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Gene expression regulation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775961/antioxidant-response-elements-discovery-classes-regulation-and-potential-applications
#1
REVIEW
Azhwar Raghunath, Kiruthika Sundarraj, Raju Nagarajan, Frank Arfuso, Jinsong Bian, Alan P Kumar, Gautam Sethi, Ekambaram Perumal
Exposure to antioxidants and xenobiotics triggers the expression of a myriad of genes encoding antioxidant proteins, detoxifying enzymes, and xenobiotic transporters to offer protection against oxidative stress. This articulated universal mechanism is regulated through the cis-acting elements in an array of Nrf2 target genes called antioxidant response elements (AREs), which play a critical role in redox homeostasis. Though the Keap1/Nrf2/ARE system involves many players, AREs hold the key in transcriptional regulation of cytoprotective genes...
May 7, 2018: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775942/toxicological-effects-on-earthworms-eisenia-fetida-exposed-to-sub-lethal-concentrations-of-bde-47-and-bde-209-from-a-metabolic-point
#2
Ruoyu Liang, Juan Chen, Yajuan Shi, Yonglong Lu, Suriyanarayanan Sarvajayakesavalu, Xiangbo Xu, Xiaoqi Zheng, Kifayatullah Khan, Chao Su
Earthworms improve the soil fertility and they are also sensitive to soil contaminants. Earthworms (Eisenia fetida), standard reference species, were usually chosen to culture and handle for toxicity tests. Metabolic responses in earthworms exposed to 2, 2', 4, 4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) and decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) were inhibitory and interfered with basal metabolism. In this study, 1 H-NMR based metabolomics was used to identify sensitive biomarkers and explore metabolic responses of earthworms under sub-lethal BDE-47 and BDE-209 concentrations for 14 days...
May 15, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775928/tributyltin-impaired-reproductive-success-in-female-zebrafish-through-disrupting-oogenesis-reproductive-behaviors-and-serotonin-synthesis
#3
Wei-Yang Xiao, Ying-Wen Li, Qi-Liang Chen, Zhi-Hao Liu
Tributyltin (TBT), an organotin acting as aromatase (Cyp19a1) inhibitor, has been found to disrupt gametogenesis and reproductive behaviors in several fish species. However, few studies addressing the mechanisms underlying the impaired gametogenesis and reproduction have been reported. In this study, female adults of zebrafish (Danio rerio) were continuously exposed to two nominal concentrations of TBT (100 and 500 ng/L, actual concentrations: 90.8 ± 1.3 ng/L and 470.3 ± 2.7 ng/L, respectively) for 28 days...
May 12, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775926/chlorophyll-a-%C3%AF-uorescence-and-transcriptome-reveal-the-toxicological-effects-of-bisphenol-a-on-an-invasive-cyanobacterium-cylindrospermopsis-raciborskii
#4
Rong Xiang, Junqiong Shi, Hongbo Zhang, Congcong Dong, Li Liu, JunKe Fu, Xinyu He, Yanjun Yan, Zhongxing Wu
Bisphenol A has attracted worldwide attention due to its harmful effects on humans, animals and plants. In this study, the toxicological effects of BPA on Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii were assessed based on chlorophyll a fluorescence and transcriptome analyses. The results showed that the growth of C. raciborskii was significantly inhibited when BPA exceeded 0.1 mg L-1 . A marked rise of phase J was observed at a concentration greater than 0.1 mg L-1 , while a K phase appeared at 20 mg L-1 . The chlorophyll a fluorescence parameters of RC/CS0 , F0 , φP0 , φE0 , and ψ0 , underwent a significant decline under all treatments of BPA, whereas a significant increase in both VJ and M0 occurred under all concentrations of BPA...
May 9, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775925/exposure-to-tris-1-3-dichloro-2-propyl-phosphate-for-two-generations-decreases-fecundity-of-zebrafish-at-environmentally-relevant-concentrations
#5
Yongkang Zhang, Meng Li, Shuying Li, Qiangwei Wang, Guonian Zhu, Guanyong Su, Robert J Letcher, Chunsheng Liu
Previous studies reported that exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of TDCIPP significantly decreased the number of cumulative eggs in zebrafish, but effects on the quantity of eggs and sperms remained unknown. Therefore, in this study, effects of TDCIPP on yolk diameter, surface morphology of eggs, sperm density and total motility were evaluated. First generation (F0) zebrafish larvae (Danio rerio) were exposed to 0, 50, 500 or 5000 ng/L tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCIPP) from 14 days post fertilization (dpf) to 120 dpf...
