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Gene expression regulation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353457/fasting-and-fast-food-diet-play-an-opposite-role-in-mice-brain-aging
#1
Paola Castrogiovanni, Giovanni Li Volti, Cristina Sanfilippo, Daniele Tibullo, Fabio Galvano, Michele Vecchio, Roberto Avola, Ignazio Barbagallo, Lucia Malaguarnera, Sergio Castorina, Giuseppe Musumeci, Rosa Imbesi, Michelino Di Rosa
Fasting may be exploited as a possible strategy for prevention and treatment of several diseases such as diabetes, obesity, and aging. On the other hand, high-fat diet (HFD) represents a risk factor for several diseases and increased mortality. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of fasting on mouse brain aging transcriptome and how HFD regulates such pathways. We used the NCBI Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database, in order to identify suitable microarray datasets comparing mouse brain transcriptome under fasting or HFD vs aged mouse brain transcriptome...
January 20, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353445/hypermethylation-of-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-activating-protein-like-nkapl-promoter-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma-suppresses-its-expression-and-predicts-a-poor-prognosis
#2
Patrick Kwok Shing Ng, Carol Po Ying Lau, Emily Kai Yee Lam, Sheila Sai Kam Li, Vivian Wai Yan Lui, Winnie Yeo, Yuen Keng Ng, Paul Bo San Lai, Stephen Kwok Wing Tsui
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a complicated disease with low survival rate partially due to frequent recurrence and no efficient therapy. Promoter hypermethylation of tumor suppressor genes has been demonstrated as one of the molecular mechanisms contributing to tumorigenesis and progression in HCC. This study aims to investigate regulation of NKAPL expression by promoter methylation and its clinical relevance as a biomarker for HCC. METHODS: We measured mRNA expression of NKAPL in 5 HCC cell lines and a cohort of 62 pairs of primary HCC tumor and their adjacent non-cancer liver tissues...
January 20, 2018: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353412/helicobacter-pylori-lps-induced-gastric-mucosal-spleen-tyrosine-kinase-syk-recruitment-to-tlr4-and-activation-occurs-with-the-involvement-of-protein-kinase-c%C3%AE
#3
B L Slomiany, A Slomiany
Spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) has emerged recently as a major effector of proinflammatory genes expression induced by LPS-elicited TLR4 activation, and manifested by the up-amplification in the production of inflammatory mediators, including PGE2 and NO. Here, we investigated the nature of factors involved in the recruitment and interaction of Syk with TLR4 in gastric mucosa in response to H. pylori LPS. We show that stimulation of gastric mucosal cells with the LPS leads to localization of Syk with the membrane-associated TLR4 complex and its activation through phosphorylation on Tyr...
January 20, 2018: Inflammopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353404/dna-methylation-rather-than-single-nucleotide-polymorphisms-regulates-the-production-of-an-aberrant-splice-variant-of-il6r-in-mastitic-cows
#4
Yan Zhang, Xiuge Wang, Qiang Jiang, Haisheng Hao, Zhihua Ju, Chunhong Yang, Yan Sun, Changfa Wang, Jifeng Zhong, Jinming Huang, Huabin Zhu
Interleukin-6 receptor-alpha (IL6R) interacts with IL6 and forms a ligand-receptor complex, which can stimulate various cellular responses, such as cell proliferation, cell differentiation, and activation of inflammatory processes. Both genetic mutation and epigenetic modification regulate gene transcription. We identified a novel splice variant of bovine IL6R, designated as IL6R-TV, which is characterized by the skipping of exon 2 of the NCBI-referenced IL6R gene (IL6R-reference). The expression levels of IL6R-TV and IL6R-reference transcripts were lower in normal mammary gland tissues...
January 20, 2018: Cell Stress & Chaperones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353144/effects-of-the-hdac-inhibitor-scriptaid-on-the-in%C3%A2-vitro-development-of-bovine-embryos-and-on-imprinting-gene-expression-levels
#5
R Laguna-Barraza, M J Sánchez-Calabuig, A Gutiérrez-Adán, D Rizos, S Pérez-Cerezales
This study examines the effects of the histone deacetylation inhibitor scriptaid (SCR) on preimplantation embryo development in vitro and on imprinting gene expression. We hypothesized that SCR would increase histone acetylation levels, enhance embryonic genome activation, and regulate imprinting and X-chromosome inactivation (XCI) in in vitro produced bovine embryos. Zygotes were cultured in vitro in presence or absence of SCR added at different time points. We assessed cleavage and blastocyst rates as well as the quality of blastocysts through: (i) differential cell counts; (ii) survival after vitrification/thawing and (iii) gene expression analysis -including imprinted genes...
