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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229543/developmental-trajectories-of-amphibian-microbiota-response-to-bacterial-therapy-depends-on-initial-community-structure
#1
Leyla R Davis, Laurent Bigler, Douglas C Woodhams
Improving host health through microbial manipulation requires untangling factors that shape the microbiome. There is currently little understanding of how initial community structure may drive the microbiota trajectory across host development or influence bacterial therapy. Probiotic baths of surface symbionts, Pseudomonas fluorescens and Flavobacterium johnsoniae were administered to 240 tadpoles of the midwife toad, Alytes obstetricans in semi-natural outdoor mesocosms originating from geographically and genetically distinct populations in Switzerland...
February 22, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228969/prevention-and-treatment-of-neonatal-nosocomial-infections
#2
REVIEW
Jayashree Ramasethu
Nosocomial or hospital acquired infections threaten the survival and neurodevelopmental outcomes of infants admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit, and increase cost of care. Premature infants are particularly vulnerable since they often undergo invasive procedures and are dependent on central catheters to deliver nutrition and on ventilators for respiratory support. Prevention of nosocomial infection is a critical patient safety imperative, and invariably requires a multidisciplinary approach. There are no short cuts...
2017: Maternal Health, Neonatology and Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195067/the-effect-of-short-term-treatment-with-probiotic-vsl-3-on-various-clinical-and-biochemical-parameters-in-patients-with-liver-cirrhosis
#3
W Marlicz, E Wunsch, M Mydlowska, M Milkiewicz, K Serwin, M Mularczyk, P Milkiewicz, J Raszeja-Wyszomirska
The evidence is mounting that alterations of innate immunity and gut microbiota contribute to chronic liver disease and its complications. Modulation of intestinal microbiota is an emerging therapeutic strategy in hepatology. Probiotics through modulation of intestinal milieu have the potential to affect the course of liver disease. The data concerning the influence of probiotics on various plasma molecules and compounds involved in the pathogenesis of hyperdynamic circulatory state in liver cirrhosis is still not confluent and require further evaluation...
December 2016: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178201/rett-syndrome-a-focus-on-gut-microbiota
#4
Elisa Borghi, Francesca Borgo, Marco Severgnini, Miriam Nella Savini, Maria Cristina Casiraghi, Aglaia Vignoli
Rett syndrome (RTT) is an X-linked neurodevelopmental disorder affecting 1 in 10,000 live female births. Changes in microbiota composition, as observed in other neurological disorders such as autism spectrum disorders, may account for several symptoms typically associated with RTT. We studied the relationship between disease phenotypes and microbiome by analyzing diet, gut microbiota, and short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production. We enrolled eight RTT patients and 10 age- and sex-matched healthy women, all without dietary restrictions...
February 7, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151828/nutrition-in-the-critically-ill-patient
#5
Kristine W A C Koekkoek, Arthur R H van Zanten
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize recent relevant studies regarding nutrition during critical illness and provide recommendations for clinical practice. RECENT FINDINGS: Recently acquired knowledge regarding nutritional status and risk assessment, body composition, gastric residual volume, prokinetics, tube positioning, enteral vs parenteral nutrition, nutritional dose and timing of initiation, pharmaconutrition, dysbiosis and probiotics are discussed. SUMMARY: Body composition especially lean body mass is associated with clinical outcomes...
February 1, 2017: Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143996/the-role-of-probiotic-in-reducing-hepatic-inflammation-among-nafld-patients-an-evidence-based-case-report
#6
Alvin Nursalim, Ummi Ulfah Madina, Cosmas Rinaldi A Lesmana
AIM: to know the effectiveness of probiotic in reducing hepatic inflammation among non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) patients. METHODS: we performed literature searching regarding the potential role of probiotic in reducing hepatic inflammation among NAFLD patients. RESULTS: six articles were finally critically appraised. All six studies had good validity and importance. These studies unanimously reported that probiotic is useful in reducing hepatic inflammation, and liver fat content...
October 2016: Acta Medica Indonesiana
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28133894/seven-cases-of-saccharomyces-fungaemia-related-to-use-of-probiotics
#7
Ujjwayini Roy, Laxman G Jessani, Shivaprakash M Rudramurthy, Ram Gopalakrishnan, Soma Dutta, Chandrashish Chakravarty, Joseph Jillwin, Arunaloke Chakrabarti
Probiotics are increasingly used in critically ill patients without enough safety data. The aim of the present study was to determine the association of probiotics with Saccharomyces cerevisiae fungaemia. Seven patients with S. cerevisiae fungaemia were reported at two hospitals in India between July 2014 and September 2015. Detailed clinical history of patients was recorded. Besides the seven patient isolates, three probiotics sachets used in those patients and five unrelated clinical isolates were used for association study by Fluorescent amplified fragment length polymorphism (FAFLP)...
