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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231175/mushroom-polysaccharides-chemistry-and-antiobesity-antidiabetes-anticancer-and-antibiotic-properties-in-cells-rodents-and-humans
#1
REVIEW
Mendel Friedman
More than 2000 species of edible and/or medicinal mushrooms have been identified to date, many of which are widely consumed, stimulating much research on their health-promoting properties. These properties are associated with bioactive compounds produced by the mushrooms, including polysaccharides. Although β-glucans (homopolysaccharides) are believed to be the major bioactive polysaccharides of mushrooms, other types of mushroom polysaccharides (heteropolysaccharides) also possess biological properties. Here we survey the chemistry of such health-promoting polysaccharides and their reported antiobesity and antidiabetic properties as well as selected anticarcinogenic, antimicrobial, and antiviral effects that demonstrate their multiple health-promoting potential...
November 29, 2016: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228618/preventive-effect-of-intravesical-ozone-supplementation-on-n-methyl-n-nitrosourea-induced-non-muscle-invasive-bladder-cancer-in-male-rats
#2
Kerem Teke, Tayyar A Ozkan, Oguz O Cebeci, Hasan Yilmaz, Muhammed E Keles, Levend Ozkan, Meltem O Dillioglugil, Demir K Yildiz, Ozdal Dillioglugil
Although non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) is widely seen in men, most laboratory studies of new intravesical therapies to prevent NMIBC have been conducted on female animals. In addition, ozone (O3) has been shown to be a beneficial agent as an intravesical application in the treatment of various disorders. In the current study, we evaluated the immunohistopathological oxidative-antioxidative effects of intravesical O3 treatment on n-methyl-n-nitrosourea (MNU)-induced NMIBC. Male Wistar-Albino rats (n=51) were divided into four groups: sham (n=6), O3 only (n=15), MNU only (n=15), and MNU+O3 (n=15)...
February 22, 2017: Experimental Animals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228080/marine-drugs-a-hidden-wealth-and-a-new-epoch-for-cancer-management
#3
Eram Shakeel, Deepika Arora, Qazi Mohammad Sajid Jamal, Salman Akhtar, Mohd Kalim Ahmad Khan, Mohammad A Kamal, Mohd Haris Siddiqui, Mohtashim Lohani, Jamal M Arif
Malignant tumors are the leading cause of death in humans. Due to tedious efforts and investigation made in the field of marine drug discovery, there is now a scientific bridge between marine and pharmaceutical sciences. However, at present only few marine drugs have been paved towards anticancer management, yet many more to be established. Marine organisms are profuse manufacturer of structurally inimitable bioactive metabolites that have unusual mechanisms of action and diverse biosynthetic pathways. Some of the compounds derived from marine organisms have antioxidant property and anticancer activities, but they are largely unexplored...
February 20, 2017: Current Drug Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228077/antioxidant-nanoplatforms-for-dermal-delivery-melatonin
#4
Aroha Belen Sánchez Milán, Ana C Calpena Campmany, Beatriz Clares Naveros
Melatonin (MLT) is emerging as a promising therapeutic agent, mainly due to its role as antioxidant. Substantial evidences show that melatonin is potentially effective on a variety of diseases as cancer, inflammation and neurodegenerative diseases. The excellent antioxidant capacity with pharmacokinetics characteristics and the emerging search for new pharmaceutical nanotechnology based systems, make it particularly attractive to elaborate nanoplatforms based on MLT for biomedical or cosmetic dermal applications...
February 22, 2017: Current Drug Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228072/curcumin-and-endothelial-function-evidence-and-mechanisms-of-protective-effects
#5
Maryam Saberi Karimian, Matteo Pirro, Thomas P Johnston, Muhammed Majeed, Amirhossein Sahebkar
BACKGROUND: The endothelium is a large paracrine organ regulating cell growth, vascular tone and thrombogenicity as well as platelet and leukocyte interactions. Endothelial function can be assessed by non-invasive techniques [e.g. flow-mediated vasodilation, nitroglycerin-mediated dilation and pulse wave velocity] and measuring specific circulating biomarkers [cell adhesion molecules, endothelial microparticles and endothelial progenitor cells]. Impaired endothelial function plays a key role in the development of atherosclerosis, arterial hypertension, heart failure, ischemia-reperfusion injury, Alzheimer's disease and other conditions...