January 11, 2018: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353142/mirna-185-regulates-the-vegfa-signaling-pathway-in-dairy-cows-with-retained-fetal-membranes
#6
REVIEW
C Y Zheng, X Zou, H J Lin, B C Zhao, M L Zhang, C H Luo, S X Fu
Retention of fetal membranes (RFM) of cows is an important reproductive disturbance, and is related to miRNAs. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)A, regulated by miRNA-185, can activate arachidonic acid (ARA) release via the VEGFA signaling pathway, which influences RFM. The aim of this study was to explore the pathogenic mechanism of RFM by investigating the regulatory relationship between miRNA-185 and the VEGFA signaling pathway. Serum samples of healthy Holstein dairy cows (n = 20) and RFM cows (n = 12), with a similar age, parity, weight, and milk yield, were collected to detect VEGFA and ARA concentrations at 6, 12, and 24 h after calving...
January 9, 2018: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353135/copper-induces-expression-and-methylation-changes-of-early-development-genes-in-crassostrea-gigas-embryos
#7
Rossana Sussarellu, Morgane Lebreton, Julien Rouxel, Farida Akcha, Guillaume Rivière
Copper contamination is widespread along coastal areas and exerts adverse effects on marine organisms such as mollusks. In the Pacific oyster, copper induces severe developmental abnormalities during early life stages; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms are largely unknown. This study aims to better understand whether the embryotoxic effects of copper in Crassostrea gigas could be mediated by alterations in gene expression, and the putative role of DNA methylation, which is known to contribute to gene regulation in early embryo development...
January 3, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353130/serum-mir-1181-and-mir-4314-associated-with-ovarian-cancer-mirna-microarray-data-analysis-for-a-pilot-study
#8
Lihong Ruan, Yuanyuan Xie, Fangmei Liu, Xuehua Chen
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to identify serum microRNAs (miRNAs) related to ovarian cancer. STUDY DESIGN: MiRNA profiling data (GSE79943) were generated from the Gene Expression Omnibus, including 3 serum samples from healthy individuals and 4/3/16/6 serum samples from patients with ovarian cancer stage I/II/III/IV. Differentially expressed miRNAs (DEmiRNAs) were identified between controls and ovarian cancer stage I/II/III/IV by using limma package (p-value <0...
January 9, 2018: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353077/classification-of-heterogeneous-genetic-variations-of-microrna-regulome-in-cancer
#9
Karin Hrovatin, Tanja Kunej
Genetic variations and differential expression of miRNA regulome components are associated with cancer. Thus miRNA based diagnosis and treatments have been proposed. However, to better explore these options, the molecular changes in miRNA regulome must be understood. MicroRNAs can be involved in regulation of oncogenes and tumour suppressors. As each miRNA targets broad range of genes, minor changes in miRNAs can have great effects, contributing to cell transformation. Many genetic variants of miRNA regulome have been reported to be associated with cancer, but this information needs to be systematized...
January 15, 2018: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353058/chd7-is-critical-for-early-t-cell-development-and-thymus-organogenesis-in-zebrafish
#10
Zhi-Zhi Liu, Zi-Long Wang, Tae-Ik Choi, Wen-Ting Huang, Han-Tsing Wang, Ying-Ying Han, Lou-Yin Zhu, Hyun-Taek Kim, Jung-Hwa Choi, Jin-Soo Lee, Hyung-Goo Kim, Jian Zhao, Yue Chen, Zhuo Lu, Xiao-Li Tian, Bing-Xing Pan, Bao-Ming Li, Cheol-Hee Kim, Hong Xu
CHARGE syndrome is a congenital disorder affecting multiple organs and mainly caused by mutations in CHD7, a gene encoding a chromatin-remodeling protein. Immunodeficiency and reduced T-cells have been noted in CHARGE syndrome. However, the mechanisms underlying T-lymphopenia are largely unexplored. Here, we observed dramatic decrease of T cells in both chd7-knockdown and -knockout zebrafish embryos. Unexpectedly, hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells and, particularly, lymphoid progenitor cells were increased peripherally in nonthymic areas in chd7-deficient embryos, unlikely to contribute to the T cell decrease...
