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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901396/effects-of-dobutamine-hydrochloride-on-cardiovascular-function-in-horses-anesthetized-with-isoflurane-with-or-without-acepromazine-maleate-premedication
#1
Mara F Schier, Anthea L Raisis, Cristy J Secombe, Giselle Hosgood, Gabrielle C Musk, Guy D Lester
OBJECTIVE To determine the effects of acepromazine maleate premedication on cardiovascular function before and after infusion of dobutamine hydrochloride for 30 minutes in isoflurane-anesthetized horses. ANIMALS 6 healthy adult horses. PROCEDURES Each horse was anesthetized once following premedication with acepromazine (0.02 mg/kg, IV) administered 30 minutes prior to anesthetic induction (ACP+ treatment) and once without premedication (ACP- treatment). Anesthesia was induced with IV administration of xylazine hydrochloride (0...
December 2016: American Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891499/a-presumptive-case-of-human-rabies-a-rare-survived-case-in-rural-ghana
#2
Paschal Awingura Apanga, John Koku Awoonor-Williams, Michael Acheampong, Matthew Ayamba Adam
Rabies remains endemic in Ghana and continues to pose a major public health threat to humans and animals with a nearly 100% case fatality rate in humans. We report of a presumptive case of human rabies whose survival represents a rare occurrence in rural Ghana and worldwide. Lessons from this case study provide a critically needed focus in helping improve rabies surveillance and case management in Ghana. We report of the survival of a 36-year-old man who developed clinical rabies after he was bitten by his dog, while restraining the dog with a chain...
2016: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890484/25-years-of-advances-in-definition-classification-and-treatment-of-status-epilepticus
#3
Eugen Trinka, Reetta Kälviäinen
PURPOSE: Status epilepticus (SE) requires not only urgent symptomatic treatment with antiepileptic drugs but also rapid identification and treatment of its cause. This narrative review summarizes the most important advances in classification and treatment of SE. METHOD: Data sources included MEDLINE, EMBASE, ClinicalTrials.gov, and back tracking of references in pertinent studies, reviews, and books. RESULTS: SE is now defined as "a condition resulting either from the failure of the mechanisms responsible for seizure termination or from the initiation of mechanisms, which lead to abnormally, prolonged seizures (after time point t1)...
November 14, 2016: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881622/stability-of-21-cocaine-opioid-and-benzodiazepine-drug-analytes-in-spiked-meconium-at-three-temperatures
#4
Fang Wu, Stephanie J Marin, Gwendolyn A McMillin
In this study, the stability of 21 cocaine, opioid and benzodiazepine analytes in spiked meconium was investigated at three storage temperatures: 4°C, room temperature (RT), and 37°C (body temperature). The drugs/metabolites included were hydrocodone, hydromorphone, codeine, morphine, 6-acetylmorphine (6-AM), oxycodone, oxymorphone, cocaine, cocaethylene, benzoylecgonine, m-hydroxybenzoylecgonine, diazepam, oxazepam, temazepam, nordiazepam, chlordiazepoxide, lorazepam, alprazolam, alpha-hydroxyalprazolam, clonazepam, 7-aminoclonazepam, midazolam, alpha-hydroxymidazolam and zolpidem...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878902/a-retrospective-comparison-of-intrathecal-morphine-and-epidural-hydromorphone-for-analgesia-following-posterior-spinal-fusion-in-adolescents-with-idiopathic-scoliosis
#5
Rebecca A Hong, Kathleen M Gibbons, G Ying Li, Ashlee Holman, Terri Voepel-Lewis
BACKGROUND: Posterior spinal fusion to correct idiopathic scoliosis is associated with severe postoperative pain. Intrathecal morphine is commonly used for analgesia after adolescent posterior spinal fusion; however, anticipating and managing the increase in pain scores after resolution of analgesic effect of intrathecal morphine analgesia is challenging. In 2014, we developed a clinical protocol detailing both the administration of intrathecal morphine intraoperatively and the transition to routine, scheduled oral analgesics at 18 h postoperatively...
