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Probiotics critical

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785336/targeting-the-microbiota-from-irritable-bowel-syndrome-to-mood-disorders-focus-on-probiotics-and-prebiotics
#1
M M Pusceddu, K Murray, M G Gareau
Purpose of review: The crosstalk between the gut and the brain has revealed a complex communication system responsible for maintaining a proper gastrointestinal homeostasis as well as affect emotional mood and cognitive functions. Recent research has revealed that beneficial manipulation of the microbiota by probiotics and prebiotics represent an emerging and novel strategy for the treatment of a large spectrum of diseases ranging from visceral pain to mood disorders. The review critically evaluates current knowledge of the effects exerted by both probiotics and prebiotics in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and mood disorders such as anxiety and depression...
March 2018: Current Pathobiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782471/new-approach-in-acne-therapy-a-specific-bacteriocin-activity-and-a-targeted-anti-il-8-property-in-just-1-probiotic-strain-the-l-salivarius-ls03
#2
Francesca Deidda, Angela Amoruso, Stefania Nicola, Teresa Graziano, Marco Pane, Luca Mogna
GOALS: The aim of this research was to assess the antibacterial activity of Lactobacillus salivarius LS03 (DSM 22776) against Propionibacterium acnes and its anti-inflammatory properties by inhibiting P. acnes-induced interleukin-8 (IL-8) release. BACKGROUND: Acne is the most common skin disease, causing significant psychosocial problems for those afflicted. Currently available agents for acne treatment, such as oral antibiotics, have limited use. Thus, development of novel agents to treat this disease is needed...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772753/dietary-polysaccharide-from-enteromorpha-clathrata-modulates-gut-microbiota-and-promotes-the-growth-of-akkermansia-muciniphila-bifidobacterium-spp-and-lactobacillus-spp
#3
Qingsen Shang, Ya Wang, Lin Pan, Qingfeng Niu, Chao Li, Hao Jiang, Chao Cai, Jiejie Hao, Guoyun Li, Guangli Yu
Recently, accumulating evidence has suggested that Enteromorpha clathrata polysaccharide (ECP) could contribute to the treatment of diseases. However, as a promising candidate for marine drug development, although ECP has been extensively studied, less consideration has been given to exploring its effect on gut microbiota. In this light, given the critical role of gut microbiota in health and disease, we investigated here the effect of ECP on gut microbiota using 16S rRNA high-throughput sequencing. As revealed by bioinformatic analyses, ECP considerably changed the structure of the gut microbiota and significantly promoted the growth of probiotic bacteria in C57BL/6J mice...
May 17, 2018: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743671/an-exclusive-metabolic-niche-enables-strain-engraftment-in-the-gut-microbiota
#4
Elizabeth Stanley Shepherd, William C DeLoache, Kali M Pruss, Weston R Whitaker, Justin L Sonnenburg
The dense microbial ecosystem in the gut is intimately connected to numerous facets of human biology, and manipulation of the gut microbiota has broad implications for human health. In the absence of profound perturbation, the bacterial strains that reside within an individual are mostly stable over time 1 . By contrast, the fate of exogenous commensal and probiotic strains applied to an established microbiota is variable, generally unpredictable and greatly influenced by the background microbiota2,3 . Therefore, analysis of the factors that govern strain engraftment and abundance is of critical importance to the emerging field of microbiome reprogramming...
May 9, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732479/whey-and-its-derivatives-for-probiotics-prebiotics-synbiotics-and-functional-foods-a-critical-review
#5
Ourdia Kareb, Mohammed Aïder
The purpose of this review is to highlight the importance of whey as a source of new-generation functional ingredients. Particular interest is given to probiotic growth in the presence of whey derivatives such as lactulose, a lactose derivative, which is a highly sought-after prebiotic in functional feeding. The role of sugar/nitrogen interactions in the formation of Maillard products is also highlighted. These compounds are known for their antioxidant power. The role of bioactive peptides from whey is also discussed in this study...
May 7, 2018: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720287/review-are-we-using-probiotics-correctly-in-post-weaning-piglets
#6
E Barba-Vidal, S M Martín-Orúe, L Castillejos
Intensive farming may involve the use of diets, environments or management practices that impose physiological and psychological stressors on the animals. In particular, early weaning is nowadays a common practice to increase the productive yield of pig farms. Still, it is considered one of the most critical periods in swine production, where piglet performance can be seriously affected and where they are predisposed to the overgrowth of opportunistic pathogens. Pig producers nowadays face the challenge to overcome this situation in a context of increasing restrictions on the use of antibiotics in animal production...
May 3, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705796/clostridium-tyrobutyricum-protect-intestinal-barrier-function-from-lps-induced-apoptosis-via-p38-jnk-signaling-pathway-in-ipec-j2-cells
#7
Zhiping Xiao, Lujie Liu, Wenjing Tao, Xun Pei, Geng Wang, Minqi Wang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The intestinal mucosa forms a physical and metabolic barrier against the diffusion of pathogens, toxins, and allergens from the lumen into the circulatory system. Early weaning, a critical phase in swine production, can compromise intestinal barrier function through mucosal damage and alteration of tight junction integrity Maintenance of intestinal barrier function plays a pivotal role in optimum gastrointestinal health. In this study, we investigated the effects of Clostridium tyrobutyricum (C...