May 14, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775920/il-33-stimulates-expression-of-the-gpr84-ex33-fatty-acid-receptor-gene-and-of-cytokine-and-chemokine-genes-in-human-adipocytes
#6
Mohamed S Zaibi, Małgorzata A Kępczyńska, Parvathy Harikumar, Suliman Y Alomar, Paul Trayhurn
Expression of GPCR fatty acid sensor/receptor genes in adipocytes is modulated by inflammatory mediators, particularly IL-1β. In this study we examined whether the IL-1 gene superfamily member, IL-33, also regulates expression of the fatty acid receptor genes in adipocytes. Human fat cells, differentiated from preadipocytes, were incubated with IL-33 at three different dose levels for 3 or 24 h and mRNA measured by qPCR. Treatment with IL-33 induced a dose-dependent increase in GPR84 mRNA at 3 h, the level with the highest dose being 13...
May 15, 2018: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775897/the-gastric-mucosal-protective-effects-of-astragaloside-iv-in-mnng-induced-gpl-rats
#7
Tiantian Cai, Chengzhe Zhang, Ziming Zhao, Siyi Li, Haobin Cai, Xiaodong Chen, Dake Cai, Wei Liu, Yan Yan, Kaifeng Xie, Huafeng Pan, Xiaohui Zeng
Gastric Cancer is one of the most common types of cancer. And the occurrence of gastric carcinoma is an evolutionary histopathological stage. As a result, further research of GPL, which is a borderline of gastric cancer, is indispensable for preventing the formation and development of gastric carcinoma. Several studies have demonstrated a correlation between the expression of autophagy, apoptosis and Gastric cancer (GC). However, the effects of autophagy and apoptosis on human gastric cancer progression, particularly on gastric precancerous lesions (GPL), have not totally been investigated...
May 15, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775863/superoxide-o-2-accumulation-contributes-to-symptomless-type-i-nonhost-resistance-of-plants-to-biotrophic-pathogens
#8
András Künstler, Renáta Bacsó, Réka Albert, Balázs Barna, Zoltán Király, Yaser Mohamed Hafez, József Fodor, Ildikó Schwarczinger, Lóránt Király
Nonhost resistance is the most common form of disease resistance exhibited by plants against most pathogenic microorganisms. Type I nonhost resistance is symptomless (i.e. no macroscopically visible cell/tissue death), implying an early halt of pathogen growth. The timing/speed of defences is much more rapid during type I nonhost resistance than during type II nonhost and host ("gene-for-gene") resistance associated with a hypersensitive response (localized necrosis, HR). However, the mechanism(s) underlying symptomless (type I) nonhost resistance is not entirely understood...
May 7, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775862/identification-and-functional-characterization-of-a-max2-ortholog-from-switchgrass-panicum-virgatum-l
#9
Tingting Cheng, Donghua Wang, Yongfeng Wang, Shumeng Zhang, Chao Zhang, Shudong Liu, Yajun Xi, Fengli Sun
Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is a sustainable cellulosic energy crop with high biomass yield on marginal soils. Tillering, an important agronomic characteristic related to biomass production in gramineous plants, is regulated by complex interacting factors, such as plant hormones. Strigolactones (SLs) comprise a novel class of plant hormones that inhibit shoot branching. The MORE AXILLARY GROWTH2 (MAX2)/DWARF 3 (D3)/RAMOSUS (RMS4) genes encode proteins involved in the SL signaling pathway in various plants...
