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Gollapalle L Viswanatha, Marikunte V Venkataranganna, Nunna Bheema Lingeswara Prasad, Godavarthi Ashok
OBJECTIVES: This study was aimed to examine the anti-epileptic activity of leaf extracts of Punica granatum in experimental models of epilepsy in Swiss albino mice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Petroleum ether leaf extract of P. granatum (PLPG), methanolic LPG (MLPG), and aqueous LPG (ALPG) extracts of P. granatum leaves was initially evaluated against 6-Hz-induced seizure model; the potent extract was further evaluated against maximal electroshock (MES) and pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced convulsions...
September 2016: Journal of Intercultural Ethnopharmacology
Rajesh Kumar Goel, Dilpreet Kaur, Priyanka Pahwa
AIM AND OBJECTIVES: The present study was to assess the anxiolytic effect of nerolidol in mice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The anxiolytic activity was examined using the elevated plus maze (EPM) and open field test (OFT), and motor coordination by rotarod test. Thirty Swiss albino mice were divided into five groups of six mice each. Group 1 received vehicle control (normal saline); Group 2 received diazepam (1 mg/kg); Groups 3, 4, and 5 received nerolidol 12.5, 25, and 50 mg/kg, respectively...
July 2016: Indian Journal of Pharmacology
Bikram Subedi, Keshava Balakrishna, Derrick Ian Joshua, Kurunthachalam Kannan
Environmental contamination by pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) is barely studied in India despite being one of the largest global producers and consumers of pharmaceuticals. In this study, 29 pharmaceuticals and six metabolites were determined in sewage treatment plants (STPs) in Udupi (STPU: population served ∼150,000) and Mangalore (STPM: population served ∼450,000); the measured mean concentrations ranged from 12 to 61,000 ng/L and 5.0 to 31,000 ng/L, respectively. Atorvastatin (the most prescribed antihypercholesterolemic in India), mefenamic acid, and paraxanthine were found for the first time in wastewater in India at the mean concentrations of 395 ng/L, 1100 ng/L, and 13,000 ng/L, respectively...
October 14, 2016: Chemosphere
Gudrun Høiseth, Linn Engeset Austdal, Elisabeth Wiik, Stig Tore Bogstrand, Jørg Mørland
Objective Elderly drivers are somewhat more likely to be involved in car crashes than middle aged drivers, but less likely to be involved than the younger drivers. This study aimed to assess the extent of drug use in elderly suspected drunk and drugged drivers, with respect to which drugs were detected and at which concentrations. Methods Blood samples from elderly suspected drunk and drugged drivers from February 1(st) 2012 to May 22(th) 2013 were identified from the database at the Norwegian Institute of Public Health and were retrospectively analyzed for a broad repertoire of drugs relevant for impairment...
October 14, 2016: Traffic Injury Prevention
Jyoti Dahiya, Jitender Singh, Ashwani Kumar, Anupam Sharma
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Leaves of M. koenigii Linn. Spreng (Rutaceae) have been used as traditional medicine for anxiety disorders. Aim of the study was to isolate antianxiety principle(s) from the leaves of M. koenigii using bioactivity guided approach. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Hydroalcoholic extract of M. koenigii leaves was prepared using soxhlet apparatus, and the same was evaluated for antianxiety activity at 250, 500 and 750mg/kg, po, using Elevated plus-maze (EPM)...
October 10, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Mostafa Araghi, Saeed Azizi, Nasser Vesal, Bahram Dalir-Naghade
The sedative effects of diazepam, midazolam, and xylazine after intranasal administration were evaluated in 72 (36 male and 36 female) juvenile healthy ostriches ( Struthio camelus ), weighing 50-61 kg and aged 4-5 months. The birds were randomly divided into 3 groups (n = 24), then each group was further subdivided to 4 subgroups (n = 6). For each drug, 4 different doses were chosen and the total calculated dose was equally administered into either naris of the individual bird. The appropriate dose of each drug to produce standing chemical restraint or sternal recumbency was evaluated based on the onset time, the duration of maximum effect, and the duration of sedation...
September 2016: Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery
Sarah E Bigby, Jennifer E Carter, Sébastien Bauquier, Thierry Beths
Anesthesia protocols for patients with intracranial lesions need to provide hemodynamic stability, preserve cerebrovascular autoregulation, avoid increases in intracranial pressure, and facilitate a rapid recovery. Propofol total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA) maintains cerebral blood flow autoregulation and is considered superior to inhalant agents as an anesthetic protocol for patients with intracranial lesions. A propofol-based TIVA subsequent to premedication with medetomidine and diazepam was used in a king penguin ( Aptenodytes patagonicus ) undergoing magnetic resonance imaging of the brain after a new onset of seizures...