February 22, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224799/preparation-and-practical-applications-of-2-7-dichlorodihydrofluorescein-in-redox-assays
#6
Megan J Reiniers, Rowan F van Golen, Sylvestre Bonnet, Mans Broekgaarden, Thomas M van Gulik, Maarten R Egmond, Michal Heger
Oxidative stress, a state in which intra- or extracellular oxidant production outweighs the antioxidative capacity, lies at the basis of many diseases. DCFH2-DA (2',7'-dichlorodihydorfluorescein diacetate) is the most widely used fluorogenic probe for the detection of general oxidative stress. However, the use of DCFH2-DA, as many other fluorogenic redox probes, is mainly confined to the detection of intracellular oxidative stress in vitro. To expand the applicability of the probe, an alkaline hydrolysis and solvent extraction procedure was developed to generate high-purity DCFH2 (2',7'-dichlorodihydorfluorescein) from DCFH2-DA using basic laboratory equipment...
February 22, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222397/a-novel-approach-towards-design-synthesis-and-evaluation-of-some-schiff-base-analogues-of-2-aminopyridine-and-2-aminobezothiazole-against-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#7
Shinu Chacko, Subir Samanta
Hepatocellular carcinoma is the most common primary malignancy of the liver with poor prognosis. In this study novel, Schiff's bases of 2-aminopyridine (SSSC-26 to 31) and 2-aminobenzothiazole (SSSC-32 to 37) were designed, synthesised and evaluated for antioxidant potential using DPPH method, and anti-hepatocellular carcinoma property using diethylnitrosamine (DEN) induced hepatocellular carcinoma rat model. The in-silico pharmacokinetic, rule of five and toxicity studies reveals that all the leads have an excellent intrinsic quality and sufficient structural features necessary for an oral activity...
February 18, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219903/myc-driven-inhibition-of-the-glutamate-cysteine-ligase-promotes-glutathione-depletion-in-liver-cancer
#8
Brittany Anderton, Roman Camarda, Sanjeev Balakrishnan, Asha Balakrishnan, Rebecca A Kohnz, Lionel Lim, Kimberley J Evason, Olga Momcilovic, Klaus Kruttwig, Qiang Huang, Guowang Xu, Daniel K Nomura, Andrei Goga
How MYC reprograms metabolism in primary tumors remains poorly understood. Using integrated gene expression and metabolite profiling, we identify six pathways that are coordinately deregulated in primary MYC-driven liver tumors: glutathione metabolism; glycine, serine, and threonine metabolism; aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis; cysteine and methionine metabolism; ABC transporters; and mineral absorption. We then focus our attention on glutathione (GSH) and glutathione disulfide (GSSG), as they are markedly decreased in MYC-driven tumors...
February 20, 2017: EMBO Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219640/identification-and-characterization-of-functional-antioxidant-response-elements-in-the-promoter-of-the-aldo-keto-reductase-akr1b10-gene
#9
Toru Nishinaka, Takeshi Miura, Kahori Shimizu, Tomoyuki Terada
AKR1B10 is a human-type aldo-keto reductase. The up-regulation of AKR1B10 has been associated with various cancers including non-small cell lung carcinoma, viral and bacterial infections, and skin diseases. However, the mechanisms underlying AKR1B10 gene regulation are not fully understood. We previously indicated the involvement of the transcription factor Nrf2 in AKR1B10 gene regulation. There are at least five potential Nrf2-responsive consensus sequences, so-called antioxidant response elements (AREs), and several ARE-like sequences in the 5'-flanking region up to -3282 bp of the AKR1B10 gene...
February 17, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218905/phosphorylation-mediated-activation-of-ldha-promotes-cancer-cell-invasion-and-tumour-metastasis
#10
L Jin, J Chun, C Pan, G N Alesi, D Li, K R Magliocca, Y Kang, Z G Chen, D M Shin, F R Khuri, J Fan, S Kang
Metastases remain the major cause of death from cancer. Recent molecular advances have highlighted the importance of metabolic alterations in cancer cells, including the Warburg effect that describes an increased glycolysis in cancer cells. However, how this altered metabolism contributes to tumour metastasis remains elusive. Here, we report that phosphorylation-induced activation of lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA), an enzyme that catalyses the interconversion of pyruvate and lactate, promotes cancer cell invasion, anoikis resistance and tumour metastasis...
