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Fernanda Severo Sabedra Sousa, Paloma Taborda Birmann, Rodolfo Baldinotti, Mariana G Fronza, Renata Balaguez, Diego Alves, César Augusto Brüning, Lucielli Savegnago
Chronic pain and depressive disorders have been estimated to co-occur in up to 80% of patients and traditional antidepressants and analgesics have shown limited clinical efficacy. α- (phenylselanyl) acetophenone (PSAP) is an organic selenium compound which has already demonstrated antioxidant, antidepressant and antinociceptive activities in animal models, without showing acute toxicity. In view of develop more effective treatments to comorbid pain and depression, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the behavioral and biochemical effects of PSAP on reserpine induced pain-depression dyad model in mice as well to analyze the interaction of PSAP with specific targets by molecular docking analysis...
July 14, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
Eva P Karasmanis, Cat-Thi Phan, Dimitrios Angelis, Ilona A Kesisova, Casper C Hoogenraad, Richard J McKenney, Elias T Spiliotis
Neuronal function requires axon-dendrite membrane polarity, which depends on sorting of membrane traffic during entry into axons. Due to a microtubule network of mixed polarity, dendrites receive vesicles from the cell body without apparent capacity for directional sorting. We found that, during entry into dendrites, axonally destined cargos move with a retrograde bias toward the cell body, while dendritically destined cargos are biased in the anterograde direction. A microtubule-associated septin (SEPT9), which localizes specifically in dendrites, impedes axonal cargo of kinesin-1/KIF5 and boosts kinesin-3/KIF1 motor cargo further into dendrites...
July 16, 2018: Developmental Cell
Emanuela Valle, Liviana Prola, Diana Vergnano, Roberta Borghi, Fiammetta Monacelli, Nicola Traverso, Natascia Bruni, Andrea Bovero, Achille Schiavone, Joana Nery, Domenico Bergero, Patrizio Odetti
Objectives Cats are commonly affected by chronic kidney disease (CKD). Many reactive carbonyl intermediates and end products originating from the oxidative stress pathways are recognised as uraemic toxins and may play a role in CKD progression. The aim of the present study is to confirm whether carbonyl end-product formation is higher in cats affected by CKD and to assess whether an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEi) might affect these hallmarks. Methods Twenty-two cats were divided into three groups: a control group (CG), cats with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and cats with chronic kidney disease treated with an ACEi...
July 1, 2018: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
Apurva Yadav, Rajesh Choudhary, Surendra H Bodakhe
PURPOSE: Previously we established a strong association of systemic hypertension with cataract formation. In the present study, we investigated the role of nitric oxide (NO) in the development of cataract formation in CdCl2-induced hypertensive animals. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Hypertension was induced in male albino rats by intraperitoneal administration of CdCl2 (0.5 mg/kg/day) for eight weeks. The NO modulators, 10 µM S-nitrosoglutathione (NO donor) and 1% w/v Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, NOS inhibitor) were applied topically once a day on the eye cornea during the experimental period...
July 17, 2018: Current Eye Research
Mervat A Ahmed, Mona A Mohamed, Laila A Rashed, Sohaier A Abd Elbast, Elham A Ahmed
The present study investigated the molecular effects of rice bran oil (RBO) on lipid-regulatory genes (sterol regulatory element binding protein-1 [Srebf1] and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors-α [Ppara]) and the expression of catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD1) genes in insulin-resistant rats. Rats were divided into five groups: animals that received standard diet (control); rats fed standard diet containing RBO as the sole source of fat (RBO); a high-fructose diet (HFD) group, which was further divided into two subgroups: rats fed HFD either for only 1 month (HFD1) or for 2 months (HFD2) and rats fed HFD containing RBO for 1 month; while rats in the last group fed HFD for 30 days then treated with RBO for another 30 days...
July 17, 2018: Lipids
Ina Isabella Høiland, Robin Amanda Liang, Kristian Hindberg, Nadezhda Latysheva, Ole-Lars Brekke, Tom Eirik Mollnes, John-Bjarne Hansen
INTRODUCTION: Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) originates in the valvular sinuses of large veins in a local milieu characterized by stasis and severe hypoxia. This may induce complement- and coagulation activation, which potentially increases the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the activity of the complement pathways, the level of mannose-binding lectin (MBL) and tissue-factor (TF) induced thrombin generation were associated with risk of unprovoked VTE...
June 30, 2018: Thrombosis Research
M A Scuderi, M Ribeiro Petito, S Unniappan, C Waldner, S Mehain, C J McMillian, E C Snead
A commonly used therapeutic strategy for type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) in humans involves the use of synthetic incretin hormone-based therapies including exenatide, a glucagon-like pepetide-1 hormone agonist. Glucagon-like pepetide-1 agonists can be used alone or as an ancillary therapy with other agents, including insulin and oral antihyperglycemics. Little is known about the role of these therapies for DM in cats. Therefore, the primary objective of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of short-acting exenatide combined with insulin, as compared to placebo and insulin for the treatment of DM in cats...
