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Posterior capsule block

Bruce A Boswell, Anna Korol, Judith A West-Mays, Linda S Musil
The most common vision-disrupting complication of cataract surgery is posterior capsule opacification (PCO; secondary cataract). PCO is caused by residual lens cells undergoing one of two very different cell fates: either transdifferentiating into myofibroblasts, or maturing into lens fiber cells. Although TGFβ has been strongly implicated in lens cell fibrosis, the factors responsible for the latter process have not been identified. We show here for the first time that TGFβ can induce purified primary lens epithelial cells within the same culture to undergo differentiation into either lens fiber cells or myofibroblasts...
February 16, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
Chunmei Zhang, Jingjing Liu, Na Jin, Guiming Zhang, Yahui Xi, Hongling Liu
Posterior capsule opacification (PCO) is the most common complication that causes visual decrease after extracapsular cataract surgery. The primary cause of PCO formation is the proliferation of the residual lens epithelial cells (LECs). The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) plays an important role in the growth and migration of LECs. In the current study, we used small interfering RNA (siRNA) to specifically attenuate mTOR in human lens epithelial B3 cells (HLE B3). We aimed to examine the effect of mTOR-siRNA on the proliferation, migration and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of HLE B3 cells and explore the underlying mechanisms...
2016: PloS One
J Pogorzelski, S Braun, A B Imhoff, K Beitzel
OBJECTIVE: Treatment of posterior shoulder instability with increased retroversion of the glenoid using open-wedge osteotomy of the glenoid neck stabilized with an autologous bone block. INDICATIONS: Symptomatic, atraumatic posterior shoulder instability with increased retroversion (>20°) of the glenoid and previously failed conservative or surgical treatment. CONTRAINDICATIONS: General contraindications against surgery. Relative contraindications: osteoporosis, nicotine abuse, or suspected patient noncompliance...
December 2016: Operative Orthopädie und Traumatologie
Yanin Suwan, Bayasgalan Purevdorj, Chaiwat Teekhasaenee, Wasu Supakontanasan, Pornchai Simaroj
BACKGROUND: Report of three patients with pseudophakic angle-closure from a Soemmering ring. Three mechanisms of the Soemmering ring induced pseudophakic angle-closure in three patients were demonstrated by meticulous anterior segment examination and ultrasound biomicroscopic (UBM) analysis. CASE PRESENTATION: In the first case, the Soemmering-capsule-IOL complex caused relative pupillary block similar to a phakic eye and was successfully treated with laser iridotomy alone...
June 17, 2016: BMC Ophthalmology
Mickael Dinomais, Lucie Hertz-Pannier, Samuel Groeschel, Matthieu Delion, Béatrice Husson, Manoelle Kossorotoff, Cyrille Renaud, Stéphane Chabrier, Sylvie Nguyen The Tich
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: In children having suffered from neonatal arterial ischemic stroke, the relationship between contralesional hand performance and structural changes in brain areas remote from the infarct site was examined. METHODS: Using voxel-based morphometry, we correlated contralesional gross manual dexterity assessed by the box and block test and whole-brain gray and white-matter volume changes on high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging in 37 7-year-old post-neonatal arterial ischemic stroke children...
June 2016: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
Takeshi Hara, Tsutomu Hara, Kotaro Sakanishi, Takako Hashimoto, Yuta Motoyama
UNLABELLED: We report in vivo observation of a capsular bag containing an endocapsular equator ring and intraocular lens that was explanted 5 years after the initial surgery. The capsule equator remained completely circular. The inside of the capsular bag retained the open space, and the endocapsular equator ring blocked proliferative tissue under the anterior capsule at the equator and prevented posterior capsule opacification. FINANCIAL DISCLOSURE: No author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned...
February 2016: Journal of Cataract and Refractive Surgery
David Burckett-St Laurant, Philip Peng, Laura Girón Arango, Ahtsham U Niazi, Vincent W S Chan, Anne Agur, Anahi Perlas
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Adductor canal block contributes to analgesia after total knee arthroplasty. However, controversy exists regarding the target nerves and the ideal site of local anesthetic administration. The aim of this cadaveric study was to identify the trajectory of all nerves that course in the adductor canal from their origin to their termination and describe their relative contributions to the innervation of the knee joint. METHODS: After research ethics board approval, 20 cadaveric lower limbs were examined using standard dissection technique...