January 15, 2018: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353053/conditional-inactivation-of-npy1r-gene-in-mice-induces-behavioural-inflexibility-and-orbitofrontal-cortex-hyperactivity-that-are-reversed-by-escitalopram
#11
Angela Longo, Melissa Fadda, Claudio Brasso, Paolo Mele, Paola Palanza, Ishira Nanavaty, Ilaria Bertocchi, Alessandra Oberto, Carola Eva
Cognitive flexibility is the ability to rapidly adapt established patterns of behaviour in the face of changing circumstance and depends critically on the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). Impaired flexibility also results from altered serotonin transmission in the OFC. The Y1 (Y1R) and Y5 (Y5R) receptors for neuropeptide Y (NPY) colocalize in several brain regions and have overlapping functions in regulating cognition and emotional behaviour. The targeted disruption of gene encoding Y1R (Npy1r gene) in Y5R containing neurons (Npy1rY5R-/- mice) increases anxiety-like behaviour and spatial reference memory...
January 15, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353044/bmp4-signaling-in-npcs-upregulates-bcl-xl-to-promote-their-survival-in-the-presence-of-fgf-2
#12
Hanako Yamamoto, Masashi Kurachi, Masae Naruse, Koji Shibasaki, Yasuki Ishizaki
We previously reported that BMP4 does not promote proliferation or differentiation of CD44-positive astrocyte precursor cells (APCs) but greatly promotes their survival in the presence of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2). In this study, we examined if BMP4 acts as a survival factor also for neural stem/progenitor cells (NPCs) isolated from ganglionic eminence of neonatal mouse brain. We found BMP4 promotes survival but not proliferation or differentiation of these cells, just as in the case for CD44-positive APCs...
January 15, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353042/ginkgolic-acid-induces-interplay-between-apoptosis-and-autophagy-regulated-by-ros-generation-in-colon-cancer
#13
Yuxia Liu, Bin Yang, Lirong Zhang, Xianling Cong, Zhen Liu, Yu Hu, Jing Zhang, Haixia Hu
Presently, developing effective anti-colon cancer drugs still remains to be important. Ginkgolic acids (GA), as a botanical drug extracted from the seed coat of Ginkgo biloba L., possess various bioactive properties. Our findings, for the first time, indicated that GA suppressed colon cancer cell proliferation, migration and invasion. GA led to cell death through G0/G1 phase arrest. In addition, apoptosis was significantly induced by GA treatment. The intrinsic apoptosis pathway was included, proved by the release of cytochrome c (Cyto-c) from the mitochondria into the cytosol...
January 15, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353038/cereblon-crbn-deletion-reverses-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-osteoporosis-in-mice
#14
Cong Yao, Xiong Guo, Wan-Xia Yao, Chun Zhang
Diabetes mellitus is a major cause to induce osteoporosis. Though the pathogenesis of osteoporosis progression has been well investigated, its still not fully understood. Recently, cereblon (CRBN) was considered as a negative modulator of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in vitro and in vivo. Here, we presented results indicating that CRBN could effectively regulate osteoporosis development. In STZ-induced wild type (WT) mice with diabetes, the osteoclasts were highly increased along with the deterioration of bone structure...
January 15, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352984/spcrus3-and-spcrus4-share-high-similarity-in-mud-crab-scylla-paramamosain-exhibiting-different-antibacterial-activities
#15
Yue Wang, Xiao-Wen Zhang, Hui Wang, Wen-Hong Fang, Hongyu Ma, Fengxia Zhang, Yuan Wang, Xin-Cang Li
Type I crustins are crucial effectors of crustacean immune system. Various type I crustins with high sequence diversity possess different antimicrobial activities. To date, the mechanism on how the sequence diversity of type I crustins affects their antimicrobial activities is largely unclear, and how different crustins function together against bacterial invasion still remains unknown. In this study, we identified two novel type I crustins, namely, SpCrus3 and SpCrus4, from an economically important crab, Scylla paramamosain...
