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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222356/extinction-of-avoidance-behavior-by-safety-learning-depends-on-endocannabinoid-signaling-in-the-hippocampus
#1
Vincenzo Micale, Jens Stepan, Angela Jurik, Fabricio A Pamplona, Rudolph Marsch, Filippo Drago, Matthias Eder, Carsten T Wotjak
The development of exaggerated avoidance behavior is largely responsible for the decreased quality of life in patients suffering from anxiety disorders. Studies using animal models have contributed to the understanding of the neural mechanisms underlying the acquisition of avoidance responses. However, much less is known about its extinction. Here we provide evidence in mice that learning about the safety of an environment (i.e., safety learning) rather than repeated execution of the avoided response in absence of negative consequences (i...
February 3, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196426/development-of-a-functional-observational-battery-in-the-minipig-for-regulatory-neurotoxicity-assessments
#2
Miao Zhong, Catherine Shoemake, Amber Fuller, David White, Chris Hanks, Derek Brocksmith, Jason Liu, Shayne Gad, Guy Bouchard, Alain Stricker-Krongrad
A functional observational battery (FOB) is recommended as the first-tier neurotoxicity screening in the preclinical safety pharmacology testing guidelines. Minipigs have increasingly been used in regulatory toxicology studies; however, no current FOB protocol is available for neurotoxicity testing in these species. Hence, a minipig FOB instrument was developed. A complete crossover study with Sinclair minipigs was performed to evaluate physiologic, neurologic, and behavioral effects of amphetamine, ketamine, and diazepam...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194646/nanoemulsion-thermoreversible-pluronic-f127-based-hydrogel-containing-hyptis-pectinata-lamiaceae-leaf-essential-oil-produced-a-lasting-anti-hyperalgesic-effect-in-chronic-noninflammatory-widespread-pain-in-mice
#3
Lucindo J Quintans-Júnior, Renan G Brito, Jullyana S S Quintans, Priscila L Santos, Zaine T Camargo, Péricles A Barreto, Maria F Arrigoni-Blank, Waldecy Lucca-Júnior, Luciana Scotti, Marcus T Scotti, Sandra J Kolker, Kathleen A Sluka
We evaluated if a nanostructured thermoreversible Pluronic F127-based hydrogel incorporated with Hyptis pectinata leaf essential oil (NE-EOH) produces a long-lasting anti-hyperalgesic effect on chronic muscle pain in an animal model. We induced chronic muscle pain by injecting the gastrocnemius with saline injections. Paw and muscle withdrawal thresholds and motor performance were evaluated after treatment and compared with morphine, diazepam, or vehicle. Naloxone and methysergide administration tested the involvement of opioid and serotonin receptors, respectively...
February 13, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192273/gabaa-receptor-subtypes-in-the-mouse-brain-regional-mapping-and-diazepam-receptor-occupancy-by-in-vivo-18-f-flumazenil-pet
#4
Adrienne Müller Herde, Dietmar Benke, William T Ralvenius, Linjing Mu, Roger Schibli, Hanns Ulrich Zeilhofer, Stefanie D Krämer
Classical benzodiazepines, which are widely used as sedatives, anxiolytics and anticonvulsants, exert their therapeutic effects through interactions with heteropentameric GABAA receptors composed of two α, two β and one γ2 subunit. Their high affinity binding site is located at the interface between the γ2 and the adjacent α subunit. The α-subunit gene family consists of six members and receptors can be homomeric or mixed with respect to the α-subunits. Previous work has suggested that benzodiazepine binding site ligands with selectivity for individual GABAA receptor subtypes, as defined by the benzodiazepine-binding α subunit, may have fewer side effects and may even be effective in diseases, such as schizophrenia, autism or chronic pain, that do not respond well to classical benzodiazepines...
February 10, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187918/diazepam-is-no-better-than-placebo-when-added-to-naproxen-for-acute-low-back-pain
#5
Benjamin W Friedman, Eddie Irizarry, Clemencia Solorzano, Nauman Khankel, Jennifer Zapata, Eleftheria Zias, E John Gallagher
STUDY OBJECTIVE: Low back pain causes more than 2.5 million visits to US emergency departments (EDs) annually. Low back pain patients are often treated with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and benzodiazepines. The former is an evidence-based intervention, whereas the efficacy of the latter has not been established. We compare pain and functional outcomes 1 week and 3 months after ED discharge among patients randomized to a 1-week course of naproxen+diazepam versus naproxen+placebo...
