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Gene expression regulation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931211/mir-337-3p-promotes-chondrocytes-proliferation-and-inhibits-apoptosis-by-regulating-pten-akt-axis-in-osteoarthritis
#1
Zhihui Huang, Naidong Zhang, Wenming Ma, Xiaoyu Dai, Jinbo Liu
BACKGROUND: Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative disease of articular cartilage and its main pathological feature is cartilage destruction, but its specific pathogenesis is still debatable. The aim of this study was to explore the role of miR-337-3p in OA pathogenesis. METHODS: The expression of miR-337-3p and PTEN in osteoarthritic cartilage tissues was detected using quantitative real time PCR and western blot, respectively. The regulation of miR-337-3p on PTEN was examined by luciferase reporter gene assays...
September 16, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931159/isolation-and-molecular-characterization-of-the-transformer-gene-from-bactrocera-cucurbitae-diptera-tephritidae
#2
Ya Luo, Santao Zhao, Jiahui Li, Peizheng Li, Rihui Yan
transformer (tra) is a switch gene of sex determination in many insects, particularly in Dipterans. However, the sex determination pathway in Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett), a very destructive pest on earth, remains largely uncharacterized. In this study, we have isolated and characterized one female-specific and two male-specific transcripts of the tra gene (Bcutra) of B. cucurbitae. The genomic structure of Bcutra has been determined and the presence of multiple conserved Transformer (TRA)/TRA-2 binding sites in Bcutra has been found...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931069/methylation-associated-transcriptional-repression-of-elovl5-in-novel-colorectal-cancer-cell-lines
#3
Arnoud Boot, Jan Oosting, Jaap D H van Eendenburg, Peter J K Kuppen, Hans Morreau, Tom van Wezel
Genetic and epigenetic alterations mark colorectal cancer (CRC). Global hypomethylation is observed in nearly all CRC, but a distinct subset of CRC show the CpG Island Methylator Phenotype (CIMP). These tumors show DNA hypermethylation of a specific subset of CpG islands, resulting in transcriptional downregulation of nearby genes. Recently we reported the establishment of novel CRC cell lines derived from primary and metastatic CRC tissues. In this study we describe the DNA methylation profiling of these low passage CRC cell lines...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931045/effect-of-extracytoplasmic-function-sigma-factors-on-autoaggregation-hemagglutination-and-cell-surface-properties-of-porphyromonas-gingivalis
#4
Kazutaka Fujise, Yuichiro Kikuchi, Eitoyo Kokubu, Kazuko Okamoto-Shibayama, Kazuyuki Ishihara
Porphyromonas gingivalis is a bacterium frequently isolated from chronic periodontal lesions and is involved in the development of chronic periodontitis. To colonize the gingival crevice, P. gingivalis has to adapt to environmental stresses. Microbial gene expression is regulated by transcription factors such as those in two-component systems and extracytoplasmic function (ECF) sigma factors. ECF sigma factors are involved in the regulation of environmental stress response genes; however, the roles of individual ECF sigma factors are largely unknown...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930970/screening-of-critical-genes-and-micrornas-in-blood-samples-of-patients-with-ruptured-intracranial-aneurysms-by-bioinformatic-analysis-of-gene-expression-data
#5
Lijuan Bo, Bo Wei, Zhanfeng Wang, Daliang Kong, Zheng Gao, Zhuang Miao
BACKGROUND This study aimed to identify more potential genes and miRNAs associated with the pathogenesis of intracranial aneurysms (IAs). MATERIAL AND METHODS The dataset of GSE36791 (accession number) was downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were screened for in the blood samples from patients with ruptured IAs and controls, followed by functional and pathway enrichment analyses. In addition, gene co-expression network was constructed and significant modules were extracted from the network by WGCNA R package...