November 22, 2016: Paediatric Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878767/phenobarbital-versus-valproate-for-generalized-convulsive-status-epilepticus-in-adults-a-prospective-randomized-controlled-trial-in-china
#6
Yingying Su, Gang Liu, Fei Tian, Guoping Ren, Mengdi Jiang, Brian Chun, Yunzhou Zhang, Yan Zhang, Hong Ye, Daiquan Gao, Weibi Chen
OBJECTIVE: Although generalized convulsive status epilepticus (GCSE) is a life-threatening emergency, evidence-based data to guide initial drug treatment choices are lacking in the Chinese population. We conducted this prospective, randomized, controlled trial to evaluate the relative efficacy and safety of intravenous phenobarbital and valproate in patients with GCSE. METHODS: After the failure of first-line diazepam treatment, Chinese adult patients with GCSE were randomized to receive either intravenous phenobarbital (standard doses, low rate) or valproate (standard)...
November 23, 2016: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875747/new-model-of-pharmacoresistant-seizures-induced-by-3-mercaptopropionic-acid-in-mice
#7
Andrea Enrique, Sofía Goicoechea, Rocío Castaño, Facundo Taborda, Luisa Rocha, Sandra Orozco, Elena Girardi, Luis Bruno Blanch
About 30% of the patients with epilepsy do not respond to clinically established anticonvulsants, despite having effective concentrations of the antiepileptic drug in plasma. Therefore, new preclinical models of epilepsy are needed to identify more efficacious treatments. We describe here a new drug-resistant seizure model in mice to be used at the early stages of pre-clinical trials. This model consists in inducing daily generalized seizures for 23 consecutive days by administration of 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MP)...
October 27, 2016: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868414/-effect-of-shift-rotation-culture-on-formation-and-activity-of-encapsulated-hepatocytes-aggregates
#8
Yanshan Chen, Chengbo Yu, Hongcui Cao, Lanjuan Li
Objective: To observe the effect of uniform and shift rotation culture on the formation and activity of the alginate-chitosan (AC) microencapsulated HepLL immortalized human hepatocytes and HepG2 cells aggregates. Methods: AC microcapsulated HepG2 and HepLL cells were randomly divided into two groups. Each group was divided into 3 subgroups according to uniform and shift rotation culture.The size and number of aggregates were observed and measured under laser confocal microscopy and inverted microscope dynamically...
May 25, 2016: Zhejiang da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Zhejiang University. Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866243/monitoring-of-adherence-to-headache-treatments-by-means-of-hair-analysis
#9
Anna Ferrari, Manuela Licata, Cecilia Rustichelli, Carlo Baraldi, Daniele Vandelli, Filippo Marchesi, Federica Palazzoli, Patrizia Verri, Enrico Silingardi
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of hair analysis to monitor medication adherence in headache patients undergoing chronic therapy. For this purpose, the following parameters were analyzed: the detection rate of 23 therapeutic drugs in headache patients' hair, the degree of agreement between the self-reported drug and the drug found in hair, and whether the levels found in hair reflected the drug intake reported by the patients. METHODS: The study included 93 patients suffering from primary headaches declaring their daily intake of at least one of the following drugs during the 3 months before the hair sampling: alprazolam, amitriptyline, citalopram, clomipramine, clonazepam, delorazepam, diazepam, duloxetine, fluoxetine, flurazepam, levomepromazine, levosulpiride, lorazepam, lormetazepam, mirtazapine, paroxetine, quetiapine, sertraline, topiramate, trazodone, triazolam, venlafaxine, and zolpidem...
November 20, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866061/patterns-of-drugs-poisons-in-southern-area-of-south-korea-in-2014
#10
Eunmi Kim, Yonghoon Park, Hongil Ha, Heesun Chung
The southern area of South Korea consists of three parts; Busan, Ulsan and Gyeongsangnam-do. Busan Institute of National Forensic Service (NFS) performed about 50,000 cases throughout the southern area in 2014, occupying over 15% of total cases covered by NFS. In this study, patterns of drugs and poisons in the southern area of South Korea were investigated. The investigation was carried out by the laboratory information management system of NFS between January and December of 2014. As results, a total of 606 autopsy cases were performed by Busan Institute of NFS in 2014...