January 19, 2017: Annals of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181946/case-report-of-midazolam-withdrawal-induced-catatonia-in-a-9-year-old-patient
#6
Cassandra R Duncan-Azadi, Peter N Johnson, Andrew Gormley
Benzodiazepine withdrawal-induced catatonia is a rare phenomenon in the adult population and has never been reported in a pediatric patient. We present a 9-year-old boy who exhibited catatonia symptoms following discontinuation of a midazolam infusion in the pediatric intensive care unit. The pediatric anesthesia acute pain team was consulted. When the patient's altered mental status could not otherwise be explained, benzodiazepine withdrawal-induced catatonia was considered. A dose of 2 mg intravenous lorazepam was given and the patient's symptoms dramatically improved within 5 minutes of administration...
February 8, 2017: A & A Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177174/a-case-controlled-comparison-of-postoperative-analgesic-dosing-between-girls-with-rett-syndrome-and-girls-with-and-without-developmental-disability-undergoing-spinal-fusion-surgery
#7
Chantel C Barney, Alyssa M Merbler, Kelsey Quest, Breanne J Byiers, George L Wilcox, Scott Schwantes, Samuel A Roiko, Timothy Feyma, Arthur Beisang, Frank J Symons
BACKGROUND: Rett syndrome is associated with severe motor and communicative impairment making optimal postoperative pain management a challenge. There are case reports documenting reduced postoperative analgesic requirement in Rett syndrome. AIM: The goal of this preliminary investigation was to compare postoperative analgesic management among a sample of girls with Rett syndrome compared to girls with and without developmental disability undergoing spinal fusion surgery...
March 2017: Paediatric Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174044/propylparaben-applied-after-pilocarpine-induced-status-epilepticus-modifies-hippocampal-excitability-and-glutamate-release-in-rats
#8
César Emmanuel Santana-Gómez, Sandra Adela Orozco-Suárez, Alan Talevi, Luis Bruno-Blanch, Víctor Manuel Magdaleno-Madrigal, Rodrigo Fernández-Mas, Luisa Rocha
Propylparaben (PPB) induces cardioprotection after ischemia-reperfusion injury by inhibiting voltage-dependent Na(+) channels. The present study focuses on investigating whether the i.p. application of 178mg/kg PPB after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE) reduces the acute and long-term consequences of seizure activity. Initially, we investigated the effects of a single administration of PPB after SE. Our results revealed that compared to rats receiving diazepam (DZP) plus vehicle after 2h of SE, animals receiving a single dose of PPB 1h after DZP injection presented 126% (p<0...
February 4, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167475/evaluation-of-acute-toxicity-sedative-and-analgesic-effects-of-taverniera-glabra-methanolic-extract-on-mice
#9
- Marvi, Javeid Iqbal, Shafi Muhammad, Mansoor Ahmad
Present study was conducted on crude methanolic extract of stem and root of Taverniera glabra. In Pakistan T. glabra is found in the region of Balochistan only. T. glabra has numerous therapeutic uses in traditional medicine and it is also used for the pain relief. Current study was carried out to evaluate acute toxicity, analgesic and CNS depressant activity of the plant. Acute toxicity was carried out by oral administration of the T. glabra extract from 250 to 2000mg/kg oral dose. Analgesic activity was carried out by acetic acid induced writhing test and formalin test...
November 2016: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163499/long-term-benzodiazepine-treatment-in-patients-with-psychotic-disorders-attending-a-mental-health-service-in-rural-greece
#10
Vaios Peritogiannis, Thiresia Manthopoulou, Venetsanos Mavreas
INTRODUCTION: Long-term benzodiazepine (BZD) treatment in patients with mental disorders is widespread in clinical practice, and this is also the case of patients with schizophrenia, although the evidence is weak and BZD prescription is discouraged by guidelines and medical authorities. Data on BZD prescription are usually derived from national or regional databases whereas information on the use of BZD by patients with schizophrenia and related psychoses in general population-based samples is limited...
