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Antioxidants cancer

Yoo-Sun Kim, Eunju Kim, Yoon Jung Park, Yuri Kim
Neuroblastoma (NB) is childhood malignancy that retains characteristics of cancer stem cells (CSCs). Targeting the CSCs is one of the therapeutic strategies proposed to achieve complete remission of NB. β-carotene (BC), an active precursor of retinoids, is a well-known antioxidant reported to possess anti-CSCs effects. Here, we investigated the involvement of retinoic acid receptors (RARs) in the anti-CSCs effects of BC. Treatment with BC or retinoic acid (RA) upregulated RARβ mRNA expression in two NB cell lines...
October 14, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Anliang Huang, Dan Yue, Danying Liao, Liuliu Cheng, Jinhu Ma, Yuquan Wei, Aiping Tong, Ping Cheng
Arsenic trioxide (ATO) has demonstrated clinical efficacy in acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) and in vitro activity in various solid tumors. As2O3 as single agent exhibits poor efficacy for treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in phase II trial, suggesting that new modalities of treatment with enhanced therapeutic effect and alleviated toxicity are needed for application of As2O3 on patients with HCC. Survivin is the strongest inhibitor of apoptosis protein over-expressed in tumors, which has been proposed as an attractive target for new anticancer interventions...
October 11, 2016: Oncology Reports
Ilaria Peluso, Mauro Serafini
Consumption of Tea (Camellia Sinensis) has been correlated with low incidence of chronic pathologies, such as cardiovascular diseases and cancers, in which oxidative stress is deeply involved. Tea catechins and theaflavins are, respectively, the bioactive phytochemicals responsible for the antioxidant activity of Green Tea (GT) and Black Tea (BT). Apart from the redox properties, tea catechins and theaflavins could have also pharmacological activities, such as lowering effects on glucose, lipid and uric acid (UA)...
October 16, 2016: British Journal of Pharmacology
Robert Buresh, Kris Berg
Oxidative stress has been shown to play a role in the etiology of several chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, and cancer. Free radicals and, most prominently, the superoxide radical, result from oxidative metabolism and several enzyme-catalyzed reactions, and endogenous cellular antioxidants dismutate many reactive oxygen species (ROS). Under certain conditions, ROS production can outpace dismutation (e.g., long-term sedentariness and positive energy balance) and the result is oxidative stress, with proteins, lipids, and DNA the most common targets of radicals...
December 2015: Sports Medicine—Open
Min Ji Bak, Van-Long Truong, Se-Yeon Ko, Xuan Ngan Giang Nguyen, Mira Jun, Soon-Gi Hong, Jong-Won Lee, Woo-Sik Jeong
BACKGROUND: The induction of cellular defensive genes such as phase II detoxifying and antioxidant enzymes is a highly effective strategy for protection against carcinogenesis as well as slowing cancer development. Transcription factor Nrf2 (nuclear factor E2-related factor 2) is responsible for activation of phase II enzymes induced by natural chemopreventive compounds. METHODS: Red ginseng oil (RGO) was extracted using a supercritical CO2 extraction system and chemical profile of RGO was investigated by GC/MS...
October 2016: Journal of Ginseng Research
Daniel Hanna, Ariane Emami Riedmaier, Kim S Sugamori, Denis M Grant
The incidence of liver cancer is higher in men than in women. This sex difference is also observed in murine tumor induction models that result in the appearance of liver tumors in adult mice following their exposure on postnatal days 8 and/or 15 to carcinogens such as 4-aminobiphenyl (ABP) or diethylnitrosamine (DEN). Previous studies performed in adult mice showed that acute hepatotoxic and inflammatory responses to high-dose DEN exposure were greater in males than in females, leading to the suggestion that these responses could account for the sex difference in tumor development...
October 13, 2016: Toxicology
Sudipta Saha, Vinit Raj, Amit Rai
The chemistry of heterocyclic containing, 1,3,4-thiadiazole has been an interesting field of study from ancient years. Subsequently, 1,3,4-thiadiazole nucleus constitutes a significant class of compounds for new drug development. Recently, various 1,3,4-thiadiazole derivatives have been synthesized and evaluated their biological activities including antimicrobial, antituberculosis, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticonvulsants, antidepressant and anxiolytic, antihypertensive, anticancer and antifungal activity...
