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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446201/anticonvulsant-effects-of-antiaris-toxicaria-aqueous-extract-investigation-using-animal-models-of-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#1
Priscilla Kolibea Mante, Donatus Wewura Adongo, Eric Woode
BACKGROUND: Antiaris toxicaria has previously shown anticonvulsant activity in acute animal models of epilepsy. The aqueous extract (AAE) was further investigated for activity in kindling with pentylenetetrazole and administration of pilocarpine and kainic acid which mimic temporal lobe epilepsy in various animal species. RESULTS: ICR mice and Sprague-Dawley rats were pre-treated with AAE (200-800 mg kg(-1)) and convulsive episodes induced using pentylenetetrazole, pilocarpine and kainic acid...
April 26, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442369/further-evaluation-of-the-potential-anxiolytic-activity-of-imidazo-1-5-a-1-4-diazepin-agents-selective-for-%C3%AE-2-3-containing-gabaa-receptors
#2
J M Witkin, R Cerne, M Wakulchik, J S, S D Gleason, T M Jones, G Li, L A Arnold, Jun-Xu Li, J M Schkeryantz, K R Methuku, J M Cook, M M Poe
Positive allosteric modulators of GABAA receptors transduce a host of beneficial effects including anxiolytic actions. We have recently shown that bioavailability and anxiolytic-like activity can be improved by eliminating the ester functionality in imidazo[1,5-a][1,4]diazepines. In the present series of experiments, we further substantiate the value of heterocyle replacement of the ester for potential treatment of anxiety. None of the three esters was active in a Vogel conflict test in rats that detects anxiolytic drugs like diazepam...
April 22, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438149/anti-depressant-and-anxiolytic-potential-of-acacia-hydaspica-r-parker-aerial-parts-extract-modulation-of-brain-antioxidant-enzyme-status
#3
Tayyaba Afsar, Suhail Razak, Muhammad Rashid Khan, Ali Almajwal
BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress may link to psychiatric disorders, and is being regarded as a plausible mechanism that can affect the regulation of these illnesses. The present study was undertaken to investigate the antidepressant and anxiolytic potential of A. hydaspica R. parkers. Brain oxidative stress enzyme levels were analyzed to correlate depression and stress with brain antioxidant status. METHODS: Antidepressant and anxiolytic effect of methanol extract of A...
April 24, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438026/intramuscular-lorazepam-for-status-epilepticus-in-children-with-complex-medical-and-physical-disabilities
#4
Peter N Johnson, Anna Nguyen, Stephen B Neely, Michael Johnson
BACKGROUND: A protocol was developed to achieve status epilepticus (SE) resolution: step 1, intramuscular (IM) lorazepam; step 2, repeat IM lorazepam; step 3, rectal diazepam. OBJECTIVE: The primary objective was to identify the number of patients with SE resolution after step 1. Secondary objectives included categorization of mean number of IM doses per episode and patient factors associated with SE resolution. METHODS: This was a retrospective study of patients <21 years old with complex medical and physical disabilities admitted over 5 years...
April 1, 2017: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436443/curcumol-allosterically-modulates-gaba-a-receptors-in-a-manner-distinct-from-benzodiazepines
#5
Yan-Mei Liu, Hui-Ran Fan, Jing Ding, Chen Huang, Shining Deng, Tailin Zhu, Tian-Le Xu, Wei-Hong Ge, Wei-Guang Li, Fei Li
Inhibitory A type γ-aminobutyric acid receptors (GABAARs) play a pivotal role in orchestrating various brain functions and represent an important molecular target in neurological and psychiatric diseases, necessitating the need for the discovery and development of novel modulators. Here, we show that a natural compound curcumol, acts as an allosteric enhancer of GABAARs in a manner distinct from benzodiazepines. Curcumol markedly facilitated GABA-activated currents and shifted the GABA concentration-response curve to the left in cultured hippocampal neurons...