January 15, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352962/improved-systemic-metabolism-and-adipocyte-biology-in-mir-150-knockout-mice
#16
Minsung Kang, Xiaobing Liu, Yuchang Fu, W Timothy Garvey
INTRODUCTION: Short non-coding micro-RNAs (miRNAs) are post-transcriptional factors that directly regulate protein expression by degrading or inhibiting target mRNAs; however, the role of miRNAs in obesity and cardiometabolic disease remains unclarified. Based on our earlier study demonstrating that miR-150 influences lipid metabolism, we have studied effects of miR-150 on systemic metabolism and adipocyte biology. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Metabolic phenotypes including body weight, food intake, body composition, glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity were assessed in WT and global miR-150 KO male mice fed a high-fat diet...
January 15, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352810/ectopic-expression-of-the-apple-nucleus-encoded-thylakoid-protein-mdy3ip1-triggers-early-flowering-and-enhanced-salt-tolerance-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#17
Jian-Qiang Yu, Jia-Hui Wang, Cui-Hui Sun, Quan-Yan Zhang, Da-Gang Hu, Yu-Jin Hao
BACKGROUND: The roles in photosystem I (PSI) assembly of the nucleus-encoded thylakoid protein Y3IP1 who interacts with the plastid-encoded Ycf3 protein that has been well-characterized in plants. However, its function and potential mechanisms in other aspects remain poorly understood. RESULTS: We identified the apple MdY3IP1 gene, which encodes a protein highly homologous to the Arabidopsis Y3IP1 (AtY3IP1). Ectopic expression of MdY3IP1 triggered early-flowering and enhanced salt tolerance in Arabidopsis plants...
January 20, 2018: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352731/induced-cumulus-expansion-of-poor-quality-buffalo-cumulus-oocyte-complexes-by-interleukin-1beta-improves-their-developmental-ability
#18
Gaurav Kumar Chaubey, Sandeep Kumar, Manish Kumar, Parul Sarwalia, Arumugam Kumaresan, Sachinandan De, Rakesh Kumar, Tirtha Kumar Datta
The present study was conceived with the aim of modulating the cumulus expansion characteristics of poor quality (BCB-) buffalo oocyte complexes (COCs) in order to improve their fertilization outcomes. BCB- COCs were subjected to in vitro maturation (IVM) in presence of Interleukin - 1 beta (IL-1β) along with BCB- (control) and good quality (BCB +) COCs. Results were assessed morphologically, by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and by expression analysis of cumulus expansion related genes. Also, numbers of zona pellucida bound spermatozoa were counted and development rates of oocytes were monitored under different groups...
January 20, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352661/mechanistic-insights-into-the-genetics-of-affective-psychosis-from-prader-willi-syndrome
#19
REVIEW
Lucie C S Aman, Katherine E Manning, Joyce E Whittington, Anthony J Holland
Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are common, severe, and disabling psychotic disorders, which are difficult to research. We argue that the genetically determined neurodevelopmental disorder Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS), which is associated with a high risk of affective psychotic illness, can provide a window into genetic mechanisms and associated neural pathways. People with PWS can all show non-psychotic psychopathology and problem behaviours, but the prevalence of psychotic illness differs markedly by genetic subtype; people with PWS due to chromosome 15 maternal uniparental disomy have higher prevalence of psychotic illness compared with patients with PWS due to 15q11-13 deletions of paternal origin...
January 15, 2018: Lancet Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352658/role-of-hypoxia-inducible-factor-1-in-the-development-of-renal-fibrosis-in-mouse-obstructed-kidney-special-references-to-hif-1-dependent-gene-expression-of-profibrogenic-molecules
#20
Kazuya Kabei, Yu Tateishi, Masakazu Nozaki, Masako Tanaka, Masayuki Shiota, Mayuko Osada-Oka, Shunji Nishide, Junji Uchida, Tatsuya Nakatani, Shuhei Tomita, Katsuyuki Miura
The aim of the study is to clarify the role of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) in the development of renal fibrosis in mouse obstructive nephropathy. We used mice with floxed HIF-1α alleles and tamoxifen-inducible Cre/ERT2 recombinase under ubiquitin C promoter to induce global HIF-1α deletion. Following tamoxifen administration, mice were subjected to unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO). At 3, 7 and 14 days after UUO, renal gene expression profiles and interstitial fibrosis were assessed. HIF-1 dependent up-regulation of prolyl hydroxylase 3 and glucose transporter-1 was observed in the obstructed kidney at 3 and 7 days but not at 14 days after UUO...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
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