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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431412/cutaneous-malignant-melanoma-with-rhabdoid-morphology-and-smooth-muscle-differentiation-a-challenging-histopathologic-diagnosis
#1
Lucía Prieto-Torres, Victoria Alegría-Landa, Concepción Llanos, Alicia Córdoba, Heinz Kutzner, Luis Requena
Divergent differentiation or metaplastic change is a rare feature exhibited occasionally in malignant melanoma (MM), which is characterized by the development of morphologically, immunochemically, and/or ultrastructurally nonmelanocytic cells within the tumor. Smooth muscle differentiation in MM is an exceedingly rare phenomenon reported only in a few cases in the literature. We report the case of a 69-year-old woman who presented with a pure dermal amelanotic MM with smooth muscle cell differentiation and an area of rhabdoid morphology, which made the accurate histopathologic diagnostic of MM challenging...
May 2017: American Journal of Dermatopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431398/decreased-calpain-activity-in-chronic-myeloid-leukemia-impairs-apoptosis-by-increasing-survivin-in-myeloid-progenitors-and-xiap1-in-differentiating-granulocytes
#2
Weiqi Huang, Ling Bei, Elizabeth E Hjort, Elizabeth A Eklund
Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML) is characterized by translocations between chromosomes 9 and 22, resulting in expression of Bcr-abl oncogenes. Although the clinical course of CML was revolutionized by development of Bcr-abl-directed tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), CML is not cured by these agents. Specifically, the majority of subjects relapsed in clinical trials attempting TKI discontinuation, suggesting persistence of leukemia stem cells (LSCs) even in molecular remission. Identifying mechanisms of CML-LSC persistence may suggest rationale therapeutic targets to augment TKI efficacy and lead to cure...
April 6, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431394/effect-of-salmonella-enterica-serovar-typhimurium-vnp20009-and-vnp20009-with-restored-chemotaxis-on-4t1-mouse-mammary-carcinoma-progression
#3
Sheryl L Coutermarsh-Ott, Katherine M Broadway, Birgit E Scharf, Irving C Allen
A variety of bacterial strains have been evaluated as bio-therapeutic and immunomodulatory agents to treat cancer. One such strain, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium VNP20009, which is attenuated by a purine auxotrophic mutation and modified lipid A, is characterized in previous models as a safely administered, tumor colonizing agent. However, earlier work tended to use less aggressive cancer cell lines and immunocompromised animal models. Here, we investigated the safety and efficacy of VNP20009 in a highly malignant murine model of human breast cancer...
April 4, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431263/epigenetic-therapy-and-chemosensitization-in-solid-malignancy
#4
REVIEW
Sean M Ronnekleiv-Kelly, Anup Sharma, Nita Ahuja
Epigenetic modifications result in dynamic shifts between transcriptionally active and suppressed states. The potentially reversible nature of epigenetic changes underlies the concept of epigenetic therapy, which serves to reprogram cancer cells as opposed to inducing cytotoxicity that occurs with standard chemotherapeutics. There are numerous enzymes involved in epigenetic changes and each can be potentially targetable. Although many investigations have evaluated the clinical potential of the various epigenetic therapies, currently only histone deacetylase inhibitors and DNA methyltransferase inhibitors are approved for use in specific hematologic malignancies...
April 8, 2017: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431200/the-utility-of-flow-cytometry-in-differentiating-nk-t-cell-lymphoma-from-indolent-and-reactive-nk-cell-proliferations
#5
Sanjay de Mel, Jenny Bei Li, Muhammad Bilal Abid, Tiffany P L Tang, Hui Ming Tay, Wen Chang Ting, Li Mei Poon, Tae Hoon Chung, Benjamin Mow, Allison Tso, Kiat Hoe Ong, Wee Joo Chng, Te Chih Liu
BACKGROUND: The WHO defines 3 categories of NK cell malignancies; extra nodal NK/T cell lymphoma (NKTCL), aggressive NK cell leukaemia, and the provisional entity chronic lymphoproliferative disorder of NK cells (CLPD-NK). Although the flow cytometric (FC) phenotype of CLPD-NK has been described, studies on FC phenotype of NKTCL are limited. To the best of our knowledge ours is the first study to compare the phenotype of NKTCL, CLPD-NK, reactive NK lymphocytosis (RNKL), and normal NK cells using eight colour (8C) FC...
