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Marco Colizzi, Robin Murray
It is now incontrovertible that heavy use of cannabis increases the risk of psychosis. There is a dose-response relationship and high potency preparations and synthetic cannabinoids carry the greatest risk. It would be wise to await the outcome of the different models of legalisation that are being introduced in North America, before deciding whether or not to follow suit. Declaration of interest None.
April 2018: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
Xuanang Xu, Fugen Zhou, Bo Liu
PURPOSE: Automatic approach for bladder segmentation from computed tomography (CT) images is highly desirable in clinical practice. It is a challenging task since the bladder usually suffers large variations of appearance and low soft-tissue contrast in CT images. In this study, we present a deep learning-based approach which involves a convolutional neural network (CNN) and a 3D fully connected conditional random fields recurrent neural network (CRF-RNN) to perform accurate bladder segmentation...
March 19, 2018: International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery
Grace Trompeter, Matthew R Grigsby, Catherine H Miele, Robert A Wise, Robert H Gilman, J Jaime Miranda, Antonio Bernabe-Ortiz, William Checkley
PURPOSE: Body composition is known to influence the development and progression of chronic respiratory diseases (CRDs). We sought to characterize the unique anthropometric phenotypes that present with asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and chronic bronchitis across four distinct settings in Peru. METHODS: We collected sociodemographic, clinical history, and spirometry data from 2959 participants from Lima, Tumbes, and rural and urban Puno. We compared the prevalence of CRDs among different study sites and described disease phenotypes...
March 20, 2018: Lung
Thomas B Hansen
Non-coding RNA is an interesting class of gene regulators with diverse functionalities. One large subgroup of non-coding RNAs is the recently discovered class of circular RNAs (circRNAs). CircRNAs are conserved and expressed in a tissue and developmental specific manner, although for the vast majority, the functional relevance remains unclear. To identify and quantify circRNAs expression, several bioinformatic pipelines have been developed to assess the catalog of circRNAs in any given total RNA sequencing dataset...
2018: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
Nathaniel Narra, Shinya Abe, Vassil Dimitrov, Riku Nikander, Reijo Kouhia, Harri Sievänen, Jari Hyttinen
The causal relationship between habitual loading and adaptive response in bone morphology is commonly explored by analysing the spatial distribution of mechanically relevant features. In this study, 3D distribution of features in the proximal femur of 91 female athletes (5 exercise loading groups representing habitual loading) is contrasted with 20 controls. A femur specific Ricci-flow based conformal mapping procedure was developed for establishing correspondence among the periosteal surfaces. The procedure leverages the invariance of the conformal mapping method to isometric shape differences to align surfaces in the 2D parametric domain, to produce dense correspondences across an isotopological set of surfaces...
March 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Vivian Isaac, Sabrina Winona Pit, Craig S McLachlan
BACKGROUND: Social isolation in medical students is a subjective experience that may influence medical career decision making. Rural self-efficacy has been shown to influence rural career intentions following a rural clinical placement, however its impact on social isolation during a rural clinical placement has not been previously modeled. The objective of this study is to explore whether self-perception of social isolation is associated with rural career intent in rural medical students...
March 20, 2018: BMC Medical Education
Consuelo Walss-Bass, Robert Suchting, Rene L Olvera, Douglas E Williamson
BACKGROUND: Immune system abnormalities have been repeatedly observed in several psychiatric disorders, including severe depression and anxiety. However, whether specific immune mediators play an early role in the etiopathogenesis of these disorders remains unknown. METHODS: In a longitudinal design, component-wise gradient boosting was used to build models of depression, assessed by the Mood-Feelings Questionnaire-Child (MFQC), and anxiety, assessed by the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED) in 254 adolescents from a large set of candidate predictors, including sex, race, 39 inflammatory proteins, and the interactions between those proteins and time...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Himar Fabelo, Samuel Ortega, Daniele Ravi, B Ravi Kiran, Coralia Sosa, Diederik Bulters, Gustavo M Callicó, Harry Bulstrode, Adam Szolna, Juan F Piñeiro, Silvester Kabwama, Daniel Madroñal, Raquel Lazcano, Aruma J-O'Shanahan, Sara Bisshopp, María Hernández, Abelardo Báez, Guang-Zhong Yang, Bogdan Stanciulescu, Rubén Salvador, Eduardo Juárez, Roberto Sarmiento
Surgery for brain cancer is a major problem in neurosurgery. The diffuse infiltration into the surrounding normal brain by these tumors makes their accurate identification by the naked eye difficult. Since surgery is the common treatment for brain cancer, an accurate radical resection of the tumor leads to improved survival rates for patients. However, the identification of the tumor boundaries during surgery is challenging. Hyperspectral imaging is a non-contact, non-ionizing and non-invasive technique suitable for medical diagnosis...
