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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750305/progressive-hippocampal-sclerosis-after-viral-encephalitis-potential-role-of-nmda-receptor-antibodies
#1
Stoyan Popkirov, Fatme Seval Ismail, Wenke Grönheit, Monika Kapauer, Jörg Wellmer, Christian G Bien
PURPOSE: Survivors of viral encephalitis can develop refractory epilepsy and hippocampal sclerosis. Both the initial infectious insult and the secondary effects of recurrent seizures have been implicated in chronic disease progression. Recently, post-infectious autoimmunity, involved in acute relapses, has also been proposed as a pathomechanism for chronic disease progression. Our case series suggests a potential role of antibodies against the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) in chronic inflammatory disease beyond acute manifestations...
July 19, 2017: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750087/risk-prediction-of-developing-venous-thrombosis-in-combined-oral-contraceptive-users
#2
Aaron McDaid, Emmanuelle Logette, Valérie Buchillier, Maude Muriset, Pierre Suchon, Thierry Daniel Pache, Goranka Tanackovic, Zoltán Kutalik, Joëlle Michaud
BACKGROUND: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a complex multifactorial disease influenced by genetic and environmental risk factors. An example for the latter is the regular use of combined oral contraceptives (CC), which increases the risk to develop VTE by 3 to 7 fold, depending on estrogen dosage and the type of progestin present in the pill. One out of 1'000 women using CC develops thrombosis, often with life-long consequences; a risk assessment is therefore necessary prior to such treatment...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749643/non-communicable-disease-risk-factors-and-their-trends-in-india
#3
Suzanne Nethan, Dhirendra Sinha, Ravi Mehrotra
Background: India is a populous country of about 1.3 billion. Non communicable diseases (NCDs) contribute to around 5.87 million (60%) of all deaths in India. Hence, the objectives of this paper are to find baseline information on different NCD risk factors coverage and to determine their trends in India. Methods: For this systematic review, PubMed, Google and different surveillance systems were searched. Of the search results, 41 papers/survey reports were eventually assessed for eligibility. National and state representative data on NCD risk factors (for the major NCDs like cardiovascular diseases, chronic respiratory disease, cancer and diabetes) having World Health Organization(WHO) indicator definitions, covering rural and urban population, were included in the study...
July 27, 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749379/theoretical-limits-to-sensitivity-and-resolution-in-magneto-acousto-electrical-tomography
#4
Elyar Ghalichi, Nevzat Guneri Gencer
In this study, the performance of Magneto-Acousto Electrical Tomography (MAET) method is investigated quantitatively by considering interrelations between its sensitivity, resolution and conductivity contrast. An analytical solution for the forward problem of MAET is derived for two-dimensional (2D) concentric bodies by Separation of Variables Method. The electric potential and the acoustic pressure are separated to their angular and radial components. The series coefficients for these solutions are obtained by their respective boundary conditions...
July 27, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748394/association-mapping-analysis-of-fiber-yield-and-quality-traits-in-upland-cotton-gossypium-hirsutum-l
#5
Mulugeta Seyoum Ademe, Shoupu He, Zhaoe Pan, Junling Sun, Qinglian Wang, Hongde Qin, Jinhai Liu, Hui Liu, Jun Yang, Dongyong Xu, Jinlong Yang, Zhiying Ma, Jinbiao Zhang, Zhikun Li, Zhongmin Cai, Xuelin Zhang, Xin Zhang, Aifen Huang, Xianda Yi, Guanyin Zhou, Lin Li, Haiyong Zhu, Baoyin Pang, Liru Wang, Yinhua Jia, Xiongming Du
Fiber yield and quality are the most important traits for Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). Identifying high yield and good fiber quality genes are the prime concern of researchers in cotton breeding. Association mapping offers an alternative and powerful method for detecting those complex agronomic traits. In this study, 198 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were used to screen markers associated with fiber yield and quality traits with 302 elite Upland cotton accessions that were evaluated in 12 locations representing the Yellow River and Yangtze River cotton growing regions of China...
