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Ali Amiri, Reza Ghanavati, Hassan Riahi Beni, Seyyed Hashem Sezavar, Mehrdad Sheykhvatan, Mahsa Arab
BACKGROUND: Finding patients at risk of developing contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI) is important because of its associated complications. In the present study, the contribution of different variables, such as the presence of metabolic syndrome (MetS), the volume creatinine clearance (V/CrCl) ratio, the iodine-dose (I-dose)/CrCl ratio, or hypertension, to CI-AKI was evaluated. METHODS: A total of 255 patients undergoing elective coronary angiography with or without intervention were enrolled and divided into a MetS and a control group...
June 15, 2018: Cardiorenal Medicine
Elizabeth Carazo-Rojas, Greivin Pérez-Rojas, Marta Pérez-Villanueva, Cristina Chinchilla-Soto, Juan Salvador Chin-Pampillo, Paula Aguilar-Mora, Melvin Alpízar-Marín, Mario Masís-Mora, Carlos E Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Zisis Vryzas
A pesticide monitoring study including 80 and 60 active ingredients (in surface waters and sediments, respectively) was carried out in a river basin in Costa Rica during 2007-2012. A special emphasis was given on the exceptional ecological conditions of the tropical agro-ecosystem and the pesticide application strategies in order to establish a reliable monitoring network. A total of 135 water samples and 129 sediment samples were collected and analyzed. Long-term aquatic ecotoxicological risk assessment based on risk quotient in three trophic levels was conducted...
June 14, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Zhixia Li, Jiyun Nie, Zhen Yan, Yang Cheng, Feng Lan, Yunan Huang, Qiusheng Chen, Xubo Zhao, An Li
The presence of pesticide residues in fruit has been of extensive concern worldwide. In this paper, pesticide residues in peach samples in China and their dietary exposure risks for the Chinese general population and children were evaluated. Thirty-nine different pesticides were detected, and 92.3% of samples contained one or more pesticide residues. The most frequently detected pesticide was carbendazim with a detection rate of 60.6%. Residues for eight pesticides in 3.2% of the samples exceeded their MRLs with the highest exceedance of 345%...
June 14, 2018: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
Natthicha Chainarong, Chusana Petpichetchian
OBJECTIVES: The cerebroplacental ratio (CPR) Doppler has been proposed as an instrument for predicting adverse perinatal outcomes particularly during antepartum period. Abnormal CPR is associated with non-reassuring fetal status requiring operative delivery, low Apgar score and neonatal complications. The aim of this study was to assess the role of CPR Doppler in the labor triage suite, so as to identify fetuses at risk for non-reassuring status as well as other adverse perinatal outcomes...
June 11, 2018: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
John Andersson, Anna Oudin, Anna Sundström, Bertil Forsberg, Rolf Adolfsson, Maria Nordin
BACKGROUND: There is growing evidence for a negative impact of traffic-related air pollution on risk of dementia. However, the contribution of noise exposure to this association has been rarely examined. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the individual and combined effect of noise and air pollution on risk of dementia. METHODS: Data on dementia incidence over a 15 year period was obtained from the Betula project, a longitudinal study on health and ageing...
June 14, 2018: Environmental Research
Laurel Trantham, Samantha K Kurosky, Dongmu Zhang, Kelly D Johnson
INTRODUCTION: Adult vaccination coverage rates in the US are well below national targets, leaving many adults at increased risk. Additionally, typical vaccination coverage calculations do not adequately approximate population immunity as they do not consider whether multidose vaccines were administered within the recommended schedules. As timely administration of each dose optimizes overall vaccine effectiveness, we sought to document adherence to and completion of the hepatitis A (HepA), hepatitis B (HepB), and combined hepatitis A and hepatitis B (HepA-HepB) multidose vaccine schedule in an insured adult population in the US...