September 20, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930688/the-heterochronic-gene-lin-14-controls-axonal-degeneration-in-c-%C3%A2-elegans-neurons
#6
Fiona K Ritchie, Rhianna Knable, Justin Chaplin, Rhiannon Gursanscky, Maria Gallegos, Brent Neumann, Massimo A Hilliard
The disproportionate length of an axon makes its structural and functional maintenance a major task for a neuron. The heterochronic gene lin-14 has previously been implicated in regulating the timing of key developmental events in the nematode C. elegans. Here, we report that LIN-14 is critical for maintaining neuronal integrity. Animals lacking lin-14 display axonal degeneration and guidance errors in both sensory and motor neurons. We demonstrate that LIN-14 functions both cell autonomously within the neuron and non-cell autonomously in the surrounding tissue, and we show that interaction between the axon and its surrounding tissue is essential for the preservation of axonal structure...
September 19, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930673/pexrap-inhibits-prdm16-mediated-thermogenic-gene-expression
#7
Irfan J Lodhi, John M Dean, Anyuan He, Hongsuk Park, Min Tan, Chu Feng, Haowei Song, Fong-Fu Hsu, Clay F Semenkovich
How the nuclear receptor PPARγ regulates the development of two functionally distinct types of adipose tissue, brown and white fat, as well as the browning of white fat, remains unclear. Our previous studies suggest that PexRAP, a peroxisomal lipid synthetic enzyme, regulates PPARγ signaling and white adipogenesis. Here, we show that PexRAP is an inhibitor of brown adipocyte gene expression. PexRAP inactivation promoted adipocyte browning, increased energy expenditure, and decreased adiposity. Identification of PexRAP-interacting proteins suggests that PexRAP function extends beyond its role as a lipid synthetic enzyme...
September 19, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930660/the-irf4-gene-regulatory-module-functions-as-a-read-write-integrator-to-dynamically-coordinate-t%C3%A2-helper-cell-fate
#8
Veena Krishnamoorthy, Sunil Kannanganat, Mark Maienschein-Cline, Sarah L Cook, Jianjun Chen, Neil Bahroos, Evelyn Sievert, Emily Corse, Anita Chong, Roger Sciammas
Transcriptional regulation during CD4(+) T cell fate decisions enables their differentiation into distinct states, guiding immune responses toward antibody production via Tfh cells or inflammation by Teff cells. Tfh-Teff cell fate commitment is regulated by mutual antagonism between the transcription factors Bcl6 and Blimp-1. Here we examined how T cell receptor (TCR) signals establish and arbitrate Bcl6-Blimp-1 counter-antagonism. We found that the TCR-signal-induced transcription factor Irf4 is essential for the differentiation of Bcl6-expressing Tfh and Blimp-1-expressing Teff cells...
September 19, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930659/group-1-innate-lymphoid-cell-lineage-identity-is-determined-by-a-cis-regulatory-element-marked-by-a-long-non-coding-rna
#9
Walter K Mowel, Sam J McCright, Jonathan J Kotzin, Magalie A Collet, Asli Uyar, Xin Chen, Alexandra DeLaney, Sean P Spencer, Anthony T Virtue, EnJun Yang, Alejandro Villarino, Makoto Kurachi, Margaret C Dunagin, Gretchen Harms Pritchard, Judith Stein, Cynthia Hughes, Diogo Fonseca-Pereira, Henrique Veiga-Fernandes, Arjun Raj, Taku Kambayashi, Igor E Brodsky, John J O'Shea, E John Wherry, Loyal A Goff, John L Rinn, Adam Williams, Richard A Flavell, Jorge Henao-Mejia
Commitment to the innate lymphoid cell (ILC) lineage is determined by Id2, a transcriptional regulator that antagonizes T and B cell-specific gene expression programs. Yet how Id2 expression is regulated in each ILC subset remains poorly understood. We identified a cis-regulatory element demarcated by a long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) that controls the function and lineage identity of group 1 ILCs, while being dispensable for early ILC development and homeostasis of ILC2s and ILC3s. The locus encoding this lncRNA, which we termed Rroid, directly interacted with the promoter of its neighboring gene, Id2, in group 1 ILCs...