July 26, 2017: Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747871/age-and-glaucoma-related-characteristics-in-retinal-nerve-fiber-layer-and-choroid-localized-morphometrics-and-visualization-using-functional-shapes-registration
#6
Sieun Lee, Morgan L Heisler, Karteek Popuri, Nicolas Charon, Benjamin Charlier, Alain Trouvé, Paul J Mackenzie, Marinko V Sarunic, Mirza Faisal Beg
Optical coherence tomography provides high-resolution 3D imaging of the posterior segment of the eye. However, quantitative morphological analysis, particularly relevant in retinal degenerative diseases such as glaucoma, has been confined to simple sectorization and averaging with limited spatial sensitivity for detection of clinical markers. In this paper, we present point-wise analysis and visualization of the retinal nerve fiber layer and choroid from cross-sectional data using functional shapes (fshape) registration...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747669/compressive-sampling-based-on-frequency-saliency-for-remote-sensing-imaging
#7
Jin Li, Zilong Liu, Fengdeng Liu
In saliency-based compressive sampling (CS) for remote sensing image signals, the saliency information of images is used to allocate more sensing resources to salient regions than to non-salient regions. However, the pulsed cosine transform method can generate large errors in the calculation of saliency information because it uses only the signs of the coefficients of the discrete cosine transform for low-resolution images. In addition, the reconstructed images can exhibit blocking effects because blocks are used as the processing units in CS...
July 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747260/functional-connectivity-of-the-left-dlpfc-to-striatum-predicts-treatment-response-of-depression-to-tms
#8
Michael Avissar, Fon Powell, Irena Ilieva, Matteo Respino, Faith M Gunning, Conor Liston, Marc J Dubin
BACKGROUND: Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a non-invasive, safe, and efficacious treatment for depression. TMS has been shown to normalize abnormal functional connectivity of cortico-cortical circuits in depression and baseline functional connectivity of these circuits predicts treatment response. Less is known about the relationship between functional connectivity of frontostriatal circuits and treatment response. OBJECTIVE/HYPOTHESIS: We investigated whether baseline functional connectivity of distinct frontostriatal circuits predicted response to TMS...
July 13, 2017: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745572/prevalence-of-thalassemia-traits-and-iron-deficiency-anemia-in-sindh-pakistan
#9
Abdul H Kandhro, Virapong Prachayasittikul, Chartchalerm Isarankura Na-Ayudhya, Pornlada Nuchnoi
Among microcytic hypochromic anemias, the most common disorders are iron deficiency anemia and co-pathological conditions such as α- or β-thalassemia (α- or β-thal) traits. The aim of the present study was to determine the frequency and prevalence of iron deficiency anemia and α- or β-thal traits based on clinical laboratory data across different ethnic groups in five districts of Sindh Province, Pakistan. The present retrospective study analyzed 3 years (2012-2015) of encoded and unlinked clinical laboratory data, and identified 3030 microcytic hypochromic anemia cases...
July 26, 2017: Hemoglobin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745454/metal-based-antimicrobial-strategies
#10
Raymond J Turner
Metal based-antimicrobials have potential for profiling sustainability solutions to infection care and health; with biotechnological applications providing novel compounds. Yet they must be used wisely for sustainable use in human and agricultural health with thoughts towards bioremediation for recovery should be considered.
July 26, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745400/voxel-based-magnetic-resonance-image-postprocessing-in-epilepsy
#11
Pascal Martin, Gavin P Winston, Philippa Bartlett, Jane de Tisi, John S Duncan, Niels K Focke
OBJECTIVE: Although the general utility of voxel-based processing of structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data for detecting occult lesions in focal epilepsy is established, many differences exist among studies, and it is unclear which processing method is preferable. The aim of this study was to compare the ability of commonly used methods to detect epileptogenic lesions in magnetic resonance MRI-positive and MRI-negative patients, and to estimate their diagnostic yield. METHODS: We identified 144 presurgical focal epilepsy patients, 15 of whom had a histopathologically proven and MRI-visible focal cortical dysplasia; 129 patients were MRI negative with a clinical hypothesis of seizure origin, 27 of whom had resections...