June 13, 2018: Vaccine
Kentaro Yamane, Nobuo Kai, Tetsuro Mazaki, Tadashi Miyamoto, Tomohiro Matsushita
BACKGROUND: Long-term exposure to radiation can lead to gene mutations and increase the risk of cancer. Low rate fluoroscopy has the potential to reduce the radiation exposure for both the examiner and the patient during various fluoroscopic procedures. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of low rate fluoroscopy on reducing an examiner's radiation dose during nerve root block. METHODS: A total of 101 lumbar nerve root block examinations were performed at our institute during a 6-month period...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Science: Official Journal of the Japanese Orthopaedic Association
Alex Quok An Teo, Jing Hui Yik, Sheldon Ng Jin Keat, Diarmuid Paul Murphy, Gavin Kane O'Neill
INTRODUCTION: Percutaneously-placed sacroiliac (SI) screws are currently the gold-standard fixation technique for fixation of the posterior pelvic ring. The relatively high prevalence of sacral dysmorphism in the general population introduces a high risk of cortical breach with resultant neurovascular damage. This study was performed to compare the accuracy of SI screw placement with and without the use of intraoperative navigation, as well as to externally validate the sacral dysmorphism score in a trauma patient cohort...
May 31, 2018: Injury
Ruma G Singh, Sayali A Pendharkar, Aya Cervantes, Jaelim Cho, Victor Miranda-Soberanis, Maxim S Petrov
BACKGROUND: Emerging evidence indicates that individuals after an episode of acute pancreatitis (AP) are at an increased risk of developing metabolic derangements. While the link between general obesity and insulin resistance (IR) is well established, only a few studies have investigated the association between abdominal obesity and IR. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between abdominal obesity and several indices of IR in individuals after an episode of AP. METHODS: Patients were eligible for this cross-sectional study if they were previously admitted with a primary diagnosis of AP based on the recent international guidelines...
May 1, 2018: Digestive and Liver Disease
Takumi Sano, Yoshito Terai, Atsushi Daimon, Misa Nunode, Yoko Nagayasu, Atsuko Okamoto, Daisuke Fujita, Masami Hayashi, Masahide Ohmichi
INTRODUCTION: Placental insufficiency is one of the major risk factors for growth restriction and preeclampsia. The aim of this study is to investigate whether recombinant human Thrombomodulin(r-TM) improves fetal conditions and physiological outcomes. METHODS: We used CBA/J × BALB/C mice as a control and CBA/J × DBA/2 mice - a well-studied model of recurrent spontaneous miscarriage. Pregnant mice received daily subcutaneous injections of r-TM or saline from day 0-15...
May 2018: Placenta
Thomas Hennequin, Hjalte Jomo Danielsen Sørup, Yan Dong, Karsten Arnbjerg-Nielsen
Sustainable flood management is a basic societal need. In this article, life cycle assessment is used to compare two ways to maintain the state of a coastal urban area in a changing climate with increasing flood risk. On one side, the construction of a dike, a hard and proactive scenario, is modelled using a bottom up approach. On the other, the systematic repair of houses flooded by sea surges, a post-disaster measure, is assessed using a Monte Carlo simulation allowing for aleatory uncertainties in predicting future sea level rise and occurrences of extreme events...
June 13, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Nicola S Klein, Gea A Holtman, Claudi L H Bockting, Martijn W Heymans, Huibert Burger
OBJECTIVES: Many studies examined predictors of depressive relapse/recurrence but no simple tool based on well-established risk factors is available that estimates the risk within an individual. We developed and validated such a prediction tool in remitted recurrently depressed individuals. METHODS: The tool was developed using data (n = 235) from a pragmatic randomised controlled trial in remitted recurrently depressed participants and externally validated using data (n = 209) from a similar randomised controlled trial of remitted recurrently depressed participants using maintenance antidepressants...
June 8, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Mark Richards, Brian Olshansky, Arjun D Sharma, Nicholas Wold, Paul Jones, David Perschbacher, Bruce L Wilkoff
BACKGROUND: Heart Rate Score (HRSc)≥70%, a novel parameter, predicts risk of mortality in patients with implantable defibrillators and identifies patients who have survival benefit with DDDR versus DDD pacing. OBJECTIVE: DDDR pacing lowers HRSc and dual-sensor with minute ventilation (MV) and accelerometer (XL) improves HRSc more than accelerometer (XL) alone in patients requiring pacemakers (PM). METHODS: HRSc, the percent of all beats in the predominant 10 bpm bin, was calculated...