February 20, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218804/detection-of-lunasin-in-quinoa-chenopodium-quinoa-willd-and-the-in-vitro-evaluation-of-its-antioxidant-and-anti-inflammatory-activities
#11
Guixing Ren, Yingying Zhu, Zhenxing Shi
BACKGROUND: Lunasin is a novel cancer preventive peptide that has been detected in various plants. However, the presence and bioactivity of lunasin in quinoa has not been demonstrated. RESULTS: Lunasin was detected in quinoa using UPLC-ESI-MS. The content in fifteen quinoa samples ranged from 1.01 × 10(-3) g kg(-1) dry seed to 4.89 × 10(-3) g kg(-1) dry seed. Significant differences (p<0.05) in lunasin content among different cultivars (yy22, xsg86, xsg59, yy30 and yy19) from the same area and the same cultivar from different areas (Hainan, Hebei and Shanxi provinces) were observed...
February 20, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218720/time-concentration-and-ph-dependent-transport-and-uptake-of-anthocyanins-in-a-human-gastric-epithelial-nci-n87-cell-line
#12
Allison A Atnip, Gregory T Sigurdson, Joshua Bomser, M Mónica Giusti
Anthocyanins are the largest class of water soluble plant pigments and a common part of the human diet. They may have many potential health benefits, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, and cardioprotective activities. However, anthocyanin metabolism is not well understood. Studies suggest that anthocyanins absorption may occur in the stomach, in which the acidic pH favors anthocyanin stability. A gastric epithelial cell line (NCI-N87) has been used to study the behavior of anthocyanins at a pH range of 3...
February 18, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217539/analysis-of-plasma-lipid-peroxidation-and-antioxidant-enzymes-status-in-patients-of-oral-leukoplakia-a-case-control-study
#13
Kumar Chandan Srivastava, Deepti Shrivastava
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: Imbalances between the oxidant-antioxidant status have been implicated in the pathogenesis of several diseases, including oral cancer. Mostly, all oral cancer lesions are preceded by a stage of premalignancy. The present study aims to evaluate lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status in the venous blood of patients with different clinicopathologic stages of leukoplakia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A case control study was designed with the inclusion of 20 new cases of histopathologically proven leukoplakia of various clinical stages along with an equal number of positive and negative control individuals...
December 2016: Journal of International Society of Preventive & Community Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216880/isolation-and-characterisation-of-a-proanthocyanidin-with-antioxidative-antibacterial-and-anti-cancer-properties-from-fern-blechnum-orientale
#14
How-Yee Lai, Yau-Yan Lim, Kah-Hwi Kim
BACKGROUND: Blechnum orientale Linn. (Blechnaceae), a fern, is traditionally used in the treatment of various ailments, such as skin diseases, stomach pain, urinary bladder complaints, and also as a female contraceptive. Previously, we reported a strong radical scavenging activity, antibacterial activity and cytotoxicity against HT29 colon cancer cells by aqueous extract of B. orientale. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we attempted to isolate and identify the active compound from the aqueous extract of B...
January 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216169/cytogenotoxicological-defense-of-retinyl-palmitate-in-the-front-damage-of-antineoplastics
#15
Ricardo Melo de Carvalho, Rai Pablo de Sousa Aguiar, Muhammad Torequl Islam, Marcus Vinicius Oliveira Barros de Alencar, Ana Maria Oliveira Ferreira da Mata, Antonio Lima Braga, Josemar José da Silva Júnior, Leonardo da Rocha Sousa, Rosália Maria Tôrres de Lima, Márcia Fernanda Correia Jardim Paz, João Marcelo de Castro E Sousa, Ana Amélia de Carvalho Melo-Cavalcante
Cancer, the multifactorial pathology and to date is the most lethal causes of death in the world. Cyclophosphamide (CPA) and doxorubicin (DOX) are the individually or combindly used two anticancer drugs. The antineoplastic drugs-mediated genetic instability can be overcome by using antioxidants. The study evaluated the cytogenotoxic modulatory potentials of retinyl palmitate (RP) caused by CPA and DOX in Swiss mice. For this, adult Mus musculus of either sex were divided equally regarding to the gender. Toxicogenetic effects were induced by the intraperitoneal (i...