October 13, 2016: Anti-cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
Matthew J Scheffel, Gina Scurti, Patricia Simms, Elizabeth Garrett-Mayer, Shikhar Mehrotra, Michael I Nishimura, Christina Voelkel-Johnson
Although adoptive transfer of autologous tumor antigen-specific T-cell immunotherapy can produce remarkable clinical efficacy, most patients do not achieve durable complete responses. We hypothesized that reducing susceptibility of T cells to activation-induced cell death (AICD), which increases during the rapid in vitro expansion of therapeutic T cells before their infusion, might improve the persistence of adoptively transferred cells. Our investigations revealed that repetitive stimulation of the T-cell receptor (TCR) induced AICD, as a result of activating the DNA damage response pathway through ATM-mediated Ser15 phosphorylation of p53...
October 15, 2016: Cancer Research
Matteo Ciocci, Egidio Iorio, Felicia Carotenuto, Haneen A Khashoggi, Francesca Nanni, Sonia Melino
The improvement of solubility and/or dissolution rate of poorly soluble natural compounds is an ideal strategy to make them optimal candidates as new potential drugs. Accordingly, the allyl sulfur compounds and omega-3 fatty acids are natural hydrophobic compounds that exhibit two important combined properties: cardiovascular protection and antitumor activity. Here, we have synthesized and characterized a novel formulation of diallyl disulfide (DADS) and α-linolenic acid (ALA) as protein-nanoemulsions (BAD-NEs), using ultrasounds...
October 12, 2016: Oncotarget
Abou Diallo, Mélanie Deschasaux, Valentin Partula, Paule Latino-Martel, Bernard Srour, Serge Hercberg, Pilar Galan, Philippine Fassier, Françoise Guéraud, Fabrice H Pierre, Mathilde Touvier
Experimental results suggested that iron-induced lipid peroxidation may explain the direct associations observed between red/processed meat intakes and colorectal and breast cancer risk. However, epidemiological evidence is lacking. Thus, we investigated the association between dietary iron intake and breast cancer risk, and its potential modulation by an antioxidant supplementation and lipid intake. This prospective study included 4646 women from the SU.VI.MAX trial (daily low-dose antioxidants vs. placebo)...
October 12, 2016: Oncotarget
Yuichiro Matsuoka, Hideki Nakayama, Ryoji Yoshida, Akiyuki Hirosue, Masashi Nagata, Takuya Tanaka, Kenta Kawahara, Junki Sakata, Hidetaka Arita, Hikaru Nakashima, Satoru Shinriki, Daiki Fukuma, Hidenao Ogi, Akimitsu Hiraki, Masanori Shinohara, Ryo Toya, Ryuji Murakami
BACKGROUND: In promoting tumour malignancy IL-6 signalling is considered to have an important role. However, the biological roles of IL-6 on radiosensitivity in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) remain largely unclear. The objective of this study is to determine the effects and molecular mechanisms of IL-6 on radiosensitivity in OSCC. METHODS: Two OSCC cell lines, and OSCC tissue samples with radioresistant cells were used. We examined the effects of IL-6, or tocilizumab, a humanised anti-human IL-6 receptor antibody, or both on radiosensitivity and DNA damage after X-ray irradiation in vitro...
October 13, 2016: British Journal of Cancer
Hui Liu, Yonghui Dong, Yutong Gao, Zhipeng Du, Yuting Wang, Peng Cheng, Anmin Chen, Hui Huang
Cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide and a major global health problem. In recent decades, the rates of both mortality and morbidity of cancer have rapidly increased for a variety of reasons. Despite treatment options, there are serious side effects associated with chemotherapy drugs and multiple forms of drug resistance that significantly reduce their effects. There is an accumulating amount of evidence on the pharmacological activities of baicalein (e.g., anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antiviral, and antitumor effects)...
October 9, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Y Lu, Y-P Jia
OBJECTIVE: Quercetin has been reported to have the activities of antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-virus, anti-cancer and so on. Many studies showed that quercetin could lower blood pressure and improve blood capillary elasticity, and it can also reduce LDL oxidation and prevent atherosclerosis. Although quercetin has been recognized to have the function of preventing atherosclerosis, little is known about its underlying mechanism. In this study, we try to explore whether quercetin up-regulates LXRa-mediated ABCA1 expression...