May 9, 2018: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
Anis Fkiri, Badreddine Sellami, Aymen Selmi, Abdelhafidh Khazri, Wiem Saidani, Bouzidi Imen, David Sheehan, Beyrem Hamouda, Leila Samia Smiri
The increased use of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) in several applications has led to a rise in concerns about their potential toxicity to aquatic organisms. In addition, toxicity of nanoparticles to aquatic organisms is related to their physical and chemical properties. In the present study, we synthesize two forms of gold octahedra nanoparticles (Au_0.03 and Au_0.045 ) in 1.3-propandiol with polyvinyl-pyrrolidone K30 (PVPK30 ) as capping agent using polyol process. Shape, size and optical properties of the particles could be tuned by changing the molar ratio of PVP K30 to metal salts...
July 5, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
Engy F El-Maraghi, Kamal I Abdel-Fattah, Saeed M Soliman, Wael M El-Sayed
Exposure to ionizing radiation (IR) is inevitable since over 80% of total average exposure comes from natural sources. Brain is vulnerable to the deleterious effects of IR. Therefore, scientists paid attention in identifying novel compounds to protect against radiation-induced brain injury. Adult male albino rats weighing 120-150 g were divided into five groups, 18 rats each. Group 1 served as control, group 2 received an oral daily dose of taurine (500 mg/kg) for 2 weeks. Group 3 was exposed to a whole body single dose of γ-irradiation (6 Gy)...
July 9, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Chang-Hao Xie, Zhi-Jun Li, Lin-Jie Chen, Ping Zhao, Jia-Jia Zhang, Shan-Wang Bai, Tong Shen, Wen-Xin He, Yuan-Yuan Wang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the protective effects of paeoniflorin on the lung injury in systemic lupus erythematosus with mouse model. METHODS: Ten wild type mice and 40 MRL/lpr mice were used in this study. MRL/lpr mice were randomly assigned to MRL/lpr group,MRL/lpr + dexamethasone (1.5 mg/kg) group,MRL/lpr + paeoniflorin (20 mg/kg) group,and MRL/lpr + paeoniflorin (40 mg/kg). The levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) , superoxide dismutase (SOD) ,catalase (CAT) ,glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) in serum were detected...
May 2018: Sichuan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Sichuan University. Medical Science Edition
Åshild Olsen Faresjö, Johnny Ludvigsson
BACKGROUND: The autoimmune process later leading to Type 1 diabetes (T1D) seems to start very early in life. Different viruses have been suspected to contribute to the development of T1D, some already during pregnancy. As viruses may be hosted by animals and from them transferred to humans we decided to investigate if exposure to pets during pregnancy is related to later development of T1D. METHODS: ABIS (All Babies in Southeast Sweden) - is a prospective population-based cohort study of unselected children born in southeast Sweden between Oct 1st 1997 to Oct 1st 1999...
July 16, 2018: Pediatric Diabetes
Garrett S Oetelaar, Chee Kin Lim, Hock Gan Heng, Christopher M Fulkerson, Marejka H Shaevitz, Craig A Thompson
A 10-year-old male neutered Domestic Shorthair cat was referred for chronic inappetence, weight loss, and hematochezia and an abdominal mass. Abdominal ultrasonography revealed a heterogeneously hypoechoic transmural colonic mass, which extended beyond the serosa and into the adjacent mesentery. Cytology and clonality assays of fine needle aspirates of the mass and mesenteric nodules yielded a diagnosis of B-cell lymphoma. Colonic lymphoma with mesenteric involvement can have a similar appearance to carcinomatosis, therefore a definitive diagnosis requires sampling and further testing of the mesenteric lesions...
July 16, 2018: Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound
Fahimeh Ghavamipour, Reza H Sajedi, Khosro Khajeh
A method is described for the chemiluminescence based determination of the activity of catalase (CAT) using H2 O2 -sensitive CdTe quantum dots (QDs). It is based on the finding that the chemiluminescence (CL) of the CdTe/H2 O2 system is reduced due to the consumption of H2 O2 by the catalytic action of CAT. The Michaelis constant is calculated to be 519 ± 27 mM, showing the potential of the method to accurately measure the Km compared to the standard method. The method does not require QDs to be conjugated to biological/organic molecules and therefore is considered to be a rapid and convenient method for determination of CAT in real samples...