April 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426226/brain-uptake-of-bioactive-flavones-in-scutellariae-radix-and-its-relationship-to-anxiolytic-effect-in-mice
#6
Sophia Yui Kau Fong, Chenrui Li, Yiu Cheong Ho, Rui Li, Qian Wang, Yin Cheong Wong, Hong Xue, Zhong Zuo
Scutellariae Radix (SR) and its bioactive flavones elicit a variety of effects in the brain. However, the brain uptake of individual SR flavones and its relationship to the elicited effects after SR administration remain unknown. Moreover, previous studies seldom measured pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic outcomes simultaneously. In the current study, the brain uptake of six major SR flavones and the anxiolytic behavior following oral administration of a SR extract at two clinically relevant doses (600 and 1200 mg/kg twice daily) were simultaneously investigated in mice (n=18 per group)...
April 20, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424403/-non-convulsive-status-epilepticus-caused-by-hyponatremia-in-an-elderly-woman-a-case-report
#7
Yoshinori Kurauchi, Masahiro Yasaka, Keisuke Tokunaga, Masaki Saito, Shun Shimohama, Yasushi Okada
We report the case of a 67-year-old woman with non-convulsive status epilepticus (NCSE) due to hyponatremia. She had a history of psychogenic polydipsia but not epilepsy. She was admitted to our hospital with dysbulia. On admission, she was confused and disoriented (Glasgow Coma Scale: 6, E1V1M4). Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain showed no abnormalities. Laboratory test showed hyponatremia (Na<sup>+</sup> level: 115 mEq/L). The electroencephalography (EEG) showed a generalized slow wave of 5 Hz during recording...
April 2017: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422845/response-to-benzodiazepines-and-the-clinical-course-in-malignant-catatonia-associated-with-schizophrenia-a-case-report
#8
Kazutaka Ohi, Aki Kuwata, Takamitsu Shimada, Toshiki Yasuyama, Yusuke Nitta, Takashi Uehara, Yasuhiro Kawasaki
BACKGROUND: Malignant catatonia (MC) is a disorder consisting of catatonic symptoms, hyperthermia, autonomic instability, and altered mental status. Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) caused by antipsychotics is considered a variant of MC. Benzodiazepine (BZD) medications are safe and effective treatments providing rapid relief from MC. This case study reports a detailed clinical course of a case of MC associated with schizophrenia initially diagnosed as NMS that responded successfully to BZDs but not to dantrolene...
April 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420966/fast-and-slow-inhibition-in-the-visual-thalamus-is-influenced-by-allocating-gabaa-receptors-with-different-%C3%AE-subunits
#9
Stephen G Brickley, Zhiwen Ye, Xiao Yu, Catriona M Houston, Zahra Aboukhalil, Nicholas P Franks, William Wisden
Cell-type specific differences in the kinetics of inhibitory postsynaptic conductance changes (IPSCs) are believed to impact upon network dynamics throughout the brain. Much attention has focused on how GABAA receptor (GABAAR) α and β subunit diversity will influence IPSC kinetics, but less is known about the influence of the γ subunit. We have examined whether GABAAR γ subunit heterogeneity influences IPSC properties in the thalamus. The γ2 subunit gene was deleted from GABAARs selectively in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN)...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416372/effects-of-bilobalide-ginkgolide-b-and-picrotoxinin-on-gabaa-receptor-modulation-by-structurally-diverse-positive-modulators
#10
Chiu Chin Ng, Rujee K Duke, Tina Hinton, Graham A R Johnston
Anxiolytics and anticonvulsants generally positively modulate the action of GABA, whereas many convulsants (including the chloride channel blocker picrotoxinin) negatively modulate the action of GABA on GABAA receptors. Like picrotoxinin, bilobalide and ginkgolide B, active constituents of Ginkgo biloba, have been shown to negatively modulate the action of GABA at α1β2γ2L GABAA receptors. However, unlike picrotoxinin, bilobalide and ginkgolide B are not known to cause convulsions. We have assessed the action of bilobalide, ginkgolide B and picrotoxinin on a range of GABAA modulators (etomidate, loreclezole, propofol, thiopentone sodium, diazepam, and allopregnanolone), using two-electrode voltage clamp electrophysiology at recombinant α1β2γ2L GABAA receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes...