April 25, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704909/gut-immunity-its-development-and-reasons-and-opportunities-for-modulation-in-monogastric-production-animals
#8
Leon J Broom, Michael H Kogut
The intestine performs the critical roles of nutrient acquisition, tolerance of innocuous and beneficial microorganisms, while retaining the ability to respond appropriately to undesirable microbes or microbial products and preventing their translocation to more sterile body compartments. Various components contribute to antimicrobial defenses in the intestine. The mucus layer(s), antimicrobial peptides and IgA provide the first line of defense, and seek to trap and facilitate the removal of invading microbes...
April 29, 2018: Animal Health Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29702133/primary-prevention-of-clostridium-difficile-infections-with-a-specific-probiotic-combining-lactobacillus-acidophilus-cl1285-l-casei-lbc80r-and-l-rhamnosus-clr2-a-critical-appraisal-of-the-evidence
#9
REVIEW
Lynne V McFarland, Noam Ship, Julie Auclair, Mathieu Millette
Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) have become the leading cause of healthcare-associated infections and causes outbreaks around the world. Although various new innovative treatments have been developed, preventive strategies using multi-faceted infection control programmes have not been as successful in reducing CDI rates. The major risk factor for CDI is the disruption of the normally protective gastrointestinal microbiota, typically by antibiotic use. Supplementation with specific probiotics has been found to be effective in preventing various negative outcomes, including antibiotic-associated diarrhoea and CDI...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29697855/consensus-and-contentious-statements-on-the-use-of-probiotics-in-clinical-practice-a-south-east-asian-gastro-neuro-motility-association-working-team-report
#10
REVIEW
Kok-Ann Gwee, Warren Wei-Rhen Lee, Khoon Lin Ling, Choon Jin Ooi, Seng Hock Quak, Yock Young Dan, Kewin Tien-Ho Siah, James Guoxian Huang, Andrew Seng Boon Chua, Ida Normiha Hilmi, R A Raja Affendi, Christina Ong, Marcellus Simadibrata, Murdani Abdullah, Jose D Sollano, Somchai Leelakusolvong, Sutep Gonlachanvit, Yeong Yeh Lee, Jane D Ricaforte-Campos, Yee Kian Yin, Kuck-Meng Chong, Chong Yuen Wong
The concept of consuming microorganisms in the treatment of a medical condition and in health maintenance has gained much traction, giving rise to an abundance of medical claims, and of health supplements. We identified relevant clinical questions on the therapeutic use of probiotics and reviewed the literature in irritable bowel syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease, impaired intestinal immunity, liver disease, intestinal infections and common childhood digestive disorders. Statements were developed to address these clinical questions...
April 26, 2018: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686533/gut-dysbiosis-and-muscle-aging-searching-for-novel-targets-against-sarcopenia
#11
REVIEW
Anna Picca, Francesca Fanelli, Riccardo Calvani, Giuseppina Mulè, Vito Pesce, Alex Sisto, Cecilia Pantanelli, Roberto Bernabei, Francesco Landi, Emanuele Marzetti
Advanced age is characterized by several changes, one of which is the impairment of the homeostasis of intestinal microbiota. These alterations critically influence host health and have been associated with morbidity and mortality in older adults. "Inflammaging," an age-related chronic inflammatory process, is a common trait of several conditions, including sarcopenia. Interestingly, imbalanced intestinal microbial community has been suggested to contribute to inflammaging. Changes in gut microbiota accompanying sarcopenia may be attenuated by supplementation with pre- and probiotics...
2018: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680655/enhanced-phagocytosis-of-aggregatibacter-actinomycetemcomitans-cells-by-macrophages-activated-by-a-probiotic-lactobacillus-strain
#12
N Jaffar, T Okinaga, T Nishihara, T Maeda
The activation of phagocytosis is one important approach to clearing pathogenic cells in a host. This study evaluated the ability of probiotic lactobacilli to induce phagocytic activity as well as the clearance of a periodontal pathogen, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans. First, the activation of phagocytosis was found by using lyophilized dead cells. Probiotic Lactobacillus strains significantly enhanced the phagocytic activity of macrophage cells, indicating that the probiotic lactobacilli have a remarkable ability to stimulate the macrophages...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625981/a-consistent-and-predictable-commercial-broiler-chicken-bacterial-microbiota-in-antibiotic-free-production-displays-strong-correlations-with-performance
#13
Timothy J Johnson, Bonnie P Youmans, Sally Noll, Carol Cardona, Nicholas P Evans, T Peter Karnezos, John M Ngunjiri, Michael C Abundo, Chang-Won Lee
Defining the baseline bacterial microbiome is critical towards understanding its relationship with health and disease. In broiler chickens, the core microbiome and its possible relationships with health and disease have been difficult to define due to high variability between birds and flocks. Presented are data from a large, comprehensive microbiota-based study in commercial broilers. The primary goals of this study included understanding what constitutes the core bacterial microbiota in the broiler gastrointestinal, respiratory, and barn environments; how these core players change across age, geography, and time; and which bacterial taxa correlate with enhanced bird performance in antibiotic-free flocks...