July 16, 2018: Mikrochimica Acta
Ilona Sadauskiene, Arunas Liekis, Rasa Bernotiene, Jurgita Sulinskiene, Arturas Kasauskas, Gediminas Zekonis
This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of the extracts of buckwheat leaf and flower on the antioxidant status of the brain and liver tissue. The administration of buckwheat extracts (both concentrations were 10%) to mice (at the dose 10 mL/kg of body weight) for 21 days significantly decreased superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and reduced the amount of glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in the mouse brain, while catalase (CAT) activity significantly increased. In the mouse liver, the amount of GSH and activity of SOD increased, while the CAT activity after administering buckwheat leaf and flower extracts was lower in experimental mice than in the control group...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Kofi-Kermit Horton, Lauren S Segers, Sarah C Nuding, Russell O'Connor, Pierina A Alencar, Paul W Davenport, Donald C Bolser, Teresa Pitts, Bruce G Lindsey, Kendall F Morris, Christian Gestreau
Swallow-breathing coordination safeguards the lower airways from tracheal aspiration of bolus material as it moves through the pharynx into the esophagus. Impaired movements of the shared muscles or structures of the aerodigestive tract, or disruptions in the interaction of brainstem swallow and respiratory central pattern generators (CPGs) result in dysphagia. To maximize lower airway protection these CPGs integrate respiratory rhythm generation signals and vagal afferent feedback to synchronize swallow with breathing...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Zhijie Gao, Helei Wang, Bo Zhang, Xuemei Wu, Yanfeng Zhang, Pengfei Ge, Guangfan Chi, Jianmin Liang
Autophagy is a catabolic process to maintain intracellular homeostasis via removal of cytoplasmic macromolecules and damaged cellular organelles through lysosome-mediated degradation. Trehalose is often regarded as an autophagy inducer, but we reported previously that it could prevent ischemic insults-induced autophagic death in neurons. Thus, we further investigated in this study whether trehalose could protect human dopaminergic SH-SY5Y cells against H2 O2 -induced lethal autophagy. We found pretreatment with trehalose not only prevented H2 O2 -induced death in SH-SY5Y cells, but also reversed H2 O2 -induced upregulation of LC3II, Beclin1 and ATG5 and downregulation of p62...
2018: International Journal of Medical Sciences
Antonio Serrano, Gaspar Ros, Gema Nieto
The inflammatory processes associated with several chronic illnesses like cardiovascular disease and cancer have been the focus of mechanistic studies of the pathogenicity of these diseases and of the use of different pharmacological and natural methods to prevent them. In this study we review the current evidence regarding the effectiveness of natural extracts from as-yet little-studied traditional botanical species in alleviating the inflammation process associated with several chronic diseases. Additionally, the intention is to expose the known pathways of action and the potential synergistic effects of the constituent compounds of the discussed extracts...
July 16, 2018: Medicines (Basel, Switzerland)
Ling He, Yin-Huan Wu, Qian Zhao, Bei Wang, Qing-Lin Liu, Lei Zhang
WRKY transcription factors (TFs) play a vital part in coping with different stresses. In this study, DgWRKY2 was isolated from Dendranthema grandiflorum . The gene encodes a 325 amino acid protein, belonging to the group II WRKY family, and contains one typical WRKY domain (WRKYGQK) and a zinc finger motif (C-X4-5-C-X22-23-H-X1-H). Overexpression of DgWRKY2 in chrysanthemum enhanced tolerance to high-salt stress compared to the wild type (WT). In addition, the activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase ( CAT )), proline content, soluble sugar content, soluble protein content, and chlorophyll content of transgenic chrysanthemum, as well as the survival rate of the transgenic lines, were on average higher than that of the WT...
July 16, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Satoshi Takagi, Yumiko Kagawa, Kiwamu Hanazono, Shoko Murakami, Tatsuya Deguchi, Yusuke Izumi, Kenji Hosoya, Sangho Kim, Masahiro Okumura
A 10-year-old cat presented for evaluation with a 1-month history of salivation and oral bleeding. A right mandibular mass was palpated and computed tomography examination revealed entire bone proliferation. Mandibular bone biopsy was performed, and histopathological diagnosis was vascular hamartoma. The cat suddenly died on day 140.
July 13, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
Lynn Chalmers, Luisa M Vera, John F Taylor, Alexandra Adams, Herve Migaud
While research into the growth, survival, nutrition and, more recently, disease susceptibility of triploid Atlantic salmon has expanded, there remains an overall lack of studies assessing the response of triploids to chemical treatments. It is essential that the response of triploids to disease treatments be characterised to validate their suitability for commercial production. This study aimed to investigate and compare the stress and immune responses of triploid and diploid Atlantic salmon following an experimental treatment with hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 )...
July 13, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
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