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Irene Fondón, Auxiliadora Sarmiento, Ana Isabel García, María Silvestre, Catarina Eloy, António Polónia, Paulo Aguiar
Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death among women. Its early diagnosis is extremely important to prevent avoidable deaths. However, malignancy assessment of tissue biopsies is complex and dependent on observer subjectivity. Moreover, hematoxylin and eosin (H&E)-stained histological images exhibit a highly variable appearance, even within the same malignancy level. In this paper, we propose a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) tool for automated malignancy assessment of breast tissue samples based on the processing of histological images...
March 8, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Suzanne Ostrand-Rosenberg
Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) are present in most individuals with cancer where they inhibit adaptive and innate antitumor immunity and are an obstacle to cancer immunotherapies. Chronic inflammation is characteristic of adipose tissue and is a risk factor for the onset and progression of cancer in obese individuals. Because MDSC accumulate in response to inflammation, it has been hypothesized that one of the mechanisms by which obesity promotes malignancy is through the induction of MDSC. This article reviews the data supporting this hypothesis, the role of leptin and fatty acid metabolism in the induction of MDSC, and the surprising finding that although MDSC promote tumor progression, they are protective against some of the metabolic dysfunction associated with obesity...
March 12, 2018: Current Opinion in Immunology
Narjeet S Khurmi, Yu-Hui Chang, D Eric Steidley, Andrew L Singer, Winston R Hewitt, Kunam S Reddy, Adyr A Moss, Amit K Mathur
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a leading cause of post-liver transplant death, and variable care patterns may affect outcomes. We aimed to describe epidemiology and outcomes of inpatient CVD care across U.S. hospitals. METHODS: Using a merged dataset from the 2002-2011 Nationwide Inpatient Sample and the American Hospital Association Annual Survey, we evaluated liver transplant patients admitted primarily with myocardial infarction (MI), stroke (CVA), congestive heart failure (CHF), dysrhythmias, cardiac arrest (CA), or malignant hypertension...
March 15, 2018: Liver Transplantation
Kinga A Kocemba-Pilarczyk, Barbara Ostrowska, Sonia Trojan, Ecce Aslan, Dorota Kusior, Małgorzata Lasota, Claire Lenouvel, Joanna Dulińska-Litewka
Multiple myeloma (MM) is characterized as a clonal expansion of malignant plasma cells in the bone marrow, which is often associated with pancytopenia and osteolytic bone disease. Interestingly, myeloma-infiltrated bone marrow is considered to be hypoxic, providing selection pressure for a developing tumour. Since HSP90 was shown to participate in stabilization of the subunit of the key transcription factor HIF-1, which controls the hypoxic response, the aim of this study was to investigate the influence of a HSP90 inhibitor 17-Allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG), on MM cells cultured under low oxygenation conditions...
March 15, 2018: Acta Biochimica Polonica
Magdalena B Król, Michał Galicki, Peter Grešner, Edyta Wieczorek, Ewa Jabłońska, Edyta Reszka, Zbigniew Morawiec, Wojciech Wąsowicz, Jolanta Gromadzińska
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to establish whether the gene expression of estrogen receptor alpha (encoded by ESR1) correlates with the expression of glutathione peroxidase 1 (encoded by GPX1) in the tumor and adjacent tumor-free breast tissue, and whether this correlation is affected by breast cancer. Such relationships may give further insights into breast cancer pathology with respect to the status of estrogen receptor. METHODS: We used the quantitative real-time PCR technique to analyze differences in the expression levels of the ESR1 and GPX1 genes in paired malignant and non-malignant tissues from breast cancer patients...
March 15, 2018: Acta Biochimica Polonica
Suguru Fukushima, Makoto Endo, Yoshihiro Matsumoto, Jun-Ichi Fukushi, Tomoya Matsunobu, Ken-Ichi Kawaguchi, Nokitaka Setsu, Keiichiro IIda, Nobuhiko Yokoyama, Makoto Nakagawa, Kenichiro Yahiro, Yoshinao Oda, Yukihide Iwamoto, Yasuharu Nakashima
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0178064.].
2018: PloS One
Jihyun An, Jong Woo Kim, Ju Hyun Shim, Seungbong Han, Chang Sik Yu, Jaewon Choe, Danbi Lee, Kang Mo Kim, Young-Suk Lim, Young-Hwa Chung, Yung Sang Lee, Dong Jin Suh, Jin Hyoung Kim, Han Chu Lee
BACKGROUND: Prior epidemiological evidences suggest that hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is linked to cancers other than hepatocellular carcinoma. This prospective hospital registry-based case-control study aimed to investigate the sero-epidemiological association between chronic HBV infection and various types of cancer. METHODS: 95,034 patients with first-diagnosed non-hepatocellular malignancy in a tertiary hospital between 2007 and 2014; and 118,891 non-cancer individuals as controls from a health promotion center were included...
