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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652830/colorectal-cancer-genetic-abnormalities-tumor-progression-tumor-heterogeneity-clonal-evolution-and-tumor-initiating-cells
#1
REVIEW
Ugo Testa, Elvira Pelosi, Germana Castelli
Colon cancer is the third most common cancer worldwide. Most colorectal cancer occurrences are sporadic, not related to genetic predisposition or family history; however, 20-30% of patients with colorectal cancer have a family history of colorectal cancer and 5% of these tumors arise in the setting of a Mendelian inheritance syndrome. In many patients, the development of a colorectal cancer is preceded by a benign neoplastic lesion: either an adenomatous polyp or a serrated polyp. Studies carried out in the last years have characterized the main molecular alterations occurring in colorectal cancers, showing that the tumor of each patient displays from two to eight driver mutations...
April 13, 2018: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644509/applications-of-colon-capsule-endoscopy
#2
REVIEW
Shabana F Pasha
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This is a review of colon capsule endoscopy (CCE) with a focus on its recent developments, technological improvements, and current and potential future indications. RECENT FINDINGS: Based on the current literature, CCE II demonstrates comparable polyp detection rates as optical colonoscopy and CT colonography, and improved cost-effectiveness. The main limitation to patient acceptance is the requirement of a rigorous bowel preparation. Preliminary studies show good correlation between CCE and optical colonoscopy for assessment of colonic disease activity in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)...
April 12, 2018: Current Gastroenterology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626277/evaluation-of-fecal-m2pk-as-a-diagnostic-marker-in-colorectal-cancer
#3
Hisham K Dabbous, Yosry Abd El-Rahman Mohamed, Runia F El-Folly, Mohamed D El-Talkawy, Hani E Seddik, Dina Johar, Mohammed A Sarhan
BACKGROUND: Invasive colonoscopy is the gold standard for patients at risk for colorectal cancer. However, the need for non-invasive and specific markers is required. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the sensitivity of the glycolytic pyruvate kinase isoenzyme type M2 dimer (M2PK) as a diagnostic biomarker for colorectal cancer (CRC) and adenomatous colorectal polyps (CRP) screening. DESIGN: Case-control. PATIENTS: Twenty patients with CRC, 20 patients with CRP (lack criteria for colonic cancer by biopsy), and 20 normal subjects...
April 7, 2018: Journal of Gastrointestinal Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29607395/efficacy-of-endocuff-assisted-colonoscopy-in-the-detection-of-colorectal-polyps
#4
Yoshiki Wada, Masayoshi Fukuda, Kazuo Ohtsuka, Mamoru Watanabe, Yumiko Fukuma, Yoko Wada, Masahiro Wada
Background and study aims : Colonoscopy is the gold standard for detecting colorectal adenomas and cancers. Endoscopic surveillance has been shown to be effective for preventing colorectal cancer. Although detection of colorectal polyps at an early stage is important, endoscopic visualization of early neoplasia can be difficult. The Endocuff is a new device that can be attached to the tip of the colonoscope to hold the colonic folds away from the field of view during withdrawal. The aim of this study was to compare the adenoma detection rate (ADR) and the mean number of adenomas detected per patient (MAP) achieved using Endocuff-assisted colonoscopy (EAC) and standard colonoscopy (SC)...
