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Justin Rashtian, John Zhang
In older women with severe diminished ovarian response (DOR), in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment is much less successful due to the low number of mature oocytes collected. The objective of this study was to assess whether follicular-phase stimulation (FPS) and luteal-phase stimulation (LPS) in the same menstrual cycle (double ovarian stimulation) in older women with severe DOR will produce a higher number of oocytes compared to FPS alone. Women with DOR (n = 69; mean age = 42.4) who underwent double ovarian stimulation for IVF were included...
March 22, 2018: Systems Biology in Reproductive Medicine
Anita Tewari, Jasbir Bedi, Baljit Singh, Jatinder Paul Singh Gill
The deltamethrin, a synthetic pyrethroid, is used worldwide and has been linked with several type of acute toxicity. However, effect of low level of deltamethrin alone or in combination with the microbial antigen on pulmonary system is not understood. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was used as antigen which is a key inflammatory component of gram-negative bacteria, which induces a distinctive pattern of cytokine release that regulates inflammation. The aim was to determine whether chronic exposure to a low level of deltamethrin alone or in combination with LPS impair the lung response in adult male Swiss albino mice...
March 22, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Jung Sook Yeom, Chung Mo Koo, Ji Sook Park, Ji-Hyun Seo, Eun Sil Park, Jae-Young Lim, Hyang-Ok Woo, Hee-Shang Youn
We report the case of a 12-year-old girl who had mild encephalopathy with a reversible splenial lesion (MERS) associated with acutepyelonephritis caused by Escherichia coli . The patient was admitted with a high fever, and she was diagnosed with acute pyelonephritis based on pyuria and the results of urine culture, which detected cefotaxime-sensitive E. coli . Although intravenous cefotaxime and tobramycin were administered, her fever persisted and her C-reactive protein level increased to 307 mg/L. On day 3 of admission, she demonstrated abnormal neuropsychiatric symptoms, such as delirium, ataxia, and word salad...
February 2018: Korean Journal of Pediatrics
Hozeifa M Hassan, Bashir A Yousef, Hongli Guo, Liu Xiaoxin, Luyong Zhang, Zhenzhou Jiang
Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the oldest infectious diseases that affected humankind and remains one of the world's deadliest communicable diseases that could be considered as global emergency, but the discovery and development of isoniazid (INH) in the 1950s paved the way to an effective single and/or combined first-line anti-TB therapy. However, administration of INH induces severe hepatic toxicity in some patients. Previously, we establish a rat model of INH hepatotoxicity utilizing the inflammatory stress theory, in which bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) potentially enhanced INH toxicity...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Pietro Presicce, Chan-Wook Park, Paranthaman Senthamaraikannan, Sandip Bhattacharyya, Courtney Jackson, Fansheng Kong, Cesar M Rueda, Emily DeFranco, Lisa A Miller, David A Hildeman, Nathan Salomonis, Claire A Chougnet, Alan H Jobe, Suhas G Kallapur
Neutrophil infiltration of the chorioamnion-decidua tissue at the maternal-fetal interface (chorioamnionitis) is a leading cause of prematurity, fetal inflammation, and perinatal mortality. We induced chorioamnionitis in preterm rhesus macaques by intraamniotic injection of LPS. Here, we show that, during chorioamnionitis, the amnion upregulated phospho-IRAK1-expressed neutrophil chemoattractants CXCL8 and CSF3 in an IL-1-dependent manner. IL-1R blockade decreased chorio-decidua neutrophil accumulation, neutrophil activation, and IL-6 and prostaglandin E2 concentrations in the amniotic fluid...
March 22, 2018: JCI Insight
Huachun Cui, Sami Banerjee, Sijia Guo, Na Xie, Gang Liu
Rapid initiation and timely resolution of inflammatory response in macrophages are synergistic events that are known to be equally critical to optimal host defense against pathogen infections. However, the regulation of these processes, in particular by a specific cellular metabolic program, has not been well understood. In this study, we found that IFN regulatory factor 2 (IRF2) underwent an early degradation in a proteasome-mediated pathway in LPS-treated mouse macrophages, followed by a later recovery of the expression via transactivation...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Chunjing Yang, Longtai You, Xingbin Yin, Yi Liu, Xin Leng, Wenping Wang, Na Sai, Jian Ni
Heterophyllin B (HB), an active cyclic peptide, is a compound existing in the ethyl acetate extract of Pseudostellaria heterophylla (Miq.) Pax and exhibited the activity of inhibiting the production of NO and cytokines, such as IL-1β and IL-6, in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. In addition, HB suppressed the production of ROS and the apoptosis induced by LPS in RAW 264.7 macrophages. The underlying mechanism was investigated in the LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells. The results showed that HB decreased the level of IL-1β and IL-6 expression by qRT-PCR analysis...