May 15, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775785/integration-of-mirna-weighted-gene-co-expression-network-and-mirna-mrna-co-expression-analyses-reveals-potential-regulatory-functions-of-mirnas-in-calf-rumen-development
#10
Duy N Do, Pier-Luc Dudemaine, Bridget E Fomenky, Eveline M Ibeagha-Awemu
This study aimed to explore the roles of microRNAs (miRNAs) in calf rumen development during early life. Rumen tissues were collected from 16 calves (8 at pre-weaning and 8 at post-weaning) for miRNA-sequencing, differential expression (DE), miRNA weighted gene co-expression network (WGCNA) and miRNA-mRNA co-expression analyses. 295 miRNAs were identified. Bta-miR-143, miR-26a, miR-145 and miR-27b were the most abundantly expressed. 122 miRNAs were significantly DE between the pre- and post-weaning periods and the most up- and down-regulated miRNAs were bta-miR-29b and bta-miR-493, respectively...
May 15, 2018: Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775782/network-based-expression-analyses-and-experimental-validations-revealed-high-co-expression-between-yap1-and-stem-cell-markers-compared-to-differentiated-cells
#11
Fariba Dehghanian, Zohreh Hojati, Fariba Esmaeili, Ali Masoudi-Nejad
The Hippo signaling pathway is identified as a potential regulatory pathway which plays critical roles in differentiation and stem cell self-renewal. Yap1 is a primary transcriptional effector of this pathway. The importance of Yap1 in embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and differentiation procedure remains a challenging question, since two different observations have been reported. To answer this question we used co-expression network and differential co-expression analyses followed by experimental validations. Our results indicate that Yap1 is highly co-expressed with stem cell markers in ESCs but not in differentiated cells (DCs)...
May 15, 2018: Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775758/lncrna-prncr1-regulates-osteogenic-differentiation-in-osteolysis-after-hip-replacement-by-targeting-mir-211-5p
#12
Zong-Ming Gong, Zhen-Yu Tang, Xiao-Liang Sun
BACKGROUND: Osteogenic differentiation and osteolysis after hip replacement are both associated with bone metabolism. Interaction between lncRNA PRNCR1 and miR-211-5p was analyzed to illuminate their roles in osteogenic differentiation and osteolysis. METHODS: The expression of PRNCR1, miR-211-5p and C-X-C chemokine receptor-4 (CXCR4) protein in tissues and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were determined by qRT-PCR and Western blot, separately. The osteogenic differentiation was assessed by ALP activity detection and ARS staining...
May 15, 2018: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775756/pkm2-a-potential-target-for-regulating-cancer
#13
REVIEW
Yu-Huan Li, Xiao-Feng Li, Jia-Tao Liu, Hua Wang, Lu-Lu Fan, Jun Li, Guo-Ping Sun
Aberrated glucose metabolism is a key future of cancer cells. Unlike normal cells, tumor cells favor glycolysis even in the presence of sufficient oxygen. Pyruvate kinase (PK), a key glucose metabolic enzyme, converts phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) to pyruvate by transferring the high-energy phosphate group to adenosine diphosphate (ADP) to produce adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2), one of the four isozyme of PK, which universally expressed in rapidly proliferating cells such as embryonic cells and cancer cells...
May 15, 2018: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775754/effects-of-micrornas-on-skeletal-muscle-development
#14
REVIEW
J Wang, L Z Yang, J S Zhang, J X Gong, Y H Wang, C L Zhang, H Chen, X T Fang
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small (about 22 nucleotides) noncoding RNAs, which were highly conserved among mammals. They have ushered in a new era in molecular biology over twenty years. They can negatively regulate gene expression at the posttranscriptional level through the principle of complementary base pairing with the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of their target mRNAs and induce their degradation. They involve in tissue morphogenesis, cellular processes like apoptosis, and major signaling pathways. Previous studies have promoted our understanding that miRNAs play an important role in myogenesis and have a big impact on muscle mass, muscle fiber type and muscle diseases...
May 15, 2018: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775750/the-effects-of-capn1-gene-inactivation-on-the-differential-expression-of-genes-in-skeletal-muscle
#15
William T Olive, Brittney N Keel, Amanda K Lindholm-Perry, Justyna Horodyska, Andrew P Foote
Protein turnover is required for muscle growth and regeneration and several proteolytic enzymes, including the calpains, degrade myofibrillar proteins during this process. In a previous experiment, phenotypic differences were observed between μ-calpain knockout (KO) and wild type (WT) mice, including nutrient accretion and fiber type differences. These changes were particularly evident as the animals aged. Thus, we utilized 18 mice (9 KO and 9 WT) to compare transcript abundance to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) at 52 wk of age...