April 2018: Endoscopy International Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593687/carrying-capacity-and-colonization-dynamics-of-curvibacter-in-the-hydra-host-habitat
#5
Tanita Wein, Tal Dagan, Sebastian Fraune, Thomas C G Bosch, Thorsten B H Reusch, Nils F Hülter
Most eukaryotic species are colonized by a microbial community - the microbiota - that is acquired during early life stages and is critical to host development and health. Much research has focused on the microbiota biodiversity during the host life, however, empirical data on the basic ecological principles that govern microbiota assembly is lacking. Here we quantify the contribution of colonizer order, arrival time and colonization history to microbiota assembly on a host. We established the freshwater polyp Hydra vulgaris and its dominant colonizer Curvibacter as a model system that enables the visualization and quantification of colonizer population size at the single cell resolution, in vivo , in real time...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29588842/factors-associated-with-the-efficacy-of-polyp-detection-during-routine-flexible-sigmoidoscopy
#6
Akash J Maliampurakal, Donald C McMillan, John H Anderson, Paul G Horgan, David Mansouri
Objective: Flexible sigmoidoscopy reduces the incidence of colonic cancer through the detection and removal of premalignant adenomas. However, the efficacy of the procedure is variable. The aim of the present study was to examine factors associated with the efficacy of detecting polyps during flexible sigmoidoscopy. Design and patients: Retrospective observational cohort study of all individuals undergoing routine flexible sigmoidoscopy in NHS Greater Glasgow and Clyde from January 2013 to January 2016...
April 2018: Frontline Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29572575/metastatic-colonic-and-gastric-polyps-from-breast-cancer-resembling-hyperplastic-polyps
#7
Yoshiya Horimoto, Tetsuro Hirashima, Atsushi Arakawa, Hiroyoshi Miura, Mitsue Saito
Breast cancer metastasis to the gastrointestinal tract is relatively rare and is generally found when patients complain of symptoms such as gastrointestinal obstruction. Herein, we report a case with metastatic colonic and gastric lesions from breast cancer, with the formation of mucosal polyps which resembled typical hyperplastic polyps.A 47-year-old woman underwent curable surgery for breast cancer and received standard systemic treatments. Her primary tumor was composed of a mix of invasive lobular and ductal carcinomas...
March 23, 2018: Surgical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29572136/addressing-racial-disparity-in-colorectal-cancer-screening-with-ct-colonography-experience-in-an-african-american-cohort
#8
Courtney C Moreno, Todd F Fibus, Elizabeth A Krupinski, David H Kim, Perry J Pickhardt
BACKGROUND: Incidence and mortality from colorectal cancer (CRC) are higher among African Americans where CRC screening rates lag behind non-Hispanic whites. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate CT colonography (CTC) performance and outcome measures in an African-American cohort. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study is an institutional review board-approved and Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act-compliant study. Retrospective evaluation of the African-American cohort from the Atlanta VA Medical Center (Decatur, Georgia) CTC screening program...
February 20, 2018: Clinical Colorectal Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29570555/single-balloon-assisted-colonoscopy-for-placement-of-colonic-manometry-catheters-initial-experience-in-children
#9
Rinarani M Sanghavi, Ricardo Medina-Centeno, Bradley Barth
OBJECTIVES: Colonic manometry is used frequently in children with long standing and difficult to manage constipation to aid in management decisions. Accurate analysis requires placement of the colonic manometry catheter in the colon without looping. This is technically difficult due to the long-standing nature of the constipation in most patients leading to sigmoid and other colonic redundancy. Single balloon colonoscopy has been successfully used in adult in cases of difficult colonoscopy...
March 22, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29568709/gender-age-and-concomitant-diseases-of-melanosis-coli-in-china-a-multicenter-study-of-6-090-cases
#10
Shufang Wang, Zikai Wang, Lihua Peng, Xiuli Zhang, Jianfeng Li, Yunsheng Yang, Bing Hu, Shoubin Ning, Bingyong Zhang, Junling Han, Ying Song, Gang Sun, Zhanguo Nie
Backgrounds and Aims: Melanosis coli (MC) is a noninflammatory, benign, and reversible colonic disorder, but its detection rates in China are unclear. We therefore aimed to analyze the epidemiological characteristics of MC in China. Methods: We assessed the detection rates, associated factors and concomitant diseases of MC in the patients who underwent colonoscopy at eight medical centers across five regions of China between January 2006 and October 2016. All data were procured from the electronic database established at each participating institutions...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29568503/recent-advances-in-the-management-of-large-and-complex-colonic-polyps
#11
REVIEW
Gaius Longcroft-Wheaton, Megha Bhandari, Asma Alkandari, Pradeep Bhandari
The endoscopic management of large colonic polyps is a rapidly changing field. Rapid evolution in endoscopic techniques and skills has resulted in diminishing the role of surgery in the management of larger and complex polyps. This is resulting in organ preservation for many who otherwise would have undergone surgery. However, it also poses new challenges. This article reviews these new advances and the developments which are overcoming these difficulties.