January 30, 2017: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130504/early-life-nutritional-exposures-and-lifelong-health-immediate-and-long-lasting-impacts-of-probiotics-vitamin-d-and-breastfeeding
#8
Cristiana Berti, Carlo Agostoni, Riccardo Davanzo, Elina Hyppönen, Erika Isolauri, Helle M Meltzer, Régine P M Steegers-Theunissen, Irene Cetin
Pregnancy and infancy comprise the most critical stages for conditioning an individual's health, with a number of implications for subsequent risks of morbidity, mortality, and reproductive health. Nutrition may influence both the overall pregnancy outcome and the growth trajectory and immune system of the fetus and infant, with short- and long-term effects on the health of the offspring. Within this context, leading experts at Expo Milano 2015 in Milan, Italy, discussed up-to-date knowledge while providing suggestions and challenges before, during, and after pregnancy...
January 27, 2017: Nutrition Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127902/the-gut-microbiome-of-hooded-cranes-grus-monacha-wintering-at-shengjin-lake-china
#9
Guanghong Zhao, Lizhi Zhou, Yuanqiu Dong, Yuanyuan Cheng, Yunwei Song
Gut microbes of animals play critical roles in processes such as digestion and immunity. Therefore, identifying gut microbes will shed light on understanding the annual life of animal species, particularly those that are threatened or endangered. In the present study, we conducted nucleotide sequence analyses of the 16S rRNA genes of gut microbiome of the hooded cranes (Grus monacha) wintering at Shengjin Lake, China, by Illumina high-throughput sequencing technology. We acquired 503,398 high-quality sequences and 785 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) from 15 fecal samples from different cranes, representing 22 phyla that were dominated by Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, and Actinobacteria...
January 26, 2017: MicrobiologyOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125354/engineered-probiotics-applications-and-biological-containment
#10
Babasola Sola-Oladokun, Eamonn P Culligan, Roy D Sleator
Bioengineered probiotics represent the next generation of whole cell-mediated biotherapeutics. Advances in synthetic biology, genome engineering, and DNA sequencing and synthesis have enabled scientists to design and develop probiotics with increased stress tolerance and the ability to target specific pathogens and their associated toxins, as well as to mediate targeted delivery of vaccines, drugs, and immunomodulators directly to host cells. Herein, we review the most significant advances in the development of this field...
January 11, 2017: Annual Review of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100014/mg-2-improves-the-thermotolerance-of-probiotic-lactobacillus-rhamnosus-gg-lactobacillus-casei-zhang-and-lactobacillus-plantarum-p-8
#11
Yi Yang, Song Huang, Juan Wang, Gwénaël Jan, Romain Jeantet, Xiao Dong Chen
Food related carbohydrates and proteins are often used as thermoprotectant for probiotic lactobacilli during industrial production and processing. However, the effect of inorganic salts is rarely reported. Magnesium is the second-most abundant cation in bacteria, and commonly found in various foods. Mg(2+) homeostasis is important in Salmonella and has been reported to play a critical role in their thermotolerance. However, Mg(2+) role in thermotolerance of other bacteria, in particular probiotic bacteria, still remains a hypothesis...
January 18, 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092309/microbiota-targeted-therapies-on-the-intensive-care-unit
#12
Bastiaan W Haak, Marcel Levi, W Joost Wiersinga
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The composition and diversity of the microbiota of the human gut, skin, and several other sites is severely deranged in critically ill patients on the ICU, and it is likely that these disruptions can negatively affect outcome. We here review new and ongoing studies that investigate the use of microbiota-targeted therapeutics in the ICU, and provide recommendations for future research. RECENT FINDINGS: Practically every intervention in the ICU as well as the physiological effects of critical illness itself can have a profound impact on the gut microbiota...
January 13, 2017: Current Opinion in Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042237/gut-microbiome-surgical-complications-and-probiotics
#13
REVIEW
George Stavrou, Katerina Kotzampassi
The trigger for infectious complications in patients following major abdominal operations is classically attributed to endogenous enteral bacterial translocation, due to the critical condition of the gut. Today, extensive gut microbiome analysis has enabled us to understand that almost all "evidence-based" surgical or medical intervention (antibiotics, bowel preparation, opioids, deprivation of nutrition), in addition to stress-released hormones, could affect the relative abundance and diversity of the enteral microbiome, allowing harmful bacteria to proliferate in the place of depressed beneficial species...