2018: PloS One
Charlotte Post Sennehed, Sara Holmberg, Iben Axén, Kjerstin Stigmar, Malin Forsbrand, Ingemar F Petersson, Birgitta Grahn
Workplace involvement in rehabilitation for patients with musculoskeletal pain may improve work ability. Convergence Dialogue Meeting (CDM) is a model aimed at helping the patient, the care giver and the employer to support work ability and return to work. Our aim was to study the effect on work ability when adding a workplace dialogue according to CDM in physiotherapy practice for pain patients in ordinary primary care. We conducted a prospective pair wise cluster randomised controlled trial (ClinicalTrials...
March 15, 2018: Pain
Xin Yu, Fatih Porikli
We tackle the challenge of constructing 64 pixels for each individual pixel of a thumbnail face image. We show that such an aggressive super-resolution objective can be attained by taking advantage of the global context and making the best use of the prior information portrayed by the image class. Our input image is so small (e.g., pixels) that it can be considered as a patch of itself. Thus, conventional patch-matching-based super-resolution solutions are unsuitable. In order to enhance the resolution while enforcing the global context, we incorporate a pixel-wise appearance similarity objective into a deconvolutional neural network, which allows efficient learning of mappings between low-resolution input images and their high-resolution counterparts in the training data set...
June 2018: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
Meredith B Rosenthal, Carrie H Colla, Nancy E Morden, Thomas D Sequist, Alexander J Mainor, Zhonghe Li, Kevin H Nguyen
OBJECTIVES: A substantial portion of healthcare spending is wasted on services that do not directly improve patient health and that cause harm in some cases. Features of health insurance coverage, including enrollment in high-deductible health plans (HDHPs) or health maintenance organizations (HMOs), may provide financial and nonfinancial mechanisms to potentially reduce overuse of low-value healthcare services. STUDY DESIGN: Using 2009 to 2013 administrative data from 3 large commercial insurers, we examined patient characteristics and health insurance plan types associated with overuse of 6 healthcare services identified by the Choosing Wisely campaign...
March 2018: American Journal of Managed Care
Po-Chia Chen, Pawel Masiewicz, Vladimir Rybin, Dmitri I Svergun, Janosch Hennig
We present a screening protocol utilizing small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) to obtain structural information of biomolecular interactions independent of prior knowledge, so as to complement affinity-based screening and provide leads for further exploration. This protocol categorizes ligand titrations by computing pair-wise agreement between curves, and separately estimates affinities by quantifying complex formation as a departure from the linear sum properties of solution SAXS. The protocol is validated by sparse sequence search around the native poly-uridine RNA motifs of the two-RRM domain Sex-lethal protein (Sxl)...
March 19, 2018: ACS Combinatorial Science
Alexandra K Eicher, H Matthew Berns, James M Wells
Gastric diseases, including peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer, are highly prevalent in human beings. Despite this, the cellular biology of the stomach remains poorly understood relative to other gastrointestinal organs such as the liver, intestine, and colon. In particular, little is known about the molecular basis of stomach development and the differentiation of gastric lineages. Although animal models are useful for studying gastric development, function, and disease, there are major structural and physiological differences in human stomachs that render these models insufficient...
March 2018: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Sanae Tabata, Yu Kitago, Yuki Fujii, Emiko Mihara, Keiko Tamura-Kawakami, Naoko Norioka, Katsu Takahashi, Mika K Kaneko, Yukinari Kato, Junichi Takagi
Peptide-based affinity tags are commonly used in recombinant production/purification of proteins, and often preceded or followed by a protease recognition sequence to allow tag removal. We describe a rat monoclonal antibody 2H5 recognizing an undecapeptide tag called "eTev", which contains a recognition sequence for Tobacco Etch Virus (TEV) protease. In the crystal structure of 2H5-eTev complex, the long eTev peptide assumes compact α-helical conformation in the binding groove, exposing both ends to the solution...