2018: PloS One
Jianwen Long, Qiqige Menggen, Qimige Wuren, Quan Shi, Xianming Pi
BACKGROUND Malignant melanoma is a class of malignant tumors derived from melanocytes. lncRNAs have been considered as pro-/anti-tumor factors in progression of cancers. The function of lncRNA TUG1 on growth of melanoma was investigated in this study. MATERIAL AND METHODS The TUG1 and miR-129-5p expression were examined via qRT-PCR. The protein expression was investigated by Western blotting assay. Luciferase reporter assay was used to assess if lncRNA TUG1 can bind to miR-129-5p and if miR-129-5p can target AEG1 mRNA...
March 15, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Carmen J Zamora-Sánchez, Aylin Del Moral-Morales, Ana M Hernández-Vega, Valeria Hansberg-Pastor, Ivan Salido-Guadarrama, Mauricio Rodríguez-Dorantes, Ignacio Camacho-Arroyo
Glioblastomas (GBM) are the most frequent and aggressive brain tumors. In these malignancies, progesterone (P4) promotes proliferation, migration, and invasion. The P4 metabolite allopregnanolone (3α-THP) similarly promotes cell proliferation in the U87 human GBM cell line. Here, we evaluated global changes in gene expression of U87 cells treated with 3α-THP, P4, and the 5α-reductase inhibitor, finasteride (F). 3α-THP modified the expression of 137 genes, while F changed 90. Besides, both steroids regulated the expression of 69 genes...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Paula Marrano, Mary Shago, Gino R Somers, Paul S Thorner
Osteogenic sarcoma (OS) is the most common malignant bone tumor in children and adolescents. Despite advances in molecular genetic characterization of pediatric and adult tumors, the diagnosis of OS still depends almost entirely on light microscopy. The lack of consistent genetic changes in OS has greatly hindered the development of any diagnostic molecular test. Recently, whole-genome sequencing has shown that ~50% of cases of OS have a translocation involving the TP53 gene with breakpoints confined to the first intron...
March 14, 2018: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
Andrea D Olivas, Jerome Taxy, Rebecca Wolsky, Tatjana Antic
Phyllodes tumor of the prostate is a rare mesenchymal tumor conventionally regarded as a stromal tumor of undetermined malignant potential. While the initial presentation is that of urinary obstruction and/or hematuria, the subsequent clinical behavior is thought to be a function of stromal cellularity and cytologic changes of malignancy. Of histologic interest, the epithelial component of this tumor varies, including intestinal metaplasia, as seen in the present case.
March 14, 2018: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
Simone B S P Terra, Scott W Aesif, Joseph J Maleszewski, Andrew L Folpe, Jennifer M Boland
Synovial sarcoma (SS), a translocation-associated sarcoma characterized by SS18-SSX1/2 fusion, presents most often in the extremities of young adults. While SS regularly occurs in the pleuropulmonary parenchyma, the mediastinum is an exceedingly rare primary site; the literature on this subject is predominantly composed of case reports and small series, mostly without molecular confirmation. Cases of mediastinal SS were selected from our institutional and consultation archives. Diagnoses were confirmed by either SS18 fluorescence in situ hybridization (n=6) or reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction for SS18-SSX1/2 (n=15)...
March 14, 2018: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
Gabriel Carvajal, Denis Dupoiron, Valerie Seegers, Nathalie Lebrec, François Boré, Pierre-Yves Dubois, Damien Leblanc, Thierry Delorme, Sabrina Jubier-Hamon
BACKGROUND: Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer-related death in Europe and the United States. Studies have demonstrated that patients with pancreatic cancer have a high prevalence of pain, with rates varying from 47% to 82%. Analgesia using intrathecal drug delivery systems (IDDS) has been poorly studied specifically in this population. METHODS: The IDDS for pancreatic cancer pain was a follow-up observational study designed to evaluate 11-year results of IDDS for refractory pancreatic cancer pain at the Institut de Cancérologie de L'Ouest, Paul Papin in France...