July 26, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745053/development-of-a-maldi-tof-ms-based-protein-fingerprint-database-of-common-food-fish-allowing-fast-and-reliable-identification-of-fraud-and-substitution
#12
Antje Stahl, Uwe Schröder
Fish substitution and fish fraud are widely observed on the global food market. To detect and prevent substitution, DNA-based methods do not always meet the demand of being time- and cost-efficient; therefore, methodology improvements are needed. The use of species-specific protein patterns, as determined by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry has recently improved species identification of prokaryotes, both time- and cost-wise. We have used the method to establish a database containing protein patterns of common food fish prone to substitution...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745016/associations-between-self-reported-sleep-quality-and-white-matter-in-community-dwelling-older-adults-a-prospective-cohort-study
#13
Claire E Sexton, Enikő Zsoldos, Nicola Filippini, Ludovica Griffanti, Anderson Winkler, Abda Mahmood, Charlotte L Allan, Anya Topiwala, Simon D Kyle, Kai Spiegelhalder, Archana Singh-Manoux, Mika Kivimaki, Clare E Mackay, Heidi Johansen-Berg, Klaus P Ebmeier
Both sleep disturbances and decline in white matter microstructure are commonly observed in ageing populations, as well as in age-related psychiatric and neurological illnesses. A relationship between sleep and white matter microstructure may underlie such relationships, but few imaging studies have directly examined this hypothesis. In a study of 448 community-dwelling members of the Whitehall II Imaging Sub-Study aged between 60 and 82 years (90 female, mean age 69.2 ± 5.1 years), we used the magnetic resonance imaging technique diffusion tensor imaging to examine the relationship between self-reported sleep quality and white matter microstructure...
July 26, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744903/activity-dependent-astrocyte-swelling-is-mediated-by-ph-regulating-mechanisms
#14
Brian Roland Larsen, Nanna MacAulay
During neuronal activity in the mammalian brain, the K(+) released into the synaptic space is initially buffered by the astrocytic compartment. In parallel, the extracellular space (ECS) shrinks, presumably due to astrocytic cell swelling. With the Na(+) /K(+) /2Cl(-) cotransporter and the Kir4.1/AQP4 complex not required for the astrocytic cell swelling in the hippocampus, the molecular mechanisms underlying the activity-dependent ECS shrinkage have remained unresolved. To identify these molecular mechanisms, we employed ion-sensitive microelectrodes to measure changes in ECS, [K(+) ]o and [H(+) ]o /pHo during electrical stimulation of rat hippocampal slices...
July 26, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744682/environmental-risk-assessment-of-blight-resistant-potato-use-of-a-crop-model-to-quantify-nitrogen-cycling-at-scales-of-the-field-and-cropping-system
#15
Mark W Young, Ewen Mullins, Geoffrey R Squire
Environmental risk assessment of GM crops in Europe proceeds by step-wise estimation of effect, first in the plant, then the field plot (e.g. 10-100 m(-2)), field (1000-10,000 m(-2)) and lastly in the environment in which the crop would be grown (100-10,000 km(2)). Processes that operate at large scales, such as cycling of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N), are difficult to predict from plot scales. Here, a procedure is illustrated in which plot scale data on yield (offtake) and N inputs for blight resistant (both GM and non-GM) and blight-susceptible potato are upscaled by a model of crop resource use to give a set of indicators and metrics defining N uptake and release in realistic crop sequences...