September 19, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930658/defined-sensing-mechanisms-and-signaling-pathways-contribute-to-the-global-inflammatory-gene-expression-output-elicited-by-ionizing-radiation
#10
Prabhat K Purbey, Philip O Scumpia, Peter J Kim, Ann-Jay Tong, Keisuke S Iwamoto, William H McBride, Stephen T Smale
Environmental insults are often detected by multiple sensors that activate diverse signaling pathways and transcriptional regulators, leading to a tailored transcriptional output. To understand how a tailored response is coordinated, we examined the inflammatory response elicited in mouse macrophages by ionizing radiation (IR). RNA-sequencing studies revealed that most radiation-induced genes were strongly dependent on only one of a small number of sensors and signaling pathways, notably the DNA damage-induced kinase ATM, which regulated many IR-response genes, including interferon response genes, via an atypical IRF1-dependent, STING-independent mechanism...
September 19, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930602/molecular-biology-of-tick-acetylcholinesterases
#11
Kevin Bruce Temeyer
Ticks vector many pathogens with major health and economic impacts and have developed resistance to most acaricides used for tick control. Organophosphate (OP) acaricides target acetylcholinesterase (AChE) critical to tick central nervous system function. Mutations producing tick AChEs resistant to OPs were characterized; but tick OP-resistance is not fully elucidated, due to remarkable complexity of tick cholinergic systems. Three paralogous tick AChEs exhibiting differences in primary structure and biochemical kinetics are encoded by amplified genes with developmentally regulated expression...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930592/choline-the-brain-and-neurodegeneration-insights-from-epigenetics
#12
Rola A Bekdash
  Neurodegenerative disorders are a major public health problem worldwide with huge socioeconomic effect. Recent evidence suggests that neurodegeneration is not only caused by genetic factors but also affected by environmental factors including nutrients. Environmental influences have been shown to cause epigenetic modifications in the brain with long-lasting effects on behavior if they occur in early life. It has been suggested that early nutritional intervention that includes choline, betaine, VitB6, VitB12 and/or folic acid could attenuate decline in cognitive functions...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930559/histone-deacetylase-a-potential-therapeutic-target-for-ovarian-dysfunction
#13
Sunita Sunita, Pankaj Kumar Singh, Suneel Kumar Onteru, Dheer Singh
Post-partum uterine disorders and reproductive tract infections cause ovarian dysfunction and infertility. Histone deacetylases (HDACs) prevent the relaxation of chromatin, and positively or negatively regulate transcription. Hence, HDACs play a pivotal role in altering the gene expression that impact different signalling pathways underling ovarian dysfunction. Thus, HDAC inhibitors (HDACi) may act as potential therapeutic targets in the treatment of an array of disorders impacting ovarian function.
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930552/microrna-181a-inhibits-autophagy-by-targeting-atg5-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#14
Jun Yang, Youzhao He, Niankuan Zhai, Sheng Ding, Jianping Li, Zhihai Peng
Available evidence suggests that autophagy may serve as a tumor suppressor in cases of chronic liver disease and liver cirrhosis and that autophagic deficiency may lead to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Recent studies suggested that the development of several tumor types could be regulated by microRNA-181a. However, the role of miR-181a in the autophagy of HCC remains unclear. In this study, we aimed to investigate the role of miR-181a in the autophagy of HCC. We found that the mRNA expression of miR-181a is higher but the level of autophagy is lower in human HCC compared to normal liver tissue...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930539/transcriptional-regulation-of-p57-kip2-expression-during-development-differentiation-and-disease
#15
Marianna N Rossi, Oriella Andresini, Francesca Matteini, Rossella Maione
p57(kip2) is the most complex member of the CIP/KIP family of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors and plays a fundamental role in regulating cell cycle and differentiation during mammalian development. Consistently with a key role for p57(kip2) in the spatial and temporal control of cell proliferation, its expression is fine-tuned by multiple regulatory mechanisms, resulting in a tissue-, developmental phase- and cell type-specific pattern. Moreover, p57(kip2) is an imprinted gene, further supporting the importance of its proper expression dosage...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930537/differences-in-ion-channel-phenotype-and-function-between-humans-and-animal-models