December 2016: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858372/severe-respiratory-acidosis-in-status-epilepticus-as-a-possible-etiology-of-sudden-death-in-lesch-nyhan-disease-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#11
Alison Christy, William Nyhan, Jenny Wilson
INTRODUCTION: Lesch-Nyhan disease (LND) is an X-linked disorder of purine metabolism, associated with self-mutilation, dystonia, and chorea. Seizures are uncommon in LND. Patients with LND are at risk for sudden and unexpected death. The etiology of this is unknown, but appears to occur from a respiratory process. We propose that respiratory failure secondary to subclinical seizure may lead to sudden death in these patients. CASE: We report a case of an 11-year-old boy with LND who had two episodes of nocturnal gasping...
November 18, 2016: JIMD Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845264/antianxiety-activity-guided-isolation-and-characterization-of-bergenin-from-caesalpinia-digyna-rottler-roots
#12
Jitender Singh, Ashwani Kumar, Anupam Sharma
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Caesalpinia digyna Rottler (Caesalpiniaceae) roots have been used traditionally for soothing nerves, as nervine tonic and febrifuge. The aim of the present study was to isolate the antianxiety constituent(s) from C. digyna roots following bioactivity guided fractionation approach. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Bioactive fraction F4 was subjected to column chromatography to get three sub-fractions (F4.1-F4.3) and a compound CD2. CD1 and CD2 were characterized using standard spectral techniques...
November 11, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27844092/exogenous-daytime-melatonin-modulates-response-of-adolescent-mice-in-a-repeated-unpredictable-stress-paradigm
#13
Adejoke Yetunde Onaolapo, Ajibola Nurudeen Adebayo, Olakunle James Onaolapo
The immediate and short-term behavioural and physiological implications of exposure to stressful scenarios in the adolescent period are largely unknown; however, increases in occurrence of stress-related physiological and psychological disorders during puberty highlight the need to study substances that may modulate stress reactivity during a crucial stage of maturation. Seven groups of mice (12-15 g each) were administered distilled water (DW) (non-stressed and stressed controls), sertraline (10 mg/kg), diazepam (2 mg/kg) or one of three doses of melatonin (5, 10 and 15 mg/kg)...
November 14, 2016: Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843704/association-between-antiepileptic-drugs-and-hepatocellular-carcinoma-in-patients-with-epilepsy-a-population-based-case-control-study
#14
Dong-Zong Hung, Cheng-Li Lin, Yi-Wen Li, Yen-Ning Lin, Ying-Ray Lee, Charles-C N Wang, Jih-Jung Chen, Yun-Ping Lim
BACKGROUND: This study explored whether antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) use increases the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). METHODS: We conducted a case-control study using data from the National Health Insurance system of Taiwan. The case group comprised 1,454 epilepsy patients with newly diagnosed HCC, and the control group comprised 1,448 epilepsy patients without HCC. Both groups had similar distributions of sex and age, and follow-up duration. Possible associations with the AEDs in Taiwan were examined...
November 2016: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842924/dexmedetomidine-use-in-the-emergency-department-for-control-of-methamphetamine-induced-agitation-a-report-of-two-cases
#15
Rex Pui Kin Lam, Wai Lam Yip, Chi Keung Wan, Matthew Sik Hon Tsui
BACKGROUND: Chemical restraint is often required to control agitation induced by methamphetamine. Dexmedetomidine is an α-2 adrenergic receptor agonist with sedative, analgesic, and sympatholytic properties. Its use in the emergency department (ED) to control methamphetamine-induced agitation has not been reported. OBJECTIVE: To report two cases of methamphetamine-induced agitation successfully sedated with dexmedetomidine in the ED. CASE REPORT: The first case was a 42-year-old man with unstable emotion and violent behaviours after smoking methamphetamine...