July 25, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744243/the-odyssey-of-dental-anxiety-from-prehistory-to-the-present-a-narrative-review
#16
REVIEW
Enrico Facco, Gastone Zanette
Dental anxiety (DA) can be considered as a universal phenomenon with a high prevalence worldwide; DA and pain are also the main causes for medical emergencies in the dental office, so their prevention is an essential part of patient safety and overall quality of care. Being DA and its consequences closely related to the fight-or-flight reaction, it seems reasonable to argue that the odyssey of DA began way back in the distant past, and has since probably evolved in parallel with the development of fight-or-flight reactions, implicit memory and knowledge, and ultimately consciousness...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743644/species-trees-from-consensus-single-nucleotide-polymorphism-snp-data-testing-phylogenetic-approaches-with-simulated-and-empirical-data
#17
Alexander N Schmidt-Lebuhn, Nicola C Aitken, Aaron Chuah
Datasets of hundreds or thousands of SNPs (Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms) from multiple individuals per species are increasingly used to study population structure, species delimitation and shallow phylogenetics. The principal software tool to infer species or population trees from SNP data is currently the BEAST template SNAPP which uses a Bayesian coalescent analysis. However, it is computationally extremely demanding and tolerates only small amounts of missing data. We used simulated and empirical SNPs from plants (Australian Craspedia, Asteraceae, and Pelargonium, Geraniaceae) to compare species trees produced (1) by SNAPP, (2) using SVD quartets, and (3) using Bayesian and parsimony analysis with several different approaches to summarising data from multiple samples into one set of traits per species...
July 22, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742866/contribution-of-factor-h-binding-protein-sequence-to-the-cross-reactivity-of-meningococcal-native-outer-membrane-vesicle-vaccines-with-over-expressed-fhbp-variant-group-1
#18
Arianna Marini, Omar Rossi, Maria Grazia Aruta, Francesca Micoli, Simona Rondini, Serafina Guadagnuolo, Isabel Delany, Ian R Henderson, Adam F Cunningham, Allan Saul, Calman A MacLennan, Oliver Koeberling
Factor H-binding protein (fHbp) is an important meningococcal vaccine antigen. Native outer membrane vesicles with over-expressed fHbp (NOMV OE fHbp) have been shown to induce antibodies with broader functional activity than recombinant fHbp (rfHbp). Improved understanding of this broad coverage would facilitate rational vaccine design. We performed a pair-wise analysis of 48 surface-exposed amino acids involved in interacting with factor H, among 383 fHbp variant group 1 sequences. We generated isogenic NOMV-producing meningococcal strains from an African serogroup W isolate, each over-expressing one of four fHbp variant group 1 sequences (ID 1, 5, 9, or 74), including those most common among invasive African meningococcal isolates...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742711/readiness-of-us-general-surgery-residents-for-independent-practice
#19
Brian C George, Jordan D Bohnen, Reed G Williams, Shari L Meyerson, Mary C Schuller, Michael J Clark, Andreas H Meier, Laura Torbeck, Samuel P Mandell, John T Mullen, Douglas S Smink, Rebecca E Scully, Jeffrey G Chipman, Edward D Auyang, Kyla P Terhune, Paul E Wise, Jennifer N Choi, Eugene F Foley, Justin B Dimick, Michael A Choti, Nathaniel J Soper, Keith D Lillemoe, Joseph B Zwischenberger, Gary L Dunnington, Debra A DaRosa, Jonathan P Fryer
OBJECTIVE: This study evaluates the current state of the General Surgery (GS) residency training model by investigating resident operative performance and autonomy. BACKGROUND: The American Board of Surgery has designated 132 procedures as being "Core" to the practice of GS. GS residents are expected to be able to safely and independently perform those procedures by the time they graduate. There is growing concern that not all residents achieve that standard. Lack of operative autonomy may play a role...
July 24, 2017: Annals of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742040/an-hp-adaptive-discretization-algorithm-for-signed-distance-field-generation
#20
Dan Koschier, Crispin Deul, Magnus Brand, Jan Bender
In this paper we present an hp-adaptive algorithm to generate discrete higher-order polynomial Signed Distance Fields (SDFs) on axis-aligned hexahedral grids from manifold polygonal input meshes. Using an orthonormal polynomial basis, we efficiently fit the polynomials to the underlying signed distance function on each cell. The proposed error-driven construction algorithm is globally adaptive and iteratively refines the SDFs using either spatial subdivision ( h-refinement) following an octree scheme or by cell-wise adaption of the polynomial approximation's degree ( p-refinement)...
July 21, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
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