#16
Mark R Tanner, Christine Beeton
Ion channels play crucial roles in regulating a broad range of physiological processes. They form a very large family of transmembrane proteins. Their diversity results from not only a large number of different genes encoding for ion channel subunits but also the ability of subunits to assemble into homo- or heteromultimers, the existence of splice variants, and the expression of different regulatory subunits. These characteristics and the existence of very selective modulators make ion channels very attractive targets for therapy in a wide variety of pathologies...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930521/multifactorial-role-of-long-non-coding-rnas-lncrnas-in-hematopoiesis
#17
Muhammad Babar Khawar, Rabia Mehmood, Muddasir Hassan Abbasi, Nadeem Sheikh
  Human genome project unveiled that only 1.5.-2.0.% of the genome is protein coding. ENCODE and related studies showed that most part of the genome transcribed into RNAs, and most of them do not code for a functional proteins, hence the name non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs). ncRNAs are small ncRNAs (less than 200 nucleotides) and long ncRNAs (longer than 200 nucleotides up to 10 kb). They act as a direct link between highly ordered chromosome structures, gene expression and serve as a bridge between genome and chromatin modification complexes as guides, scaffolds, and decoys...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Scholar Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930517/mirna-as-viral-transcription-tuners-in-hpv-mediated-cervical-carcinogenesis
#18
Gauri Shishodia, Gaurav Verma, Bhudev Chandra Das, Alok Chandra Bharti
High-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are oncogenic DNA viruses that promote carcinogenic signaling by their oncoproteins mainly E6 and E7. A well-defined promoter regulates expression and enhancer region on HPV genome containing number of cis elements that essentially require a set of cognate host transcription factors to regulate viral promoter gene activity. Expression of these host factors is tightly regulated at multiple levels such as transcriptional, post-transcriptional and post-translational level...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Scholar Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930370/comparison-of-whole-genome-expression-profile-between-preterm-and-full-term-newborns
#19
Przemko Kwinta, Renata Bokiniec, Mirosław Bik-Multanowski, Clara-Cecilie Gunther, Agnieszka Grabowska, Teofila Książek, Anna Madetko-Talowska, Katarzyna Szewczyk, Monika Szwarc-Duma, Maria K Borszewska-Kornacka, Lars O Baumbusch, Cecilie Revhaug, Ola D Saugstad, Jacek J Pietrzyk
OBJECTIVES: Evaluate the time dependent expression of genes in preterm neonates and verify the influence of ontogenic maturation and the environmental factors on the gene expression after birth. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was carried out on 20 full-term newborns and 62 preterm newborns (mean birth weight = 1002 [g] (SD: 247), mean gestational age = 27.2 weeks (SD: 1.9)). Blood samples were drawn from all the study participants at birth and at the 36th week postmenstrual age from the preterm group to assess whole genome expression in umbilical cord blood and in peripheral blood leukocytes, respectively...
2017: Ginekologia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930194/developmental-programming-of-obesity-and-liver-metabolism-by-maternal-perinatal-nutrition-involves-the-melanocortin-system
#20
Paul Cordero, Jiawei Li, Vi Nguyen, Joaquim Pombo, Nuria Maicas, Marco Novelli, Paul D Taylor, Anne-Maj Samuelsson, Manlio Vinciguerra, Jude A Oben
Maternal obesity predisposes offspring to metabolic dysfunction and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD). Melanocortin-4 receptor (Mc4r)-deficient mouse models exhibit obesity during adulthood. Here, we aim to determine the influence of the Mc4r gene on the liver of mice subjected to perinatal diet-induced obesity. Female mice heterozygous for Mc4r fed an obesogenic or a control diet for 5 weeks were mated with heterozygous males, with the same diet continued throughout pregnancy and lactation, generating four offspring groups: control wild type (C_wt), control knockout (C_KO), obese wild type (Ob_wt), and obese knockout (Ob_KO)...
September 20, 2017: Nutrients
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