March 14, 2018: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Madan Upadhyay, Ranju Kharel Sitaula, Bharat Shrestha, Bhaiya Khanal, Bishnu Psd Upadhyay, Jeevan B Sherchand, Prakash Ghimire
PURPOSE: This review aims to provide a detailed update in Seasonal hypercute panuveitis (SHAPU) which is a blinding disease of unknown etiology reported only from Nepal, occurring every odd year since 1975 predominantly in children. METHODS: Data sources were literature reviewed using PubMed, Medline, and ISI Databases (since 1975 to late 2017). Search items included SHAPU, seasonal endophthalmitis, hypopyon uveitis, caterpillar induced uveitis alone or in combination with white moth, panuveitis, and review...
March 15, 2018: Ocular Immunology and Inflammation
Xuejiao Song, Tiantao Gao, Qian Lei, Lidan Zhang, Yuqin Yao, Jingyuan Xiong
Malignant melanoma is a devastating skin cancer due to its severe drug resistance and prompt metastasis. Piperlongumine is an anti-inflammation and tumor-suppressing natural product with defined structure. While numerous studies revealed exceptional inhibitory effects of piperlongumine on several carcinomas, few investigations were performed on melanoma. Therefore, the present study investigated the anti-tumor effects of piperlongumine on human melanoma cells in vitro, and explored the mechanisms of action...
March 15, 2018: Nutrition and Cancer
Fatemeh Faraji, Nader Tajik, Mahdi Behdani, Mohammad Ali Shokrgozar, Amir Hassan Zarnani, Fatemeh Shahhosseini, Mahdi Habibi-Anbouhi
CD22 is a B-cell-specific trans-membrane glycoprotein which is found on the surface of the most B-cells and modulates their function, survival, and apoptosis. Recently, targeting this cell surface biomarker in B-cell malignancies and disorders has attracted a lot of attention. The variable domain of camelid single chain antibodies (VHH, Nanobody) is a form of antibodies with novel properties including small size (15-17 kDa), thermal and chemical stability, high affinity and homology to human antibody sequences...
March 15, 2018: Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry
Lawrence Mj Best, Yemisi Takwoingi, Sulman Siddique, Abiram Selladurai, Akash Gandhi, Benjamin Low, Mohammad Yaghoobi, Kurinchi Selvan Gurusamy
BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) infection has been implicated in a number of malignancies and non-malignant conditions including peptic ulcers, non-ulcer dyspepsia, recurrent peptic ulcer bleeding, unexplained iron deficiency anaemia, idiopathic thrombocytopaenia purpura, and colorectal adenomas. The confirmatory diagnosis of H pylori is by endoscopic biopsy, followed by histopathological examination using haemotoxylin and eosin (H & E) stain or special stains such as Giemsa stain and Warthin-Starry stain...
March 15, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Ya-Dong Gao, Ya-Wei Qu, Hai-Feng Liu
OBJECTIVE: The accurate diagnosis of undetermined pancreaticobiliary strictures remains challenging. Current ERCP-guided tissue sampling methods are of low sensitivity. Confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE) is a new procedure and allows real optical biopsies that may improve the diagnosis of undetermined pancreaticobiliary strictures. The aim of this meta-analysis was to determine the diagnostic yield of CLE, tissue sampling, and CLE combined with tissue sampling for undetermined pancreaticobiliary strictures...
March 15, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology
M Brimioulle, A Al-Lami, S Marzouk, H Emerson, A Balfour, V Dhar, I J Nixon
Introduction The aim of this study was to determine whether ultrasound alone is sufficient to safely exclude malignancy in thyroid nodules in a district general hospital setting, to comply with the latest British Thyroid Association guidelines. Methods This retrospective study investigated the quality of ultrasound reporting and the correlation between ultrasound report and histology for individual thyroid nodules. Cases were selected from the thyroid multidisciplinary meeting and included all patients having undergone surgery for a thyroid malignancy in a one-year period...
March 15, 2018: Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England
A K Malik, R Filobbos, A Manoharan, N Harvey, D A O'Reilly, N de Liguori Carino
Angiomyxomas are uncommon myxoid tumours arising most commonly from the pelvis. A 46-year-old woman with a history of polycystic kidney disease presented asymptomatically for surveillance ultrasonography; changes were noted in the size and morphology of her liver cysts. Subsequent radiological assessment displayed features suspicious of malignancy and a right hemihepatectomy was performed with curative intent. Pathological examination of the resected specimen found histology consistent with an angiomyxoma arising primarily from the liver parenchyma...
March 15, 2018: Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England
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