April 21, 2017: Cytometry. Part B, Clinical Cytometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431167/performance-of-18f-fdg-pet-ct-in-the-characterization-of-adrenal-masses-in-non-cancer-patients-a-prospective-study
#6
Carole Guerin, François Pattou, Laurent Brunaud, Jean-Christophe Lifante, Eric Mirallié, Magalie Haissaguerre, Damien Huglo, Pierre Olivier, Claire Houzard, Catherine Ansquer, Elif Hindié, Anderson Loundou, Cendrine Archange, Antoine Tabarin, Fréderic Sebag, Karine Baumstarck, David Taïeb
Context: Few prospective studies have evaluated the role of 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT) in the characterization of adrenal masses. Objective: To assess the performance of 18F-FDG PET/CT in the malignancy diagnosis of adrenal masses in non-cancer patients. Design: Prospective multicenter study. Material and methods: The study population consisted of 87 patients (87 adrenal masses) referred to endocrine surgeons: 56 with mass diameter ≥40 mm and 31 with a diameter <40 mm and of indeterminate nature based on unenhanced and washout CT attenuation densities...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430920/rates-and-predictors-of-hospital-readmission-after-transcatheter-aortic-valve-implantation
#7
Anna Franzone, Thomas Pilgrim, Nicolas Arnold, Dik Heg, Bettina Langhammer, Raffaele Piccolo, Eva Roost, Fabien Praz, Lorenz Räber, Marco Valgimigli, Peter Wenaweser, Peter Jüni, Thierry Carrel, Stephan Windecker, Stefan Stortecky
Aims: To analyse reasons, timing and predictors of hospital readmissions after transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). Methods and Results: Patients included in the Bern TAVI Registry between August 2007 and June 2014 were analysed. Fine and Gray competing risk regression was used to identify factors predictive of hospital readmission within 1 year after TAVI with bootstrap analysis for internal validation. Of 868 patients alive at discharge, 221 (25.4%) were readmitted within 1 year...
April 18, 2017: European Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430817/kaposi-sarcoma-herpesvirus-kshv-latency-associated-nuclear-antigen-lana-recruits-components-of-the-mrn-mre11-rad50-nbs1-repair-complex-to-modulate-an-innate-immune-signaling-pathway-and-viral-latency
#8
Giuseppe Mariggiò, Sandra Koch, Guigen Zhang, Magdalena Weidner-Glunde, Jessica Rückert, Semra Kati, Susann Santag, Thomas F Schulz
Kaposi Sarcoma Herpesvirus (KSHV), a γ2-herpesvirus and class 1 carcinogen, is responsible for at least three human malignancies: Kaposi Sarcoma (KS), Primary Effusion Lymphoma (PEL) and Multicentric Castleman's Disease (MCD). Its major nuclear latency protein, LANA, is indispensable for the maintenance and replication of latent viral DNA in infected cells. Although LANA is mainly a nuclear protein, cytoplasmic isoforms of LANA exist and can act as antagonists of the cytoplasmic DNA sensor, cGAS. Here, we show that cytosolic LANA also recruits members of the MRN (Mre11-Rad50-NBS1) repair complex in the cytosol and thereby inhibits their recently reported role in the sensing of cytoplasmic DNA and activation of the NF-κB pathway...
April 21, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430788/time-and-spatial-trends-in-lymphoid-leukemia-and-lymphoma-incidence-and-survival-among-children-and-adolescents-in-manitoba-canada-1984-2013
#9
Xibiao Ye, Mahmoud Torabi, Lisa M Lix, Salaheddin M Mahmud
OBJECTIVES: To test for time and spatial trends in lymphoid malignancies, including lymphoid leukemia (LL), Hodgkin lymphoma (HL), and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), in children and adolescents in the province of Manitoba, Canada. METHODS: Incident cases diagnosed between 1984 and 2013 were identified from the Manitoba Cancer Registry. We assessed time trends in age-standardized incidence rates using joinpoint regression and in 5-year relative survival using Poisson regression model...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430715/computed-tomography-of-the-head-and-neck-region-for-tumor-staging-comparison-of-dual-source-dual-energy-and-low-kilovolt-single-energy-acquisitions
#10
Matthias Stefan May, Joscha Bruegel, Michael Brand, Marco Wiesmueller, Bernhard Krauss, Thomas Allmendinger, Michael Uder, Wolfgang Wuest
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to intra-individually compare the image quality obtained by dual-source, dual-energy (DSDE) computed tomography (CT) examinations and different virtual monoenergetic reconstructions to a low single-energy (SE) scan. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Third-generation DSDE-CT was performed in 49 patients with histologically proven malignant disease of the head and neck region. Weighted average images (WAIs) and virtual monoenergetic images (VMIs) for low (40 and 60 keV) and high (120 and 190 keV) energies were reconstructed...