2017: Annals of Gastroenterology: Quarterly Publication of the Hellenic Society of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018313/outer-membrane-vesicles-and-soluble-factors-released-by-probiotic-escherichia-coli-nissle-1917-and-commensal-ecor63-enhance-barrier-function-by-regulating-expression-of-tight-junction-proteins-in-intestinal-epithelial-cells
#14
Carina-Shianya Alvarez, Josefa Badia, Manel Bosch, Rosa Giménez, Laura Baldomà
The gastrointestinal epithelial layer forms a physical and biochemical barrier that maintains the segregation between host and intestinal microbiota. The integrity of this barrier is critical in maintaining homeostasis in the body and its dysfunction is linked to a variety of illnesses, especially inflammatory bowel disease. Gut microbes, and particularly probiotic bacteria, modulate the barrier integrity by reducing gut permeability and reinforcing tight junctions. Probiotic Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 (EcN) is a good colonizer of the human gut with proven therapeutic efficacy in the remission of ulcerative colitis in humans...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997410/influence-of-nutrition-therapy-on-the-intestinal-microbiome
#15
Monika A Krezalek, Andrew Yeh, John C Alverdy, Michael Morowitz
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review describes the relationship between nutritional therapies and the intestinal microbiome of critically ill patients. RECENT FINDINGS: The intestinal microbiome of the critically ill displays a near complete loss of health-promoting microbiota with overgrowth of virulent healthcare-associated pathogens. Early enteral nutrition within 24 h of admission to the ICU has been advocated in medical and surgical patients to avoid derangements of the intestinal epithelium and the microbiome associated with starvation...
March 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981307/microbiota-small-rnas-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#16
REVIEW
Anca T Filip, Ovidiu Balacescu, Catalin Marian, Andrei Anghel
MiRNAs are a class of potential gene regulators of critical importance in Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD). This review aims to present the connection between gut microbiota, probiotics administration and microRNA (miRNA) expression in IBD. It also brings into question cross-kingdom RNAi (RNA interference). Not only that gut host cells garden the intestinal microbiome via miRNA, but also strong evidence supports the idea that different species of bacteria have an impact on the intestinal immune response by modulating miRNA expression...
December 2016: Journal of Gastrointestinal and Liver Diseases: JGLD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940405/dietary-and-enteral-interventions-for-crohn-s-disease
#17
REVIEW
Takayuki Yamamoto, Takahiro Shimoyama, Moeko Kuriyama
It is now widely acknowledged that the intestinal bacterial flora together with genetic predisposing factors significantly contribute to the immunopathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) as reflected by mucosal immune dysregulation. Recently, there has been an increased interest in nutraceutical therapies, including probiotics, prebiotics and synbiotics. Other dietary interventions with low carbohydrate diet, omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and glutamine have been attempted to downregulate the gut inflammatory response and thereby alleviate gastrointestinal symptoms...
December 8, 2016: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27938461/effect-of-fortified-milk-on-growth-and-nutritional-status-in-young-children-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#18
Misa Matsuyama, Tracy Harb, Michael David, Peter Sw Davies, Rebecca J Hill
OBJECTIVE: Adequate nutrition is critical for optimal growth and development. However, young children may be at risk of nutrient deficiencies when transitioning to weaning foods for a variety of reasons. Supplementation with fortified milk may provide potentially lacking essential nutrients, but effects on growth and nutritional status are yet to be established. DESIGN: Five databases were searched for randomised controlled trials using fortified milk against control milk in young children...
December 12, 2016: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924137/exercise-induced-stress-behavior-gut-microbiota-brain-axis-and-diet-a-systematic-review-for-athletes
#19
REVIEW
Allison Clark, Núria Mach
Fatigue, mood disturbances, under performance and gastrointestinal distress are common among athletes during training and competition. The psychosocial and physical demands during intense exercise can initiate a stress response activating the sympathetic-adrenomedullary and hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axes, resulting in the release of stress and catabolic hormones, inflammatory cytokines and microbial molecules. The gut is home to trillions of microorganisms that have fundamental roles in many aspects of human biology, including metabolism, endocrine, neuronal and immune function...
2016: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27850100/460-using-probiotics-in-the-critically-ill-a-meta-analysis-of-2-808-patients
#20
Connie Wang, Rahul Chaudhary, Sheri Berg
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Critical Care Medicine
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