December 2016: Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162239/evaluation-of-drug-loading-capabilities-of-%C3%AE-cyclodextrin-metal-organic-frameworks-by-high-performance-liquid-chromatography
#11
Xiaonan Xu, Caifen Wang, Haiyan Li, Xue Li, Botao Liu, Vikramjeet Singh, Shuxia Wang, Lixin Sun, Ruxandra Gref, Jiwen Zhang
Drug loading into γ-cyclodextrin-metal organic frameworks (γ-CD-MOFs) using the impregnation approach is a laborious process. In this study, a γ-CD-MOF construct (2-5μm particle diameter) was used as the stationary phase under HPLC conditions with the aim to correlate retention properties and drug loading capability of the CD-based structure. Ketoprofen, fenbufen and diazepam were chosen as model drugs with m-xylene as a control analyte to investigate the correlation of drug loading and their chromatographic behaviour in the γ-CD-MOF column...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160299/sedative-and-motor-incoordination-effects-of-ethanol-in-mice-lacking-cd14-tlr2-tlr4-or-myd88
#12
Yuri A Blednov, Mendy Black, Jillian M Benavidez, Adriana Da Costa, Jody Mayfield, R Adron Harris
BACKGROUND: In our companion article, we examined the role of MyD88-dependent signaling in ethanol (EtOH) consumption in mice lacking key components of this inflammatory pathway and observed differential effects on drinking. Here, we studied the role of these same signaling components in the acute sedative, intoxicating, and physiological effects of EtOH. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) has been reported to strongly reduce the duration of EtOH-induced sedation, although most studies do not support its direct involvement in EtOH consumption...
February 3, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145981/the-anxiolytic-like-effect-of-rutin-in-rats-involves-gabaa-receptors-in-the-basolateral-amygdala
#13
Alberto Hernandez-Leon, María E González-Trujano, Alonso Fernández-Guasti
Rutin is a bioflavonoid found in medicinal plants used to reduce anxiety. Evidence is lacking of rutin's anxiolytic-like activity, putative mechanism(s) of action, and neural sites of effects. The basolateral amygdala (BLA) is the main brain region that regulates anxiety, through GABAA/benzodiazepine (BDZ) receptors, which are modulated by flavonoids. Therefore, the main aim of this study was to investigate whether the anxiolytic-like effect of rutin involves GABAA/BDZ receptors in the BLA. Rutin was administered systemically (30-1000 mg/kg, intraperitoneal) or microinjected into the BLA (16 nmol/4 µl, intracerebral), and its effects were assessed in the elevated plus-maze and open-field tests...
January 31, 2017: Behavioural Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125446/inpatient-gamma-hydroxybutyrate-detoxification-a-case-report-describing-day-to-day-therapeutic-management
#14
Louis von Theobald, Morgane Rousselet, Jennyfer Cholet, Hélène Debar, David Boels, Caroline Victorri-Vigneau, Marie Grall-Bronnec
BACKGROUND: Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is a synthetic drug increasingly used by consumers of psychoactive substances. The sought after psychoactive effects of GHB have resulted in an increase in recreational use in Europe. GHB is considered to have a high dependence potential, and abrupt discontinuation after long-term use can result in a severe withdrawal syndrome. Despite a large number of publications related to GHB withdrawal and detoxification, to date, no evidence-based protocol or consensual international therapeutic guidelines are available (over and above the administration of benzodiazepines)...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Addiction Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117549/rebamipide-an-anti-ulcerative-drug-inhibits-induction-of-salivary-dysfunction-by-benzodiazepines
#15
Makoto Ogane, Migiwa Okubo, Masanobu Yoshikawa, Takashi Shinomiya, Eri Tsukagoshi, Mitsuru Kawaguchi
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to determine whether rebamipide, an anti-stomach ulcer agent, ameliorated benzodiazepine-induced hyposalivation in rat parotid gland (PG) and submandibular gland (SMG). METHODS: Saliva was collected from PG and SMG through a capillary cannula inserted into the parotid duct and sublingual papillae, respectively, every 15 min for 1 hr after stimulation with pilocarpine dissolved in physiological saline and intraperitoneally administered at 1 mg/kg...