May 2016: Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
Usha Kaul Raina, Gauri Bhushan, Supriya Arora, Neha Rathie
We report a case of delayed onset capsular block syndrome in a patient 6 years after undergoing cataract surgery. Ocular examination revealed marked diminution of vision accompanied with a collection of milky fluid between the intraocular lens and posterior capsule. To treat and to understand the pathology of the condition, aspiration of fluid using 25-gauge vitrector through pars plana was done, and contents sent for microbiological analysis which did not reveal any growth. Postoperative period was uneventful with the absence of intraocular inflammation and excellent visual recovery...
September 2015: Oman Journal of Ophthalmology
Andrew C Morris, Jonathan C Yu, Shawn R Gilbert
INTRODUCTION: Traumatic hip dislocations in children and adolescents require prompt concentric reduction. Incomplete reduction with or without retained osteochondral fragments has traditionally been addressed with open reduction. We report on the use of arthroscopy to remove loose bodies and reduce enfolded soft tissues to obtain concentric reduction in the pediatric and adolescent population. Specific note is made of underlying pathology and arthroscopic intervention. METHODS: After obtaining Institutional Review Board approval, we performed a retrospective review of patients under the age of 19 who were treated with hip arthroscopy following hip dislocation reduction at a single children's hospital from 2006 to 2013...
October 30, 2015: Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics
Zhu Huang, Xiao-Yu Wang, Wei Han
Uveitic glaucoma (UG) is secondary glaucoma, present as a clinical challenge in both diagnosis and management.We report a case of complex UG, which initially presented as pupillary block and rupture of the anterior lens capsule. We performed cataract extraction with preservation of posterior capsule. Then, the case turned to aphakic malignant glaucoma. We performed anterior vitrectomy with posterior capsule resection in this case. After the second operation, the patient had a satisfactory recovery. Specifically, ultrasonographic biomicroscopy was useful during the diagnosis process and follow-up period in this case...
August 2015: Medicine (Baltimore)
Emrah Kovalak, Alper Tunga Doğan, Onat Üzümcügil, Abdullah Obut, Aslı Sevim Yıldız, Enes Kanay, Tolga Tüzüner, Emine Özyuvacı
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to compare the effects of 24-h continuous femoral nerve block (CFNB) and periarticular infiltration analgesia (PIA) on postoperative pain and functional results in the first 6 weeks after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). METHODS: Sixty patients who underwent unilateral TKA were included in this study. The patients were divided into two groups: Group A received CFNB and Group B received PIA. Each patient received 0.25% levobupivacaine and 1:100,000 epinephrine as infiltration to the posterior capsule...
2015: Acta Orthopaedica et Traumatologica Turcica
Ibraheem A El-Ghrably, Ahmed Saad, Christiana Dinah
INTRODUCTION: Fluocinolone acetonide (FAc) intravitreal implant (ILUVIEN(®); Alimera Sciences Limited, Aldershot, UK) has been approved in the UK for the treatment of chronic diabetic macula edema, insufficiently responsive to available therapies. It is inserted into the vitreous cavity through a 25-gauge needle. Migration of the implant to the anterior chamber (AC) can occur through gaps in the posterior capsule especially in vitrectomized eyes. Early removal of AC-dislocated FAc implant is essential to prevent corneal edema and damage from raised intraocular pressure...
December 2015: Ophthalmology and Therapy
F J Lovicu, E H Shin, J W McAvoy
Cataract is a common age-related condition that is caused by progressive clouding of the normally clear lens. Cataract can be effectively treated by surgery; however, like any surgery, there can be complications and the development of a secondary cataract, known as posterior capsule opacification (PCO), is the most common. PCO is caused by aberrant growth of lens epithelial cells that are left behind in the capsular bag after surgical removal of the fiber mass. An epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is central to fibrotic PCO and forms of fibrotic cataract, including anterior/posterior polar cataracts...