March 21, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Lucas C Klemm, Evan Czerwonka, Mary L Hall, Philip G Williams, Alejandro M S Mayer
Cosmopolitan Gram-negative cyanobacteria may affect human and animal health by contaminating terrestrial, marine and freshwater environments with toxins, such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The cyanobacterial genus Scytonema ( S ) produces several toxins, but to our knowledge the bioactivity of genus Scytonema LPS has not been investigated. We recently reported that cyanobacterium Oscillatoria sp. LPS elicited classical and alternative activation of rat microglia in vitro. Thus, we hypothesized that treatment of brain microglia in vitro with either cyanobacteria S...
March 21, 2018: Toxins
Nicolás De Silva, Mirian Samblas, J Alfredo Martínez, Fermín I Milagro
Obesity is usually associated with low-grade inflammation, which determines the appearance of comorbidities like atherosclerosis and insulin resistance. Infiltrated macrophages in adipose tissue are partly responsible of this inflammatory condition. Numerous studies point to the existence of close intercommunication between macrophages and adipocytes and pay particular attention to the proinflammatory cytokines released by both cell types. However, it has been recently described that in both, circulation and tissue level, there are extracellular vesicles (including microvesicles and exosomes) containing miRNAs, mRNAs, and proteins that can influence the inflammatory response...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
Safia Ladha, Xiaofan Qiu, Lorenzo Casal, Nicholas S Caron, Dagmar E Ehrnhoefer, Michael R Hayden
Traditionally, the family of caspases has been subcategorised according to their respective main roles in mediating apoptosis or inflammation. However, recent studies have revealed that caspases participate in diverse cellular functions beyond their canonical roles. Caspase-6 (C6) is one such protease known for its role as a pro-apoptotic executioner caspase and its aberrant activity in several neurodegenerative diseases. In addition to apoptosis, C6 has been shown to regulate B-cell activation and differentiation in plasma cells as well as macrophage activation...
2018: Cell Death Discovery
Peng Cui, Hongxia Niu, Wanliang Shi, Shuo Zhang, Wenhong Zhang, Ying Zhang
Persister cells are metabolically quiescent multi-drug tolerant fraction of a genetically sensitive bacterial population and are thought to be responsible for relapse of many persistent infections. Persisters can be formed naturally in the stationary phase culture, and also can be induced by bacteriostatic antibiotics. However, the molecular basis of bacteriostatic antibiotic induced persister formation is unknown. Here, we established a bacteriostatic antibiotic induced persister model and screened the Escherichia coli single gene deletion mutant library for mutants with defect in rifampin or tetracycline induced persistence to ofloxacin...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Umberto Crisafulli, André M Xavier, Fabiana B Dos Santos, Tavane D Cambiaghi, Seo Y Chang, Marimélia Porcionatto, Beatriz A Castilho, Bettina Malnic, Isaias Glezer
Chronic inflammatory process in the nasal mucosa is correlated with poor smell perception. Over-activation of immune cells in the olfactory epithelium (OE) is generally associated with loss of olfactory function, and topical steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs have been largely used for treating such condition. Whether this therapeutic strategy could directly affect the regenerative process in the OE remains unclear. In this study, we show that nasal topical application of dexamethasone (DEX; 200 or 800 ng/nostril), a potent synthetic anti-inflammatory steroid, attenuates OE lesion caused by Gram-negative bacteria lipopolysaccharide (LPS) intranasal infusion...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Johannes Jägers, Stephan Brauckmann, Michael Kirsch, Katharina Effenberger-Neidnicht
Background: Systemic inflammation alters energy metabolism. A sufficient glucose level, however, is most important for erythrocytes, since erythrocytes rely on glucose as sole source of energy. Damage to erythrocytes leads to hemolysis. Both disorders of glucose metabolism and hemolysis are associated with an increased risk of death. The objective of the study was to investigate the impact of intravenous glucose on hemolysis during systemic inflammation. Materials and methods: Systemic inflammation was accomplished in male Wistar rats by continuous lipopolysaccharide (LPS) infusion (1 mg LPS/kg and h, 300 min)...