April 20, 2017: Investigative Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430657/microrna-signatures-predict-prognosis-of-patients-with-glioblastoma-multiforme-through-the-cancer-genome-atlas
#11
Ying Yuan, Hua Zhang, Xuexia Liu, Zhongming Lu, Guojun Li, Meixia Lu, Xiaofeng Tao
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play major roles in various biological processes and have been implicated in the pathogenesis and malignant progression of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). The aim of this study was to assess the predictive values of miRNAs for overall survival (OS) of patients with GBM. MiRNA expression profiles and clinical information of 563 GBM patients were obtained from the Cancer Genome Atlas. The most significantly altered miRNAs were identified and miRNA expression profiles were performed, through principal component analysis, the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator method...
April 6, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430631/loss-of-steroid-hormone-receptors-is-common-in-malignant-pleural-and-peritoneal-effusions-of-breast-cancer-patients-treated-with-endocrine-therapy
#12
Willemijne A M E Schrijver, Karianne Schuurman, Annelot van Rossum, Ton Peeters, Natalie Ter Hoeve, Wilbert Zwart, Paul J van Diest, Cathy B Moelans
Discordance in estrogen receptor alpha (ERα), progesterone receptor (PR), androgen receptor (AR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) status between primary breast cancers and solid distant metastases ("conversion") has been reported previously. Even though metastatic spread to the peritoneal and pleural cavities occurs frequently and is associated with high mortality, the rate of receptor conversion and the prognostic implications thereof remain elusive.We therefore determined receptor conversion in 91 effusion metastases (78 pleural, 13 peritoneal effusions) of 69 patients by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and in situ hybridization...
February 20, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430616/evaluation-of-pituitary-uptake-incidentally-identified-on-18f-fdg-pet-ct-scan
#13
Huijun Ju, Jinxin Zhou, Yu Pan, Jing Lv, Yifan Zhang
The clinical significance of pituitary uptake on routine whole body 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computer tomography (PET/CT) is not completely characterized. We seek to assess the potential differential diagnosis/underlying etiology of pituitary FDG uptake incidentally identified on routine PET/CT scans. A total of 24,007 PET/CT whole body scans in recent 5 years were retrospectively reviewed. Patients with maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) > 4.1 in the pituitary glands were identified...
February 16, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430605/prognostic-significance-of-neutrophil-to-lymphocyte-ratio-in-patients-with-malignant-pleural-mesothelioma-a-meta-analysis
#14
Nan Chen, Shuai Liu, Lin Huang, Wanling Li, Wenhao Yang, Tianxin Cong, Lin Ding, Meng Qiu
Systemic inflammation responses can be reflected by peripheral blood count and combine index like the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte (NLR). The NLR has been reported to be a poor prognostic indicator in cancer recently. However, the prognostic effect of the NLR in patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) still unclear yet. We conducted this meta-analysis aiming to evaluate the pooled value of NLR in prognosis as well as clinical characteristics in malignant pleural mesothelioma. A total of 11 studies with 1533 patients were included in this meta-analysis, in which 10 studies investigated the prognosis role of NLR using hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI)...
February 16, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430585/foxd3-regulates-anaplastic-thyroid-cancer-progression
#15
Huabin Yin, Tong Meng, Lei Zhou, Feixing Zhao, Xiufang Li, Yundong Li, Mengjun Hu, Haiyan Chen, Dianwen Song
Anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) is an aggressive malignancy with poor prognosis. It was reported that Forkhead box D3 (FOXD3) transcription factor is associated with several cancers. We investigated its antitumorigenic role of ATC in this study. The ATC cell lines SW1736 and K18 exhibited lower FOXD3 expression than the Nthy-ori-3-1 normal thyroid cell line. FOXD3 downregulation in ATC cell lines promoted invasiveness and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and decreased cellular apoptosis. FOXD3 silencing also enhanced p-ERK levels in the ATC cell lines, suggesting it negatively regulated MAPK/ERK signaling...
