasitology
Jayne Manning, Eileen M Dunne, Philip A Wescombe, John D F Hale, E Kim Mulholland, John R Tagg, Roy M Robins-Browne, Catherine Satzke
BACKGROUND: Pneumococcal adherence to the nasopharyngeal epithelium is a critical step in colonisation and disease. The probiotic bacterium, Streptococcus salivarius, can inhibit pneumococcal adherence to epithelial cells in vitro. We investigated the mechanism(s) of inhibition using a human pharyngeal epithelial cell line (Detroit 562) following pre-administration of two different strains of S. salivarius. RESULTS: Whilst the bacteriocin-encoding megaplasmids of S...
September 29, 2016: BMC Microbiology
Carmelo Scarpignato, Anna Bertelé, Antonio Tursi
Changes in the colonic microbiota are critical to the pathogenesis of diverticular complications such as diverticulitis and peridiverticular abscesses. However, more subtle changes in microbiota composition may well be important to the more chronic manifestations of diverticulosis. Some studies have shown the presence of bacterial overgrowth in subgroups of patients with diverticular disease and recent studies, using molecular biology techniques, found an increase of proteobacteria and actinobacteria in patients with symptomatic uncomplicated diverticular disease (SUDD), compared with healthy controls...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
Lydie Cassard, Ana Inés Lalanne, Peggy Garault, Aurélie Cotillard, Christian Chervaux, Michiel Wels, Tamara Smokvina, Marc Daëron, Raphaëlle Bourdet-Sicard
INTRODUCTION: The microbiota controls a variety of biological functions, including immunity, and alterations of the microbiota in early life are associated with a higher risk of developing allergies later in life. Several probiotic bacteria, and particularly lactic acid bacteria, were described to reduce both the induction of allergic responses and allergic manifestations. Although specific probiotic strains were used in these studies, their protective effects on allergic responses also might be common for all lactobacilli...
September 2016: Immunity, Inflammation and Disease
Daniel McDonald, Gail Ackermann, Ludmila Khailova, Christine Baird, Daren Heyland, Rosemary Kozar, Margot Lemieux, Karrie Derenski, Judy King, Christine Vis-Kampen, Rob Knight, Paul E Wischmeyer
Critical illness is hypothesized to associate with loss of "health-promoting" commensal microbes and overgrowth of pathogenic bacteria (dysbiosis). This dysbiosis is believed to increase susceptibility to nosocomial infections, sepsis, and organ failure. A trial with prospective monitoring of the intensive care unit (ICU) patient microbiome using culture-independent techniques to confirm and characterize this dysbiosis is thus urgently needed. Characterizing ICU patient microbiome changes may provide first steps toward the development of diagnostic and therapeutic interventions using microbiome signatures...
July 2016: MSphere
Daotong Li, Pan Wang, Pengpu Wang, Xiaosong Hu, Fang Chen
The interplay between the host and host-associated gut microbiota is an area of increasing interest during the recent decade. From young infants to elderly people, from primitive tribes to modern societies, accumulating evidence has suggested the association of critical physiological roles of gut microbiota in the pathogenesis of a variety of human metabolic, immunological and neurological diseases. Importantly, it appears that the relationship between the gut microbiota and disease is bidirectional, instead of causal or consequential...
November 15, 2016: Biotechnology Advances
Christina Westermann, Marita Gleinser, Sinéad C Corr, Christian U Riedel
Bifidobacteria are common inhabitants of the human gastrointestinal tract that, despite a long history of research, have not shown any pathogenic potential whatsoever. By contrast, some bifidobacteria are associated with a number of health-related benefits for the host. The reported beneficial effects of bifidobacteria include competitive exclusion of pathogens, alleviation of symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome and inflammatory bowel disease, and modulation of intestinal and systemic immune responses. Based on these effects, bifidobacteria are widely used as probiotics by pharmaceutical and dairy industries...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Anna Pärtty, Marko Kalliomäki, Seppo Salminen, Erika Isolauri
OBJECTIVE: Dysbiosis, an imbalance in the taxonomic composition of the gut bacteria occurring during the critical stages of development, induces lasting shifts in the immunological and metabolic phenotype if accompanied by an inflammatory response. As altered gut microbiota and successful treatment with probiotics have both been demonstrated in cases of colic, we hypothesized here that infants with colic might have low-grade inflammation. METHODS: In 28 infants with colic and in 12 healthy controls at the age of one month, we measured the following serum immunological biomarkers: cytokines interleukin 1β (IL-1β); IL-6; IL-10; tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α); interferon γ (IFN-γ); chemokines IL-8; monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1); macrophage inflammatory protein1β (MIP-1β) and chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 16 (CXCL16); intestinal-fatty-acid-binding protein (ifabp), a biomarker of enterocyte damage and zonulin, a biomarker of intestinal permeability...