November 3, 2016: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832686/dantrolene-a-selective-ryanodine-receptor-antagonist-protects-against-pentylenetetrazole-induced-seizure-in-mice
#16
Mojtaba Keshavarz, Morteza Fotouhi, Alireza Rasti
Ryanodine receptor abnormalities has implicated in the generation and maintenance of seizure. Dantrolene, a selective ryanodine receptor antagonist, may be a potential drug for the prevention of seizure. Therefore, we aimed to clarify the protective effects of dantrolene against pentylenetetrazole seizure in mice. Male albino mice were received an intra-peritoneal injection of pentylenetetrazole (80 mg/kg) in seven separate groups (n=8). We used dantrolene (10,20 and 40 mg/kg), caffeine (200 mg/kg), dantrolene (40 mg/kg) + caffeine (200 mg/kg), diazepam (5 mg/kg as a positive control) and vehicle 30 minutes before the injection of pentylenetetrazole...
September 2016: Acta Medica Iranica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27827989/activated-carbon-based-system-for-the-disposal-of-psychoactive-medications
#17
Yang Song, Mahima Manian, William Fowler, Andrew Korey, Ajay Kumar Banga
The misuse and improper disposal of psychoactive medications is a major safety and environmental concern. Hence, the proper disposal of these medications is critically important. A drug deactivation system which contains activated carbon offers a unique disposal method. In the present study, deactivation efficiency of this system was tested by using three model psychoactive drugs. HPLC validation was performed for each drug to ensure that the analytical method employed was suitable for its intended use. The method was found to be specific, accurate and precise for analyzing the drugs...
November 7, 2016: Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822336/neurobehavioral-and-antioxidant-effects-of-ethanolic-extract-of-yellow-propolis
#18
Cinthia Cristina Sousa de Menezes da Silveira, Luanna Melo Pereira Fernandes, Mallone Lopes Silva, Diandra Araújo Luz, Antônio Rafael Quadros Gomes, Marta Chagas Monteiro, Christiane Schineider Machado, Yohandra Reyes Torres, Tatiana Onofre de Lira, Antonio Gilberto Ferreira, Enéas Andrade Fontes-Júnior, Cristiane Socorro Ferraz Maia
Propolis is a resin produced by bees from raw material collected from plants, salivary secretions, and beeswax. New therapeutic properties for the Central Nervous System have emerged. We explored the neurobehavioral and antioxidant effects of an ethanolic extract of yellow propolis (EEYP) rich in triterpenoids, primarily lupeol and β-amyrin. Male Wistar rats, 3 months old, were intraperitoneally treated with Tween 5% (control), EEYP (1, 3, 10, and 30 mg/kg), or diazepam, fluoxetine, and caffeine (positive controls) 30 min before the assays...
2016: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816253/a-single-mcr-als-model-for-drug-analysis-in-different-formulations-application-on-diazepam-commercial-preparations
#19
Michele De Luca, Giuseppina Ioele, Claudia Spatari, Gaetano Ragno
A multivariate curve resolution - alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) analysis was used to quantify diazepam (DZP) in thirty commercial liquid formulations. MCR calibration was run on the UV spectrophotometric data of the commercial DZP samples over the range 200-400nm, allowing the resolution of the drug signal and then the excipients contained in all the formulations. A single model MCR for the determination of the drug in all samples was then built through the adoption of the correlation constraint. This model was optimized by an appropriate selection of the most useful wavelength ranges and then validated on external samples...
October 27, 2016: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816004/diazepam-influences-urinary-bioindicator-of-occupational-toluene-exposure
#20
Alberto Thalison Silveira, Ana Carolina Campos Albuquerque, José Salvador Lepera, Isarita Martins
In the present study, we investigated the influence of diazepam (DZP) on the excretion of TOL by examining their urinary metabolites, hippuric acid (HA) and ortho-cresol (o-C). Male Wistar rats were exposed to TOL (20ppm) in a nose-only exposure chamber (6h/day, 5days/week for 6 weeks) with simultaneous administration of DZP (10mg/kg/day). Urinary o-C levels were determined by GC-MS, while HA, creatinine (CR), DZP and its metabolite, nordiazepam, were analysed by HPLC-DAD. The results of a Mann-Whitney U test showed that DZP influenced the urinary excretion of o-C (p<0...
December 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
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