May 15, 2018: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775749/a-novel-oncogene-urg4-urgcp-and-its-role-in-cancer
#16
REVIEW
Yavuz Dodurga, Mücahit Seçme, N Lale Şatıroğlu-Tufan
Oncogenes are mutated form of normal cellular genes called as proto-oncogenes and conduce to the cancer development process. Despite the fact that so many genes have been described, new genes with oncogenic characteristic and potential or tumor supressoring activity are still being defined. Recently, Up-regulated gene 4/Upregulator of cell proliferation (URG4/URGCP), a novel gene, induced by hepatitis-Bvirus-encoded X antigen (HBxAg), has been identified. URG4/URGCP gene was registered to the National Center for Biotechnology Information-GenBank (NCBI-GenBank, Entrez GeneID: 55665 and Entrez Nucleotide ID NM_017920)...
May 15, 2018: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775740/eriocheir-sinensis-microrna-7-targets-crab-myd88-to-enhance-white-spot-syndrome-virus-replication
#17
Ying Huang, Wen Wang, Zhiqiang Xu, Jianlin Pan, Zhe Zhao, Qian Ren
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression at the posttranscriptional level. In this study, the function of microRNA-7 (miR-7) in host-virus interaction was investigated. Replication of White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) was enhanced with the overexpression of miR-7 and inhibited with the downregulation of miR-7 by using anti-miRNA oligonucleotide AMO-miR-7. The target gene of miR-7 was predicted using bioinformatics methods. Results showed that crab myeloid differentiation factor 88 (Myd88) could be targeted by miR-7...
May 15, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775679/identification-and-validation-of-midbrain-kcnq4-regulation-of-heavy-alcohol-consumption-in-rodents
#18
Natalie S McGuier, Jennifer A Rinker, Reginald Cannady, Diana B Fulmer, Sara R Jones, Michaela Hoffman, Patrick J Mulholland
Currently available pharmacotherapies for treating alcohol use disorder (AUD) suffer from deleterious side effects and are not efficacious in diverse populations. Clinical and preclinical studies provide evidence that the Kcnq family of genes that encode KV 7 channels influence alcohol intake and dependence. KV 7 channels are a class of slowly activating voltage-dependent K+ channels that regulate neuronal excitability. Studies indicate that the KV 7 channel positive modulator retigabine can decrease dopaminergic neuron firing, alter dopamine (DA) release, and reduce alcohol intake in heavy drinking rodents...
May 15, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775651/molecular-cloning-and-expression-analysis-of-interleukin-1%C3%AE-and-interleukin-1-receptor-type-i-genes-in-yellow-catfish-pelteobagrus-fulvidraco-responses-to-challenge-of-edwardsiella-ictaluri
#19
Chen-Lei Liao, Gui-Rong Zhang, Dong-Mei Zhu, Wei Ji, Ze-Chao Shi, Rui Jiang, Qi-Xue Fan, Kai-Jian Wei
Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) is one of the pivotal early pro-inflammatory cytokines, which play important roles in regulating immune response and inducing a series of inflammatory reactions to infections. Interleukin-1 type I receptor (IL-1RI) is a receptor of the IL-1β that can mediate IL-1-dependent activation. In this study, partial cDNA sequences of the Pf_IL-1β and Pf_IL-1RI genes were cloned from yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco). The open reading frames (ORF) of Pf_IL-1β and Pf_IL-1RI genes encode putative peptides of 280 and 543 amino acids, respectively...
May 15, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775626/microrna-21-up-regulates-metalloprotease-by-down-regulating-timp3-during-cumulus-cell-oocyte-complex-in-vitro-maturation
#20
Bo Pan, Julang Li
Cumulus cells and the remodeling of their extracellular matrix around oocytes are essential for oocyte maturation and ovulation in the ovary. An important extracellular metalloprotease, ADAMTS1, and its partner VERSICAN, mediate essential cumulus-oocyte-complex (COC) structural remodeling. However, how the expression of these proteinases is regulated during oocyte maturation is unclear. Here we report that both ADAMTS1 and VERSICAN significantly increased in porcine cumulus cells during COC in vitro maturation (IVM)...
May 15, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
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