April 14, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412576/the-occurrence-of-alcohol-drugs-by-toxicological-examination-of-selected-drivers-in-hong-kong
#11
Wing-Chi Cheng, Kwok-Leung Dao
The study is to investigate the extent of alcohol/drug(s) use among selected drivers, i.e. fatally injured drivers from traffic accidents (2006-2015), drink driving (2006-2015) and drug driving (2010-2015) cases, in Hong Kong. Between 2006 and 2015, specimens from a total of 223 fatally injured drivers were received for toxicological examination. Except for one driver, all other drivers with positive findings were male. Alcohol and/or drugs were detected in 60 (27%) cases where alcohol alone was detected in 40 cases (18%) while drugs with/without alcohol were detected in 20 cases (9%)...
April 2, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407365/role-of-allopregnanolone-biosynthesis-in-acute-stress-induced-anxiety-like-behaviors-in-mice
#12
Kazumi Yoshizawa, Ayano Okumura, Kozue Nakashima, Tomoyo Sato, Tatsuya Higashi
The neurosteroid allopregnanolone (3α, 5α-tetra-hydroprogesterone: ALLO) elicits anxiolytic, anticonvulsant, and hypnotic anesthetic effects in vivo similar to those induced by other positive allosteric modulators of the GABAA receptor. Endogenous ALLO has been shown to be rapidly elevated in the brain by acute stress paradigms, such as immobilization, in animal models. The present study was designed to ascertain the role of neurosteroid biosynthesis in the anxiety-like behavior induced by immobilization stress...
April 13, 2017: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406320/underestimated-impact-of-novel-psychoactive-substances-laboratory-confirmation-of-recreational-drug-toxicity-in-oslo-norway
#13
Odd Martin Vallersnes, Per Sverre Persett, Elisabeth Leere Øiestad, Ritva Karinen, Fridtjof Heyerdahl, Knut Erik Hovda
CONTEXT: Recreational drug toxicity is frequent. Availability of new psychoactive substances is steadily increasing. However, data with verified analyses from clinical settings are limited. To evaluate the impact of novel psychoactive substances (NPS) on recreational drug toxicity in Oslo, Norway, we analysed samples from a selection of patients. METHODS: All the patients presenting with recreational drug toxicity at the Oslo Accident and Emergency Outpatient Clinic (OAEOC) and at the Oslo University Hospital (OUH) were registered from April through September 2014...
April 13, 2017: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406089/patterns-of-benzodiazepine-prescribing-by-neuropsychiatrists-and-general-practitioners-for-elderly-patients-in-germany-in-2014%C3%A2
#14
Thomas Mell, Louis Jacob, Ida Fuhr, Sandra Dick, Michael A Rapp, Karel Kostev
BACKGROUND: The patterns of benzodiazepine prescriptions in older adults are of general and scientific interest as they are not yet well understood. The aim of this study was to compare the prescription patterns of benzodiazepines in elderly people in Germany to determine the share or proportion treated by general practitioners (GP) and neuropsychiatrists (NP). METHODS: This study included 31,268 and 6,603 patients between the ages of 65 and 100 with at least one benzodiazepine prescription in 2014 from GP and NP, respectively...
April 13, 2017: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403102/mandibular-regeneration-after-immediate-load-dental-implant-in-a-periodontitis-patient-a-clinical-and-ultrastructural-case-report
#15
Maurizio Catinari, Manuel Scimeca, Massimo Amorosino, Mario Marini, Elena Bonanno, Virginia Tancredi
RATIONALE: In this case study, we characterized from radiographic, morphological and elemental point of view the mandibular reconstruction that occur in patients affects by periodontitis after application of endosseous titanium implants. In particular, we verified that the bone load applied by titanium implant was able to induce the mandibular osteogenic reconstruction. PATIENT CONCERN: A 57-year-old female active smoker with no contraindications for dental implants and 3 unstable dental prostheses, underwent open surgery for the application of endosseous titanium implants (BANP IMPLANT S...