January 24, 2017: Oral Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114407/low-expression-in-xenopus-oocytes-and-unusual-functional-properties-of-%C3%AE-1%C3%AE-2%C3%AE-2-gabaa-receptors-with-non-conventional-subunit-arrangement
#16
Roland Baur, Erwin Sigel
The major subunit isoform of GABAA receptors is α1β2γ2. The subunits are thought to surround an ion pore with the counterclockwise arrangement α1γ2β2α1β2 as seen from the outside of the neuron. These receptors have two agonist sites and one high affinity drug binding site specific for benzodiazepines. Recently, this receptor was postulated to assume alternative subunit stoichiometries and arrangements resulting in only one agonist site and one or even two sites for benzodiazepines. In order to force a defined subunit arrangement we expressed a combination of triple and dual concatenated subunits...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114315/the-lorazepam-and-diazepam-protocol-for-catatonia-due-to-general-medical-condition-and-substance-in-liaison-psychiatry
#17
Chin-Chuen Lin, Yi-Yung Hung, Meng-Chang Tsai, Tiao-Lai Huang
OBJECTIVE: The lorazepam-diazepam protocol had been proved to rapidly and effectively relieve catatonia in patients with schizophrenia or mood disorder. This study aims to investigate the efficacy of lorazepam-diazepam protocol in catatonia due to general medical conditions (GMC) and substance. METHOD: Patients with catatonia that required psychiatric intervention in various settings of a medical center were included. The lorazepam-diazepam protocol had been used to treat the catatonia due to GMC or substance according to DSM-IV criteria...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110639/amitraz-poisoning-a-case-report-of-an-unusual-pesticide-poisoning-in-sri-lanka-and-literature-review
#18
H M M T B Herath, S P Pahalagamage, Nilukshana Yogendranathan, M D M S Wijayabandara, Aruna Kulatunga
BACKGROUND: Amitraz is a pesticide used worldwide on animals and in agriculture. It contains triazapentadiene, which is a centrally acting alpha-2 adrenergic agonist. Amitraz poisoning is fairly uncommon in humans and occurs via oral, dermal or inhalational routes. Only a limited number of case reports of human intoxication have been published and most of them are of accidental ingestion by children. CASE PRESENTATION: A twenty-year-old Sri Lankan female presented following self-ingestion of 20 ml of amitraz resulting in 37...
January 23, 2017: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105644/site-technique-and-time-related-aspects-of-the-postmortem-redistribution-of-diazepam-methadone-morphine-and-their-metabolites-interest-of-popliteal-vein-blood-sampling
#19
Eric Lemaire, Carl Schmidt, Nathalie Dubois, Raphael Denooz, Corinne Charlier, Philippe Boxho
Sampling site, technique, and time influence postmortem drug concentrations. In 57 cases, we studied drug concentration differences as follows: subclavian vein-dissection/clamping versus blind stick, femoral vein-dissection/clamping versus blind stick, right cardiac chamber, and popliteal vein-dissection and clamping only. Cases were distributed in group #1 (all cases with both techniques), group #2 (dissection/clamping), and group #3 (blind stick). Sampled drugs were diazepam, methadone, morphine, and their metabolites...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105568/koumine-exhibits-anxiolytic-properties-without-inducing-adverse-neurological-effects-on-functional-observation-battery-open-field-and-vogel-conflict-tests-in-rodents
#20
Chao-Jie Chen, Zhi-Feng Zhong, Zhi-Ming Xin, Long-Hui Hong, Yan-Ping Su, Chang-Xi Yu
Koumine, an active alkaloid of neurotoxic plant Gelsemium, has been focused on its therapeutic uses, especially in central nervous system. Nevertheless, less is known about the neurological effects of koumine, which hampers its potential therapeutic exploitation. Moreover, as the anxiolytic potential of Gelsemium has raised many critical issues, its active principles on the anxiolytic and other neurological effects need to be further investigated. Here, we used functional observation battery (FOB) of mice to systematically measure the neurological effects of koumine at the effective doses, and then further confirmed its anxiolytic properties in open-field test (OFT) of mice and Vogel conflict test (VCT) of rats...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Natural Medicines
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