April 5, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430580/expression-status-of-folate-receptor-alpha-is-a-predictor-of-survival-in-pancreatic-ductal-adenocarcinoma
#16
Lei Cai, Theodoros Michelakos, Cristina R Ferrone, Liyuan Zhang, Vikram Deshpande, Qi Shen, Albert De Leo, Teppei Yamada, Gong Zhang, Soldano Ferrone, Xinhui Wang
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) has one of the poorest prognosis among malignancies. Thus, the identification of markers useful in developing innovative diagnostic and therapeutic methods is an imperative need. Folate receptor alpha (FRα) has been associated with prognosis in several cancers and has served as a target of novel anti-tumor therapies. However, FRα expression in PDAC and its correlation with the clinical course of the disease has not been thoroughly investigated. In this study, we analyzed FRα expression in 140 PDAC specimens and 7 PDAC cell lines in order to define the significance of FRα expression in PDAC and its potential role as a target for immunotherapy...
April 5, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430555/beyond-wires-and-seeds-reflector-guided-breast-lesion-localization-and-excision
#17
Victoria L Mango, Ralph T Wynn, Sheldon Feldman, Lauren Friedlander, Elise Desperito, Sejal N Patel, Ameer Gomberawalla, Richard Ha
Purpose To evaluate outcomes of Savi Scout (Cianna Medical, Aliso Viejo, Calif) reflector-guided localization and excision of breast lesions by analyzing reflector placement, localization, and removal, along with target excision and rates of repeat excision (referred to as re-excision). Materials and Methods A single-institution retrospective review of 100 women who underwent breast lesion localization and excision by using the Savi Scout surgical guidance system from June 2015 to May 2016 was performed. By using image guidance 0-8 days before surgery, 123 nonradioactive, infrared-activated, electromagnetic wave reflectors were percutaneously inserted adjacent to or within 111 breast targets...
April 21, 2017: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430550/round-table-on-malignant-hyperthermia-in-physically-active-populations-meeting-proceedings
#18
Yuri Hosokawa, Douglas J Casa, Henry Rosenberg, John F Capacchione, Emmanuel Sagui, Sheila Riazi, Luke N Belval, Patricia A Deuster, John F Jardine, Stavros A Kavouras, Elaine C Lee, Kevin C Miller, Sheila M Muldoon, Francis G O'Connor, Scott R Sailor, Nyamkhishig Sambuughin, Rebecca L Stearns, William M Adams, Robert A Huggins, Lesley W Vandermark
CONTEXT:   Recent case reports on malignant hyperthermia (MH)-like syndrome in physically active populations indicate potential associations among MH, exertional heat stroke (EHS), and exertional rhabdomyolysis (ER). However, an expert consensus for clinicians working with these populations is lacking. OBJECTIVE:   To provide current expert consensus on the (1) definition of MH; (2) history, etiology, and pathophysiology of MH; (3) epidemiology of MH; (4) association of MH with EHS and ER; (5) identification of an MH-like syndrome; (6) recommendations for acute management of an MH-like syndrome; (7) special considerations for physically active populations; and (8) future directions for research...
April 2017: Journal of Athletic Training
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430393/invited-commentary-in-vivo-cutaneous-malignancy-diagnosis-using-mitochondrial-imaging
#19
Lindsay C Strowd
A recent study by Pouli et al. (2016) published in Science Translational Medicine used an elegant set of experiments to demonstrate the ability of mitochondrial monitoring to distinguish skin cancer cells from healthy tissue in vivo. This study reveals important implications regarding the future of real-time malignancy detection (Pouli 2016). Skin cancers represent the vast majority of human malignancy, with the current estimated incidence of 4.5 million cases per year in the United States alone (Centers for Disease Control 2017)...
April 21, 2017: Oral Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430133/nuclear-molecular-imaging-strategies-in-immune-checkpoint-inhibitor-therapy
#20
REVIEW
Kasper F Guldbrandsen, Helle W Hendel, Seppo W Langer, Barbara M Fischer
Immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy (ICT) is a new treatment strategy developed for the treatment of cancer. ICT inhibits pathways known to downregulate the innate immune response to cancer cells. These drugs have been shown to be effective in the treatment of a variety of cancers, including metastatic melanoma and lung cancer. Challenges in response evaluation of patients in ICT have risen as immune related side effects and immune cell infiltration may be confused with progressive disease. Furthermore, the timing of the evaluation scan may be challenged by relatively slow responses...
April 21, 2017: Diagnostics
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