June 13, 2018: Heart Rhythm: the Official Journal of the Heart Rhythm Society
Lucía Cea Soriano, Angel Lanas, Montse Soriano-Gabarró, Luis A García Rodríguez
BACKGROUND & AIMS: There are few data on the incidence of upper and lower gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB and LGIB) from observational studies of low-dose aspirin users. We aimed to estimate incidence rates of UGIB and LGIB in a large cohort of new users of low-dose aspirin in the United Kingdom, with sub-analyses of hospitalization status and fatalities. METHODS: We performed a population-based study of 199,079 new users of low-dose aspirin (median age, 64...
June 13, 2018: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Vanessa El Kamari, Corrilynn O Hileman, Pierre M Gholam, Manjusha Kulkarni, Nicholas Funderburg, Grace A McComsey
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Therapies are needed to limit progression of fatty liver diseases in patients with HIV infection. We analyzed data from a prospective study of the effects of rosuvastatin (a statin) on hepatic steatosis in HIV-positive adults. METHODS: We performed secondary analysis of data from a double-blind trial of adult patients with HIV infection (78% male; 68% African American; mean age, 46 years; body mass index, 29 kg/m2 ; HIV1 RNA<1000 copies/mL; LDL-cholesterol <130 mg/dL) receiving antiretroviral therapy...
June 13, 2018: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Lone Hoffmann, Markus Alber, Matthias Söhn, Ulrik Vindelev Elstrøm
PURPOSE: The two distinct dose computation paradigms of Boltzmann Equation Solvers and Monte Carlo simulation both promise in principle maximum accuracy. In practice, clinically acceptable calculation times demand approximations and numerical short-cuts on one hand, and modelling the beam characteristics of a real linear accelerator to the required accuracy on the other. A thorough benchmark of both algorithm types therefore needs to start with beam modelling, and needs to include a number of clinically challenging treatment plans...
June 16, 2018: Medical Physics
Alexander Böker, Daniel Pilger, Dino Cordini, Ira Seibel, Aline I Riechardt, Antonia M Joussen, Nikolaos E Bechrakis
BACKGROUND: Uveal melanoma is the most common primary ocular malignancy in adults in the USA and Europe. The optimal treatment of large uveal melanoma is still under debate. Radiation therapy has its limitation due its eye-threatening secondary complications and is therefore often combined with surgical excision of the tumor. METHODS: In a retrospective interventional review, we evaluated in total 242 patients with uveal melanoma that underwent transscleral tumor resection with a predefined protocol, either with adjuvant ruthenium brachytherapy (Ru-106 group, n 136,), or with neoadjuvant proton beam therapy (PBT group, n 106)...
June 16, 2018: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
Maria C Picasso, Jessica A Lo-Tayraco, Juselly M Ramos-Villanueva, Vinay Pasupuleti, Adrian V Hernandez
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Several studies have examined the effect of vegetarian diets (VD) on metabolic syndrome (MetS) or its components, but findings have been inconsistent. The aim of this study was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and observational studies to assess the association between VD and MetS or its components (systolic blood pressure [SBP], diastolic blood pressure [DBP], fasting glucose triglycerides, waist circumference [WC], HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C)) in adults...
June 6, 2018: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Ahmad Jayedi, Farnoosh Ghomashi, Mahdieh Sadat Zargar, Sakineh Shab-Bidar
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The association of high sodium intake with risk of stroke has been accepted. But considering the proposed J/U-shaped association between sodium intake and risk of all-cause mortality, the shape of the dose-response relationship has not been determined yet. This study aimed to test the dose-response association of dietary sodium and sodium-to-potassium ratio with risk of stroke in adults aged 18 years or older. METHODS: We performed a systematic search using PubMed and Scopus, from database inception up to October 2017...
June 1, 2018: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Meletios P Nigdelis, Samuel J Martínez-Domínguez, Dimitrios G Goulis, Faustino R Pérez-López
OBJECTIVE: To clarify the effect of programmed exercise (PE), performed for at least six weeks, on perceived stress (PS) in middle aged and old women. METHODS: A structured search was carried out in PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, Scielo, Web of Science and Scopus, from database inception through January 10, 2018, without language restriction. The US, UK, and Australian clinical trials databases were also searched. The search included a combination of the terms "programmed exercise", "perceived stress", "menopausal women" and "randomized controlled trial" (RCTs)...
August 2018: Maturitas
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