April 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400257/phase-amplitude-coupled-persistent-theta-and-gamma-oscillations-in-rat-primary-motor-cortex-in%C3%A2-vitro
#16
Nicholas W Johnson, Mazhar Özkan, Adrian P Burgess, Emma J Prokic, Keith A Wafford, Michael J O'Neill, Stuart D Greenhill, Ian M Stanford, Gavin L Woodhall
In vivo, theta (4-7 Hz) and gamma (30-80 Hz) neuronal network oscillations are known to coexist and display phase-amplitude coupling (PAC). However, in vitro, these oscillations have for many years been studied in isolation. Using an improved brain slice preparation technique we have, using co-application of carbachol (10 μM) and kainic acid (150 nM), elicited simultaneous theta (6.6 ± 0.1 Hz) and gamma (36.6 ± 0.4 Hz) oscillations in rodent primary motor cortex (M1). Each oscillation showed greatest power in layer V...
April 8, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398260/bergamot-essential-oil-attenuates-anxiety-like-behaviour-in-rats
#17
Laura Rombolà, Laura Tridico, Damiana Scuteri, Tsukasa Sakurada, Shinobu Sakurada, Hirokazu Mizoguchi, Pinarosa Avato, Maria Tiziana Corasaniti, Giacinto Bagetta, Luigi Antonio Morrone
Preclinical studies have recently highlighted that bergamot essential oil (BEO) is endowed with remarkable neurobiolological effects. BEO can affect synaptic transmission, modulate electroencephalographic activity and it showed neuroprotective and analgesic properties. The phytocomplex, along with other essential oils, is also widely used in aromatherapy to minimize symptoms of stress-induced anxiety and mild mood disorders. However, only limited preclinical evidences are actually available. This study examined the anxiolytic/sedative-like effects of BEO using an open field task (OFT), an elevated plus-maze task (EPM), and a forced swimming task (FST) in rats...
April 11, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385635/effect-of-diazepam-and-yohimbine-on-neuronal-activity-in-sham-and-hemiparkinsonian-rats
#18
Katherine A O'Connor, Emily Mahoney, Adolfo Ramirez-Zamora, Eric S Molho, Julie G Pilitsis, Damian S Shin
The prefrontal cortex and the amygdala are critical for the emotional guidance of behavior and are believed to be a site of action for many anxiolytics and anxiogenics. Despite extensive studies examining how these drugs affect behavior, there is little information regarding their effects on neuronal activity. Additionally, with recent recognition of anxiety as a non-motor symptom of Parkinson's disease, it is unknown if activity in the cortex and the amygdala is altered. Previously, we reported that hemiparkinsonian rats had higher baseline anxiety-like behavior and diminished responsiveness to the acute anxiolytic, diazepam...
April 4, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385098/pharmacological-evaluation-of-the-anxiolytic-like-effects-of-lippia-graveolens-and-bioactive-compounds
#19
María Eva González-Trujano, Laura Yunuen Hernández-Sánchez, Verónica Muñoz Ocotero, Alejandro Dorazco-González, Patricia Guevara Fefer, Eva Aguirre-Hernández
CONTEXT: Lippia species (Verbenaceae) are widely used in Latin America and Africa as folk medicine for their tranquilizing properties. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the anxiolytic-like effects and safety of Lippia graveolens Kunth. by exploring its aqueous and organic leaf extracts and identifying the responsible chemical constituents. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Aqueous and organic extracts (hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol) were pharmacologically evaluated at several doses...
December 2017: Pharmaceutical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375092/evaluation-of-acute-toxicity-sedative-and-analgesic-effects-of-taverniera-glabra-methanolic-extract-on-mice
#20
- Marvi, Javeid Iqbal, Shafi Muhammad, Mansoor Ahmad
Present study was conducted on crude methanolic extract of stem and root of Taverniera glabra. In Pakistan T. glabra is found in the region of Balochistan only. T. glabra has numerous therapeutic uses in traditional medicine and it is also used for the pain relief. Current study was carried out to evaluate acute toxicity, analgesic and CNS depressant activity of the plant. Acute toxicity was carried out by oral administration of the T. glabra extract from 250 to 2000mg/kg oral dose. Analgesic activity was carried out by acetic acid induced writhing test and formalin test...
November 2016: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
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