July 14, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Xiuwen Wu, Jianan Ren, Jieshou Li
The syndrome known as chronic critical illness (CCI) is defined as that critically ill patients survive their initial acute illness but go on to experience persistent organ failures necessitating prolonged intensive care. Intestinal barrier is the physical barrier that separates the internal and external environments and prevents the invasion of pathogenic antigens. Due to its pathogenesis, many CCI patients have injured intestinal barrier. Gut is the motor organ of stress responses, and gut-associated infections may initiate multiple organ dysfunction...
July 2016: Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
Erika Isolauri, Seppo Salminen, Samuli Rautava
The industrialized societies worldwide are in the middle of epidemics of diet-related chronic diseases, obesity being the common denominator. Lately, these conditions have been linked with a distinct microbiota composition in affected individuals different from that of healthy individuals. In particular, dysbiosis during critical stages of development induces lasting alterations in the immune and metabolic phenotype. The compositional development of the gut microbiota, again, is highly sensitive to environmental influences such as maternal health and nutrition, the mode of delivery, early feeding and antibiotic use...
July 2016: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Karolina Varmuzova, Tereza Kubasova, Lenka Davidova-Gerzova, Frantisek Sisak, Hana Havlickova, Alena Sebkova, Marcela Faldynova, Ivan Rychlik
Since poultry is a very common source of non-typhoid Salmonella for humans, different interventions aimed at decreasing the prevalence of Salmonella in chickens are understood as an effective measure for decreasing the incidence of human salmonellosis. One such intervention is the use of probiotic or competitive exclusion products. In this study we tested whether microbiota from donor hens of different age will equally protect chickens against Salmonella Enteritidis infection. Newly hatched chickens were therefore orally inoculated with cecal extracts from 1-, 3-, 16-, 28-, and 42-week-old donors and 7 days later, the chickens were infected with S...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Paul E Wischmeyer, Daniel McDonald, Rob Knight
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Loss of 'health-promoting' microbes and overgrowth of pathogenic bacteria (dysbiosis) in ICU is believed to contribute to nosocomial infections, sepsis, and organ failure (multiple organ dysfunction syndrome). This review discusses new understanding of ICU dysbiosis, new data for probiotics and fecal transplantation in ICU, and new data characterizing the ICU microbiome. RECENT FINDINGS: ICU dysbiosis results from many factors, including ubiquitous antibiotic use and overuse...
August 2016: Current Opinion in Critical Care
Gregory B Gloor, Gregor Reid
A workshop held at the 2015 annual meeting of the Canadian Society of Microbiologists highlighted compositional data analysis methods and the importance of exploratory data analysis for the analysis of microbiome data sets generated by high-throughput DNA sequencing. A summary of the content of that workshop, a review of new methods of analysis, and information on the importance of careful analyses are presented herein. The workshop focussed on explaining the rationale behind the use of compositional data analysis, and a demonstration of these methods for the examination of 2 microbiome data sets...
August 2016: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
J Pega, S Rizzo, C D Pérez, L Rossetti, G Díaz, S M Ruzal, M Nanni, A M Descalzo
The quality of functional food products designed for the prevention of degenerative diseases can be affected by the incorporation of bioactive compounds. In many types of cheese, the performance of starter microorganisms is critical for optimal elaboration and for providing potential probiotic benefits. Phytosterols are plant lipophilic triterpenes that have been used for the design of functional dairy products because of their ability to lower serum cholesterol levels in humans. However, their effect on the starter culture behavior during cheesemaking has not yet been studied...
September 2, 2016: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Kim E Barrett
Transport of fluid and electrolytes in the intestine allows for appropriate adjustments in luminal fluidity while reclaiming water used in digesting and absorbing a meal, and is closely regulated. This article discusses various endogenous and exogenous mechanisms whereby transport is controlled in the gut, placing these in the context of the ideas about the neurohumoral control of alimentary physiology that were promulgated by William Bayliss and Ernest Starling. The article considers three themes. First, mechanisms that intrinsically regulate chloride secretion, centred on the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFr), are discussed...
June 9, 2016: Journal of Physiology
Y A McKenzie, R K Bowyer, H Leach, P Gulia, J Horobin, N A O'Sullivan, C Pettitt, L B Reeves, L Seamark, M Williams, J Thompson, M C E Lomer
BACKGROUND: The first British Dietetic Association (BDA) guidelines for the dietary management of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) in adults were published in 2012. Subsequently, there has been a wealth of new research. The aim of this work was to systematically review the evidence for the role of diet in the management of IBS and to update the guidelines. METHODS: Twelve questions relating to diet and IBS were defined based on review of the previous guideline questions, current evidence and clinical practice...
October 2016: Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics: the Official Journal of the British Dietetic Association
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