September 2016: Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery
Francesco Brigo, Nicola Luigi Bragazzi, Susanna Bacigaluppi, Raffaele Nardone, Eugen Trinka
BACKGROUND: Some guidelines or expert consensus indicate that intravenous (IV) lorazepam (LZP) is preferable to IV diazepam (DZP) for initial treatment of convulsive status epilepticus (SE). We aimed to critically assess all the available data on efficacy and tolerability of IV LZP compared with IV DZP as first-line treatment of convulsive SE. METHODS: Systematic search of the literature (MEDLINE, CENTRAL, EMBASE, to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing IV LZP versus IV DZP used as first-line treatment for convulsive SE (generalized or focal)...
October 9, 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Humera Ishaq
Present study was planned to search for neuropharmacological properties of methanolic extracts of different parts of Melia azedarach Linn. because conventional medicine shows adverse effects. Recently natural products are studied worldwide, as safer alternatives, which are not duly supported with scientifically proved data. Melia azedarach (Bakayan, China berry tree) is medium sized tree belonging to family Meliaceae. Traditional use of plant is as anthelmintic, antilithic and diuretic. Topical application of oil for cramps and rheumatism is beneficial...
September 2016: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Shahzad Hussain, Zainab Khattak, Sidra Mahmood, Farnaz Malik, Humayun Riaz, Syed Atif Raza, Samiullah Khan
The microbial and chemical analysis of illicit drug samples from different areas of Pakistan i.e. Quetta, Karachi, Lahore and Islamabad was conducted in a cross-sectional study at National Institute of Health, Islamabad. The drug samples were confiscated by Anti Narcotics Force (ANF), Pakistan. Microbial analysis was done by estimating bioburden which revealed the presence of gram negative and positive bacteria's, fungus, Streptococcus, Staphylococcus species. Trypton soya agar was used for total aerobic count, MacConkey agar for gram-negative bacteria, Sabouraud dextrose agar for fungus and Vogel-Johnson agar for Streptococcus and Staphylococcus species...
September 2016: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Patrice Tremblay, Susan Gold
INTRODUCTION: Post-operative delirium (POD) is a serious surgical complication that can cause significant morbidity and mortality. It is associated with prolonged hospital stay, delayed admission to rehabilitation programs, persistent cognitive deficits, marked health-care costs, and more. The pathophysiology is multi-factorial and not completely understood, which complicates the optimal management. Non-pharmacological measures have been the mainstay of treatment, but there has been an ongoing interest in the medical literature on the prevention of post-operative delirium using medications...
September 2016: Canadian Geriatrics Journal: CGJ
Patrícia Santos, Ana P Herrmann, Radharani Benvenutti, Guilherme Noetzold, Franciele Giongo, Clarissa S Gama, Angelo L Piato, Elaine Elisabetsky
Anxiety disorders are highly prevalent and often result in poor quality of life. Available anxiolytics show significant adverse effects as well as partial efficacy in a sizable part of patients. Innovative treatments with more favorable risk-benefit ratio are sorely needed. A growing body of clinical data indicates the benefits of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) in psychiatric conditions. NAC modulates antioxidant, glutamatergic, inflammatory and neurotrophic pathways in the central nervous system, all of which are relevant to anxiety pathology...
October 7, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
Mohamed B Abou-Donia, Briana Siracuse, Natasha Gupta, Ashly Sobel Sokol
Sarin (GB, O-isopropyl methylphosphonofluoridate) is a potent organophosphorus (OP) nerve agent that inhibits acetylcholinesterase (AChE) irreversibly. The subsequent build-up of acetylcholine (ACh) in the central nervous system (CNS) provokes seizures and, at sufficient doses, centrally-mediated respiratory arrest. Accumulation of ACh at peripheral autonomic synapses leads to peripheral signs of intoxication and overstimulation of the muscarinic and nicotinic receptors, which is described as "cholinergic crisis" (i...
October 5, 2016: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
Luca Carnevali, Paul L Andrews, Inga D Neumann, Eugene Nalivaiko, Andrea Sgoifo
In humans, associations between anxiety and nausea (including motion-induced) are reported but the underlying mechanisms are not known. Hypothermia is proposed to be an index of nausea in rats. Utilising hypothermia and heart rate as outcome measures we investigated the response to provocative motion in rats selectively bred for high (HAB) and low (LAB) anxiety-related behaviors and in non-selected (NAB) rats to further elucidate the potential relationship between hypothermia and nausea-like state. Core temperature and electrocardiogram were monitored in each group (n=10 per group) using telemetry, with or without circular motion (40min; 0...