September 2016: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Sarah A Comerford, Elizabeth A Hinnant, Yidong Chen, Hima Bansal, Shawn Klapproth, Dinesh Rakheja, Milton J Finegold, Dolores Lopez-Terrada, Kathryn A O'Donnell, Gail E Tomlinson, Robert E Hammer
Aberrant wnt/β-catenin signaling and amplification/overexpression of Myc are associated with hepatoblastoma (HB), the most prevalent type of childhood liver cancer. To address their roles in the pathogenesis of HB, we generated mice in which Myc and mutant β-catenin were targeted to immature cells of the developing mouse liver. Perinatal coexpression of both genes promoted the preferential development of HBs over other tumor types in neonatal mice, all of which bore striking resemblance to their human counterparts...
October 6, 2016: JCI Insight
Yao Fong, Chia-Chun Tang, Huei-Ting Hu, Hsin-Yu Fang, Bing-Hung Chen, Chang-Yi Wu, Shyng-Shiou Yuan, Hui-Min David Wang, Yen-Chun Chen, Yen-Ni Teng, Chien-Chih Chiu
BACKGROUND: Trans-ferulic (FA) acid exhibits antioxidant effects in vitro. However, the underlying mechanism of trans-FA activity in cellular physiology, especially cancer physiology, remains largely unknown. This study investigated the cellular physiological effects of trans-FA on the H1299 human lung cancer cell line. METHODS: The 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay was used to determine free radical scavenging capability. Assessment of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) was evaluated using oxidized 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin diacetate and dihydroethidium staining...
2016: Chinese Medicine
Jong-Lyel Roh, Hye Jin Jang, Eun Hye Kim, Daiha Shin
AIMS: The glutathione (GSH), thioredoxin (Trx), and Nrf2 systems represent a major defense against reactive oxygen species (ROS), the cellular imbalance of which in cancer promotes growth and therapeutic resistance. This study investigated whether targeting the GSH, Trx, and Nrf2 antioxidant systems effectively eliminated head and neck cancer (HNC). RESULTS: At high concentrations, auranofin, but not buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) alone, decreased the viability of HNC, whereas even at low concentrations, auranofin plus BSO synergized to kill HNC cells...
October 12, 2016: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Mahdi Moridi Farimani, Emad Nazarianpoor, Arezoo Rustaie, Maryam Akhbari
Phytochemical investigation of Cleome iberica DC. aerial parts led to the isolation and characterisation of six triterpenoid including glutinol (1), lupeol (2), β-sitosterol (3), cabraleadiol monoacetate (4), cabraleadiol (6) and daucosterol (8), one flavonoid, calycopterin (5) along with a fatty acid, tricosanoic acid (7). While studied samples showed weak potency in antimicrobial assessment, the acetone extract and some isolated compounds exhibited considerable cytotoxicity against cervical cancer cell line (HeLa) in MTT assay, among them calycopterin with IC50 equals to 5...
October 12, 2016: Natural Product Research
Qing Zhao, Xiao-Ya Chen, Cathie Martin
Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, or Chinese skullcap, has been widely used as a medicinal plant in China for thousands of years, where the preparation from its roots is called Huang-Qin. It has been applied in the treatment of diarrhea, dysentery, hypertension, hemorrhaging, insomnia, inflammation and respiratory infections. Flavones such as baicalin, wogonoside and their aglycones baicalein wogonin are the major bioactive compounds extracted from the root of S. baicalensis. These flavones have been reported to have various pharmacological functions, including anti-cancer, hepatoprotection, antibacterial and antiviral, antioxidant, anticonvulsant and neuroprotective effects...
2016: Science Bulletin
Xiang Yu, Zhiping Che, Hui Xu
Podophyllotoxin and its related aryltetralin cyclolignans belong to a family of significant products that exhibit various biological properties (e.g., cytotoxic, insecticidal, antifungal, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, neurotoxic, immunosuppressive, antirheumatic, antioxidative, antispasmogenic, and hypolipidemic activities). This review provides a survey of podophyllotoxin and its analogs isolated from plants. In particular, recent developments in the elegant total chemical synthesis, structural modifications, biosynthesis, and biotransformation of podophyllotoxin and its analogs are summarized...
October 10, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
Huimin Qin, Hongtao Li, Xiaolin Zhou, Chen Peng, Honghu Tan, Minxin Wang
Presently, there have been a lot of documents confirmed that aflatoxin B1 could promote the incident rate of hepato-cellular carcinoma, but the specific mechanism is not completely clear. Some evidences showed that it might relate to oxidative stress and inflammatory reaction. So the rat hepato-cellular carcinoma model was applied in this study for being discussed. Aflatoxin B1 was applied for inducing the rats to produce hepato-cellular carcinoma model to evaluate the expression of histopathology and glutathione transferase...
2016: American Journal of Translational Research
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