2018: Journal of Inflammation Research
Kerrie L May, Thomas J Silhavy
The outer membrane (OM) bilayer of Gram-negative bacteria is biologically unique in its asymmetrical organization of lipids, with an inner leaflet composed of glycerophospholipids (PLs) and a surface-exposed outer leaflet composed of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). This lipid organization is integral to the OM's barrier properties. Perturbations of the outer leaflet by antimicrobial peptides or defects in LPS biosynthesis or transport to the OM cause a compensatory flipping of PLs to the outer leaflet. As a result, lipid asymmetry is disrupted and OM integrity is compromised...
March 20, 2018: MBio
Dina A Schneider, Soo-Ho Choi, Colin Agatisa-Boyle, Laurence Zhu, Jungsu Kim, Jennifer Pattison, Dorothy D Sears, Philip L S M Gordts, Longhou Fang, Yury I Miller
Apolipoprotein A-I Binding Protein (AIBP) has been shown to augment cholesterol efflux from endothelial cells and macrophages. In zebrafish and mice, AIBP-mediated regulation of cholesterol levels in the plasma membrane of endothelial cells controls angiogenesis. The goal of this work was to evaluate metabolic changes and atherosclerosis in AIBP loss-of-function and gain-of-function animal studies. Here we show that Apoa1bp-/-Ldlr-/- mice fed a high-cholesterol, high-fat diet had exacerbated weight gain, liver steatosis, glucose intolerance, hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia, and larger atherosclerotic lesions compared to Ldlr-/- mice...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Lipid Research
Fang Wang, Yalong Dang, Jing Wang, Ting Zhou, Yu Zhu
PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of gypenosides (GPs) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced optic neuritis rats. METHODS: Optic neuritis was induced by a single microinjection of LPS into the optic nerve of Sprague Dawley rats. GPs (400 mg/kg) was administrated by gavage for 21 days. The optic nerve structure changes and demyelination were observed after hematoxylin & eosin and Luxol-fast blue staining. Apoptosis of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) was evaluated using Brn3a-TUNEL double staining...
March 17, 2018: Acta Histochemica
Shuhua Lai, Gangwei Wu, Zhixian Jiang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Impaired fear memory extinction is widely considered a key mechanism of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Recent studies have suggested that neuroinflammation after a single prolonged stress (SPS) exposure may play a critical role in the impaired fear memory extinction. Studies have shown that high mobility group box chromosomal protein 1 (HMGB-1) is critically involved in neuroinflammation. However, the role of HMGB-1 underlying the development of impairment of fear memory extinction is still not known...
March 16, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Fang Guo, Yong Zou, Yongjiang Zheng
Moracin M, a phenolic component obtained from Mori Cortex, has been reported to have anti-inflammatory activities. The present study was designed to investigate the effects and mechanisms of Moracin M on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated nucleus pulposus cells (NPCs) in intervertebral disc. NPCs were treated with moracin M at different concentrations for 1 h and then stimulated with LPS (0.5 μg/mL) for 24 h. The result demonstrated that moracin M could significantly inhibit LPS-induced inflammation. The elevated levels of IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-6 induced by LPS could be reversed by moracin M in NPCs...
March 17, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
Kirsten Glaser, Christine Silwedel, Markus Fehrholz, Birgit Henrich, Ana Maria Waaga-Gasser, Heike Claus, Christian P Speer
Being generally regarded as commensal bacteria, the pro-inflammatory capacity of Ureaplasma species has long been debated. Recently, we confirmed Ureaplasma-driven pro-inflammatory cytokine responses and a disturbance of cytokine equilibrium in primary human monocytes in vitro. The present study addressed the expression of CC chemokines and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) in purified term neonatal and adult monocytes stimulated with serovar 8 of Ureaplasma urealyticum (Uu) and serovar 3 of U. parvum (Up)...
2018: PloS One
Simone Muniz Pacheco, Juliana Hofstätter Azambuja, Taíse Rosa de Carvalho, Mayara Sandrielly Pereira Soares, Pathise Souto Oliveira, Elita Ferreira da Silveira, Francieli Moro Stefanello, Elizandra Braganhol, Jessié Martins Gutierres, Roselia Maria Spanevello
Altered astrocytic function is a contributing factor to the development of neurological diseases and neurodegeneration. Berry fruits exert neuroprotective effects by modulating pathways involved in inflammation, neurotransmission, and oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of the lingonberry extract on cellular viability and oxidative stress in astrocytes exposed to lipopolysaccharide (LPS). In the reversal protocol, primary astrocytic cultures were first exposed to 1 µg/mL LPS for 3 h and subsequently treated with lingonberry extract (10, 30, 50, and 100 μg/mL) for 24 and 48 h...
March 19, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
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