October 1, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
Jia Liu, Lu-Ning Wang, Xin Ma, Xunming Ji
BACKGROUND: Gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor agonists have been shown to have a neuroprotectant effect in reducing infarct size and improving functional outcome in animal models of cerebrovascular disease. However, the sedative effects of GABA receptor agonists have limited their wider application in people with acute stroke, due to the potential risk of stupor. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 2013, and previously updated in 2014. OBJECTIVES: To determine the efficacy and safety of GABA receptor agonists in the treatment of acute stroke...
October 4, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Emil Meng-Lund, Jette Jacobsen, Anette Müllertz, Erling B Jørgensen, René Holm
Buccal delivery may be clinically beneficial for compounds with a high gastrointestinal and hepatic first pass metabolism or in situations where a fast systemic absorption is desired. The delivery of a crystalline low soluble compounds, e.g. diazepam, may be limited due to the low volume of saliva available to facilitate solvation in order to drive the permeation of drug through the buccal mucosa. Therefore, the present study investigated the potential benefits of administering diazepam either as an amorphous or as a crystalline form in mucoadhesive tablets to conscious Göttingen mini-pigs...
September 30, 2016: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Kouichi Itoh, Yasuhiro Ishihara, Rie Komori, Hiromi Nochi, Ruri Taniguchi, Yoichi Chiba, Masaki Ueno, Fuyuko Takata-Tsuji, Shinya Dohgu, Yasufumi Kataoka
Our previous study showed that treatment with levetiracetam (LEV) after status epilepticus (SE) termination by diazepam might prevent the development of spontaneous recurrent seizures via the inhibition of neurotoxicity induced by brain edema events. In the present study, we determined the possible molecular and cellular mechanisms of LEV treatment after termination of SE. To assess the effect of LEV against the brain alterations after SE, we focused on blood-brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction associated with angiogenesis and brain inflammation...
September 27, 2016: Brain Research
Rita Citraro, Emilio Russo, Antonio Leo, Roberto Russo, Carmen Avagliano, Michele Navarra, Antonio Calignano, Giovambattista De Sarro
We evaluated the effects of ACEA (selective cannabinoid (CB)1 receptor agonist), WIN 55,212-2 mesylate (WIN; non-selective CB1 and CB2 receptor agonist) and N-palmitoylethanolamine (PEA; an endogenous fatty acid of ethanolamide) in DBA/2 mice, a genetic model of reflex audiogenic epilepsy. PEA, ACEA or WIN intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration decreased the severity of tonic-clonic seizures. We also studied the effects of PEA, WIN or ACEA after co-administration with NIDA-41020 (CB1 receptor antagonist) or GW6471 (PPAR-α antagonist) and compared the effects of WIN, ACEA and PEA in order to clarify their mechanisms of action...
September 20, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
Monika Edlinger, Maria A Rettenbacher, Georg Kemmler, Falko Biedermann, Christian G Widschwendter, W Wolfgang Fleischhacker, Alex Hofer
OBJECTIVE: The primary objective of this study was to investigate whether the choice and dosage of antipsychotic medication differ between patients with schizophrenia starting treatment in an inpatient or outpatient unit. In addition, we investigated whether the reason for the introduction of new antipsychotic medication had an impact on the treatment setting and whether the use of benzodiazepines differed between inpatients and outpatients. METHOD: From October 1997 to September 2010, patients with a schizophrenia spectrum disorder according to the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision aged between 18 and 65 years were allocated to a naturalistic drug-monitoring program when starting treatment with a second-generation antipsychotic drug...
September 21, 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
Monika Szkultecka-Dębek, Katarzyna Miernik, Jarosław Stelmachowski, Miro Jakovljević, Vlado Jukić, Kaire Aadamsoo, Sven Janno, István Bitter, Judit Tolna, Marek Jarema, Slobodan Jankovic, Jan Pecenak, Livia Vavrusova, Rok Tavčar, Jacek Walczak, Darren Talbot, Joanna Augustyńska
OBJECTIVE: The aim is to analyze how schizophrenia is pharmacologically treated in seven CEE countries: Croatia, Estonia, Hungary, Poland, Serbia, Slovakia and Slovenia. METHODS: Psychiatrists from selected centers in each of participating countries were asked to complete a pre-defined questionnaire on their current clinical practice. Information on protocols and resource utilization in schizophrenia treatment was included and derived from randomly selected patient medical records...
September 2016: Psychiatria Danubina
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