March 14, 2018: Protein Expression and Purification
Selwyn Marc Prea, Yu Xiang George Kong, Aditi Mehta, Mingguang He, Jonathan G Crowston, Viney Gupta, Keith R Martin, Algis J Vingrys
PURPOSE: To establish the medium-term repeatability of the iPad perimetry app Melbourne Rapid Fields (MRF) compared to Humphrey Field Analyzer (HFA) 24-2 SITA-standard and SITA-fast programs. DESIGN: Multicentre longitudinal observational clinical study. PARTICIPANTS: 60 patients (stable glaucoma/ocular hypertension/glaucoma suspects) were recruited into a 6-month longitudinal clinical study with visits planned at baseline, 2-, 4- and 6-months...
March 14, 2018: American Journal of Ophthalmology
Yoji Ogura, Kazuki Takeda, Ikuyo Kou, Anas Khanshour, Anna Grauers, Hang Zhou, Gang Liu, Yan-Hui Fan, Taifeng Zhou, Zhihong Wu, Yohei Takahashi, Morio Matsumoto, Elisabet Einarsdottir, Juha Kere, Dongsheng Huang, Guixing Qiu, Leilei Xu, Yong Qiu, Carol A Wise, You-Qiang Song, Nan Wu, Peiqiang Su, Paul Gerdhem, Kota Watanabe, Shiro Ikegawa
Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is a common spinal deformity with the prevalence of approximately 3%. We previously conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) using a Japanese cohort and identified a novel locus on chromosome 9p22.2. However, a replication study using multi-population cohorts has not been conducted. To confirm the association of 9p22.2 locus with AIS in multi-ethnic populations, we conducted international meta-analysis using eight cohorts. In total, we analyzed 8,756 cases and 27,822 controls...
March 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
H Fan, S Li, M Lu, G Yin, X Yang, T Lan, L Dai, X Chen, J Li, Y Zhang, A Sirajuddin, P Kellman, A E Arai, S Zhao
AIM: To evaluate the image quality and diagnostic agreement with a head-to-head comparison of late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) images acquired by the motion-corrected (MOCO) balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP) phase sensitivity inversion recovery (PSIR) and conventional segmented fast low angle shot (FLASH) PSIR methods15,16 in a patient cohort with a wide spectrum of cardiovascular disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In 59 consecutive patients, signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs), contrast-to-noise ratios (CNRs) of the normal myocardium (NM), LGE, and blood pool (BP) were pair-wise compared between the two different sequences...
March 13, 2018: Clinical Radiology
Arjun Sethi, Valerie Voon, Hugo D Critchley, Mara Cercignani, Neil A Harrison
Computational models of reinforcement learning have helped dissect discrete components of reward-related function and characterize neurocognitive deficits in psychiatric illnesses. Stimulus novelty biases decision-making, even when unrelated to choice outcome, acting as if possessing intrinsic reward value to guide decisions toward uncertain options. Heightened novelty seeking is characteristic of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, yet how this influences reward-related decision-making is computationally encoded, or is altered by stimulant medication, is currently uncertain...
March 13, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Karishma S Furtado, Elizabeth L Budd, Xiangji Ying, Anna J deRuyter, Rebecca L Armstrong, Tahna L Pettman, Rodrigo S Reis, Pauline Sung-Chan, Zhaoxin Wang, Tahnee Saunders, Leonardo A Becker, Jianwei Shi, Long Sum Tabitha Mui, Ross C Brownson
Implementation of evidence-based practices can improve efficiency and effectiveness of public health efforts. Few studies have explored the political contextual factors that impact implementation of evidence-based non-communicable disease prevention (EBNCDP). This study aimed to do so in Australia, Brazil, China and the United States. Investigators conducted 10-13 qualitative, semi-structured interviews of public health practitioners working in functionally similar public health organizations in each country (total N = 50)...
March 14, 2018: Health Education Research
Rachel M Speer, Catherine F Wise, Jamie L Young, AbouEl-Makarim Aboueissa, Mark Martin Bras, Mike Barandiaran, Erick Bermúdez, Lirio Márquez-D'Acunti, John Pierce Wise
Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] is a marine pollution of concern as recent studies show it has a global distribution, with some regions showing high Cr concentrations in marine animal tissue, and it is extensively used. Leatherback sea turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) are an endangered marine species that may experience prolonged exposures to environmental contaminants including Cr(VI). Human activities have led to global Cr(VI) contamination of the marine environment. While Cr(VI) has been identified as a known human carcinogen, the health effects in marine species are poorly understood...
March 4, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
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