2018: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29564038/sessile-serrated-adenoma-detection-rate-is-correlated-with-adenoma-detection-rate
#12
Daisuke Ohki, Yosuke Tsuji, Tomohiro Shinozaki, Yoshiki Sakaguchi, Chihiro Minatsuki, Hiroto Kinoshita, Keiko Niimi, Satoshi Ono, Yoku Hayakawa, Shuntaro Yoshida, Atsuo Yamada, Shinya Kodashima, Nobutake Yamamichi, Yoshihiro Hirata, Tetsuo Ushiku, Mitsuhiro Fujishiro, Masashi Fukayama, Kazuhiko Koike
AIM: To investigated the association between adenoma detection rate (ADR) and sessile serrated ADR (SSADR) and significant predictors for sessile serrated adenomas (SSA) detection. METHODS: This study is a retrospective, single-center analysis. Total colonoscopies performed by the gastroenterologists at the University of Tokyo Hospital between January and December 2014 were retrospectively identified. Polyps were classified as low-grade or high-grade adenoma, cancer, SSA, or SSA with cytological dysplasia, and the prevalence of each type of polyp was investigated...
March 15, 2018: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29563760/colonic-lesion-characterization-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#13
Richard Lord, Nicholas E Burr, Noor Mohammed, Venkataraman Subramanian
AIM: To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis for the diagnostic accuracy of in vivo lesion characterization in colonic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), using optical imaging techniques, including virtual chromoendoscopy (VCE), dye-based chromoendoscopy (DBC), magnification endoscopy and confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE). METHODS: We searched Medline, Embase and the Cochrane library. We performed a bivariate meta-analysis to calculate the pooled estimate sensitivities, specificities, positive and negative likelihood ratios (+LHR, -LHR), diagnostic odds ratios (DOR), and area under the SROC curve (AUSROC) for each technology group...
March 14, 2018: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29560299/intestinal-schistosomiasis-a-rare-cause-of-abdominal-pain-and-weight-loss
#14
Asim Shuja, Jian Guan, Ciel Harris, Ahmad Alkhasawneh, Miguel Malespin, Silvio De Melo
Abdominal pain is one of the most common reasons for outpatient visits. Although intestinal schistosomiasis is extremely rare in US, it should be considered in the differential diagnosis for those patients with risk factors such as international traveling history. This case report illustrates a unique case of intestinal schistosomiasis, which presented with an eight-week history of nonspecific abdominal pain and weight loss. Her colonoscopy revealed a 10 mm polyp in the colon. Endoscopic mucosal resection confirmed the diagnosis of schistosomiasis...
January 18, 2018: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29560298/adenoid-cystic-carcinoma-metastasized-to-colon
#15
Patricia Guzman Rojas, Jignesh Parikh, Priya Vishnubhotla, Jeannette Vergeli-Rojas
Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) is an infrequent cause of malignancy that accounts for 1% of all tumors of the oral and maxillofacial region. We present a 59-year-old woman with a past medical history of adenoid cystic carcinoma of the left salivary gland treated with radiation and thoracotomy due to lung metastasis. Years after the onset of diagnosis, she presented with nonspecific gastrointestinal symptoms. For this reason, an abdominal computed tomography (CT) scan was done, revealing a liver mass in the right lobe, involving segments eight and five, concerning for malignancy...