April 6, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616010/outer-membrane-vesicles-from-probiotic-and-commensal-escherichia-coli-activate-nod1-mediated-immune-responses-in-intestinal-epithelial-cells
#14
María-Alexandra Cañas, María-José Fábrega, Rosa Giménez, Josefa Badia, Laura Baldomà
Gut microbiota plays a critical role in maintaining human intestinal homeostasis and host health. Bacterial extracellular vesicles are key players in bacteria-host communication, as they allow delivery of effector molecules into the host cells. Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) released by Gram-negative bacteria carry many ligands of pattern recognition receptors that are key components of innate immunity. NOD1 and NOD2 cytosolic receptors specifically recognize peptidoglycans present within the bacterial cell wall...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29602225/oral-microbiota-maturation-during-the-first-7-years-of-life-in-relation-to-allergy-development
#15
Majda Dzidic, Thomas Abrahamsson, Alejandro Artacho, Maria Carmen Collado, Alex Mira, Maria C Jenmalm
BACKGROUND: Allergic diseases have become a major public health problem in affluent societies. Microbial colonization early in life seems to be critical for instructing regulation on immune system maturation and allergy development in children. Even though the oral cavity is the first site of encounter between a majority of foreign antigens and the immune system, the influence of oral bacteria on allergy development has not yet been reported. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine the bacterial composition in longitudinally collected saliva samples during childhood in relation to allergy development...
March 30, 2018: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29601338/evolving-understanding-of-neonatal-necrotizing-enterocolitis
#16
Mubina A Isani, Patrick T Delaplain, Anatoly Grishin, Henri R Ford
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a devastating disease that predominately affects premature neonates. The pathogenesis of NEC is multifactorial and poorly understood. Risk factors include low birth weight, formula-feeding, hypoxic/ischemic insults, and microbial dysbiosis. This review focuses on our current understanding of the diagnosis, management, and pathogenesis of NEC. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent findings identify specific mucosal cell types as potential therapeutic targets in NEC...
June 2018: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29531939/targeting-gut-microbiota-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma-probiotics-as-a-novel-therapy
#17
REVIEW
Murphy L Y Wan, Hani El-Nezami
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the most common primary liver cancer, is one of the dreaded complications of chronic liver disease. Recent experimental and clinical studies have revealed that the alteration of gut-liver axis plays a pivotal role in the onset of chronic liver diseases, including HCC. Altered gut microbiota and endotoxemia are increasingly recognized as critical components in promoting the progression of chronic liver diseases to HCC. Probiotics have been suggested as a novel, safe and cost-effective approach to prevent or treat HCC...
February 2018: Hepatobiliary Surgery and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29515537/intra-species-genomic-and-physiological-variability-impact-stress-resistance-in-strains-of-probiotic-potential
#18
Jason W Arnold, Joshua B Simpson, Jeffrey Roach, Jakub Kwintkiewicz, M Andrea Azcarate-Peril
Large-scale microbiome studies have established that most of the diversity contained in the gastrointestinal tract is represented at the strain level; however, exhaustive genomic and physiological characterization of human isolates is still lacking. With increased use of probiotics as interventions for gastrointestinal disorders, genomic and functional characterization of novel microorganisms becomes essential. In this study, we explored the impact of strain-level genomic variability on bacterial physiology of two novel human Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains (AMC143 and AMC010) of probiotic potential in relation to stress resistance...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29507462/the-burden-of-minimal-hepatic-encephalopathy-from-diagnosis-to-therapeutic-strategies
#19
REVIEW
Lorenzo Ridola, Vincenzo Cardinale, Oliviero Riggio
Minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) is the mildest form of hepatic encephalopathy (HE). It affects the performance of psychometric tests focused on attention, working memory, psychomotor speed, and visuospatial ability, as well as electrophysiological and other functional brain measures. MHE is a frequent complication of liver disease, affecting up to 80% of tested patients. By being related to falls, an impairment in fitness to drive and the development of overt HE, MHE severely affects the lives of patients and caregivers by altering their quality of life and their socioeconomic status...
March 2018: Annals of Gastroenterology: Quarterly Publication of the Hellenic Society of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29485654/gut-liver-brain-axis-the-microbial-challenge-in-the-hepatic-encephalopathy
#20
Andrea Mancini, Francesca Campagna, Piero Amodio, Kieran M Tuohy
Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a debilitating neuropsychiatric condition often associated with acute liver failure or cirrhosis. Advanced liver diseases are characterized by a leaky gut and systemic inflammation. There is strong evidence that the pathogenesis of HE is linked to a dysbiotic gut microbiota and to harmful microbial by-products, such as ammonia, indoles, oxindoles and endotoxins. Increased concentrations of these toxic metabolites together with the inability of the diseased liver to clear such products is thought to play an important patho-ethiological role...
March 1, 2018: Food & Function
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