February 16, 2017: Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology: Official Journal of the Gesellschaft Für Toxikologische Pathologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215167/chemical-modifications-of-ketoprofen-nsaid-in-search-of-better-lead-compounds-a-review-of-literature-from-2004-2016
#16
Gita Chawla, Chanda Ranjan, Anees A Siddiqui, Jagdish Kumar, Ankita Pathak
BACKGROUND: Ketoprofen, a potent anti-inflammatory, analgesic and anti-pyretic drug belonging to the propionic acid class was synthesized in 1968. Rapid absorption, simple metabolism, faster blood brain barrier crossing and high antinociceptive activity are the features responsible for its high use. But, free acidic moiety present in its structure is the major factor that declines its popularity by causing various gastric side effects .Many researchers have chemically modified this drug with the aim to discover an improved and safe NSAID candidate or a new drug with altered activity...
February 16, 2017: Anti-inflammatory & Anti-allergy Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214706/influence-of-oxygen-partial-pressure-on-the-characteristics-of-human-hepatocarcinoma-cells
#17
Jenifer Trepiana, Susana Meijide, Rosaura Navarro, M Luisa Hernández, José Ignacio Ruiz-Sanz, M Begoña Ruiz-Larrea
Most of the in vitro studies using liver cell lines have been performed under atmospheric oxygen partial pressure (21% O2). However, the oxygen concentrations in the liver and cancer cells are far from this value. In the present study, we have evaluated the influence of oxygen on 1) the tumor cell lines features (growth, steady-state ROS levels, GSH content, activities of antioxidant enzymes, p66 Shc and SOD expressions, metalloproteinases secretion, migration, invasion, and adhesion) of human hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines, and b) the response of the cells to an oxidant stimulus (aqueous leaf extract of the V...
February 13, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214344/neferine-potentiates-the-antitumor-effect-of-cisplatin-in-human-lung-adenocarcinoma-cells-via-a-mitochondria-mediated-apoptosis-pathway
#18
Kalai Selvi Sivalingam, Poornima Paramasivan, Ching Feng Weng, Viswanadha Vijaya Padma
Cisplatin is one of the most potent chemotherapeutic agents for the treatment of many types of solid tumors but its efficacy is often limited by the development of resistance and dose limiting toxicity. Neferine is an alkaloid isolated from seed embryo of Nelumbo nucifera, it has recently been shown to have anticancer effects in various human cancer cell lines. The present investigation is designed to study the chemosensitizing ability of neferine with cisplatin in A549 cells. Neferine potentiates the cisplatin induced apoptosis through the exploration of characteristic apoptotic morphological changes, induced sub-G0/G1 cell cycle arrest, ROS hypergeneration, significant loss of cellular antioxidant enzymes as well as loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨM)...
February 18, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211011/teoa-a-triterpenoid-from-actinidia-eriantha-induces-autophagy-in-sw620-cells-via-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-and-ros-dependent-mitophagy
#19
Dandan Zhang, Cuixia Gao, Ruyi Li, Lin Zhang, Jingkui Tian
2α,3α,24-Thrihydroxyurs-12-en-28-oicacid (TEOA), a pentacyclic triterpenoid, isolated from the roots of Actinidia eriantha, exhibits significant cytotoxicity against SW620, BGC-823, HepG-2, A549 and PC-3 cancer cells. In this study, we investigated the underlying molecular mechanism of the anticancer activity of TEOA in SW620 cells. We demonstrated that TEOA induced apoptosis through cleavage of caspase-9 and PARP in SW620 cells. In addition, evidence of TEOA-mediated autophagy included the induction of autophagolysosomes and activation of autophagic markers LC-3B and p62...
February 16, 2017: Archives of Pharmacal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209094/attenuation-of-arsenic-trioxide-induced-cardiotoxicity-through-flaxseed-oil-in-experimental-rats
#20
Mathews V Varghese, M Abhilash, Manju Alex, M V Sauganth Paul, A Prathapan, K G Raghu, R Harikumaran Nair
OBJECTIVES: Arsenic trioxide (As2O3) is a potent drug for acute promyelocytic leukaemia, but its clinical trials are allied with some serious adverse events mainly cardiac functional abnormalities. So the objective of our investigation is to identify the cardioprotective action of flaxseed oil (FSO), a natural compound against As2O3 induced cardiotoxicity. METHODS: Male wistar rats were treated with As2O3 (4 mg/kg) to induce cardiotoxicity. FSO (250 and 500 mg/kg) was given in combination with As2O3 for evaluating its cardioprotective efficacy...
February 17, 2017: Redox Report: Communications in Free Radical Research
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