January 18, 2018: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29549256/plk1-has-tumor-suppressive-potential-in-apc-truncated-colon-cancer-cells
#16
Monika Raab, Mourad Sanhaji, Yves Matthess, Albrecht Hörlin, Ioana Lorenz, Christina Dötsch, Nils Habbe, Oliver Waidmann, Elisabeth Kurunci-Csacsko, Ron Firestein, Sven Becker, Klaus Strebhardt
The spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) acts as a molecular safeguard in ensuring faithful chromosome transmission during mitosis, which is regulated by a complex interplay between phosphatases and kinases including PLK1. Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) germline mutations cause aneuploidy and are responsible for familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). Here we study the role of PLK1 in colon cancer cells with chromosomal instability promoted by APC truncation (APC-ΔC). The expression of APC-ΔC in colon cells reduces the accumulation of mitotic cells upon PLK1 inhibition, accelerates mitotic exit and increases the survival of cells with enhanced chromosomal abnormalities...
March 16, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29548015/granular-cell-tumor-report-of-13-cases-in-a-veterans-administration-hospital
#17
Alexander D Jobrack, Suman Goel, Alvin M Cotlar
Introduction: Granular cell tumors (GCTs) are of neuroectodermal origin and account for 0.5% of soft tissue tumors. They are most prevalent in African-Americans in the fourth to sixth decades, with a predilection for the head and neck regions. GCTs usually resemble more common lesions and hence are difficult to diagnose preoperatively. The tumor is readily identified on needle biopsy. Although usually benign with a malignancy rate of only 2-3%, the malignant form has a reported 3-yr mortality of 60%...
March 14, 2018: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29547683/prevalence-of-synchronous-oligopolyposis-in-incident-colorectal-cancer-a-population-based-study
#18
Juan M Marqués-Lespier, Marievelisse Soto-Salgado, María González-Pons, Vanessa Méndez, Katerina Freyre, Carlos Beltrán, Luis R Pericchi, Marcia Cruz-Correa
OBJECTIVE: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a leading causes of cancer death among men and women. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of oligopolyposis (≥20 synchronous colorectal adenomas) and its associated clinicopathological characteristics in Hispanics with incident CRC. METHODS: Pathology reports from individuals diagnosed with CRC (2007 to 2011) were obtained from the PR Central Cancer Registry. Colorectal polyp burden was calculated using pathology reports and the data was normalized to colon segment size...
2018: Puerto Rico Health Sciences Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29543850/mast-cells-co-expressing-cd68-and-inorganic-polyphosphate-are-linked-with-colorectal-cancer
#19
Stella Arelaki, Athanasios Arampatzioglou, Konstantinos Kambas, Efthimios Sivridis, Alexandra Giatromanolaki, Konstantinos Ritis
Inflammation is a hallmark of colorectal cancer (CRC). Neutrophils are well-known mediators in tumor biology but their role in solid tumors, including CRC, was redefined by neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). Given that it was recently demonstrated that platelet-derived polyP primes neutrophils to release NETs, we examined surgical specimens from CRC to investigate the presence of polyP, as a possible NET inducer. Biopsies with adenomas, hyperplastic polyps, inflammatory bowel disease and healthy colon tissues were used as controls...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29542866/clinicopathological-features-of-advanced-colorectal-serrated-lesions-a-single-center-study-in-china
#20
Tianyu Liu, Duochen Jin, Samiullah Khan, Xue Chen, Tao Shi, Wenxiao Dong, Yanrong Qi, Zixuan Guo, Bangmao Wang, Hailong Cao
OBJECTIVE: A growing body of evidence indicates that patients with colorectal serrated lesions especially advanced serrated lesions (ASLs) are at risk of subsequent malignancy. This study aimed to provide more information for endoscopists for the management of ASLs by analyzing the clinicopathological features of ASLs, and the association between the presence of ASL and synchronous advanced colorectal neoplasia (sACN) in China. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cross-sectional study of data from 38,981 symptomatic patients who underwent colonoscopy between January 2010 and March 2016...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Digestive Diseases
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