January 2016: Experimental Eye Research
Terri L Alessio, Emily M Krieger
CASE DESCRIPTION: A 4-year-old castrated male Chihuahua was evaluated because of unilateral vision loss following extraoral administration of a caudal maxillary nerve block during a dental procedure. CLINICAL FINDINGS: The menace response was absent in the left eye, but the pupillary light reflex was intact. Vitreal hemorrhages and opacities were present on ophthalmic examination of the left eye. Ultrasonographic findings were supportive of the clinical findings...
May 1, 2015: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
Xin-long Ma
Lumbar disc protrusion is common. Its clinical manifestations and treatments are closely related to the pathological changes; however, the pathological classification of lumbar disc protrusion is controversial. This article introduces a new pathological classification comprising four types of lumbar disc protrusion according to intraoperative findings. The damage-herniation type is probably caused by injury and is characterized by soft herniation, the capsule can easily be cut and the broken disc tissue blocks overflow or is easily removed...
February 2015: Orthopaedic Surgery
Fang Tian, Lijie Dong, Yu Zhou, Yan Shao, Wenbo Li, Hong Zhang, Fei Wang
Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) induced the proliferation of lens epithelial cells (LECs) and may be a major cause of posterior capsule opacification (PCO), which is the most frequent postoperative complication of cataract surgery. To date, several agents that can block LECs proliferation have been studied, but none have been used in clinic. Recently, accumulating evidence has suggested rapamycin, the inhibitor of mTOR (mammalian target of Rapamycin), was associated with the induction of apoptosis in LECs. The purpose of our study was to investigate the potential effects of rapamycin on HGF-induced LECs and the underlying mechanisms by which rapamycin exerted its actions...
2014: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Valentín Huerva, M Carmen Sánchez, Francisco J Ascaso, Jordi Soldevila
PURPOSE: To evaluate the clinical characteristics of the unusual late postoperative capsular block syndrome (CBS) and the effect of Nd:YAG laser posterior capsulotomy on visual acuity and refractive error as well as its possible complications. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study, 12 eyes of 11 patients with late CBS who had undergone Nd:YAG laser posterior capsulotomy were reviewed. A complete ophthalmic examination including Scheimpflug camera and anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) imaging had been performed before and after posterior capsulotomy...
January 2015: European Journal of Ophthalmology
Gianni Colini-Baldeschi
BACKGROUND: Low back disorder is the most common problem in the entire spinal axis. About two-thirds of adults suffer from low back pain (LBP) at some time. Pain generators in the lumbar spine include the annulus of the disc, the posterior longitudinal ligament, a portion of the dural membrane, the facet joints, the spinal nerve roots and ganglia, and the associated paravertebral muscle fascia. There is no doubt that the facet joint is a potential source of chronic LBP. Facet joints are true synovial joints that have a joint space, hyaline cartilage surfaces, a synovial membrane, and a fibrous capsule...
2012: Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine
Bo Ma, Qianyan Kang, Li Qin, Lijun Cui, Cheng Pei
Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β2, gremlin and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) are known to play important roles in the induction of epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) and extracellular matrix (ECM) synthesis. However, the complex functional relationship among gremlin, CTGF and TGF-β2 in the induction of EMT and ECM synthesis in human lens epithelial cells (HLECs) has not been reported. In this study, we found that TGF-β2, CTGF and gremlin can individually induce the expression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), fibronectin (Fn), collagen type I (COL-I), Smad2 and Smad3 in HLECs...
May 16, 2014: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
C Wertheimer, R Liegl, M Kernt, D Docheva, A Kampik, K H Eibl-Lindner
INTRODUCTION: After cataract surgery, residual lens epithelial cells migrate and proliferate within the capsular bag resulting in posterior capsule opacification (PCO). The up-regulation of TGF-β2, EGF and FGF-2 has been identified as a key factor in PCO pathogenesis leading to actin fiber assembly and alterations in the migration pattern. In this in vitro study, the influence of Erlotinib as a selective EGFR inhibitor is investigated on the cellular features indicated, which might promote a future clinical application...
October 2014: Current Eye Research
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