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Jana Tchekalarova, Keylla da Conceição Machado, Antonio Luiz Gomes Júnior, Ana Amélia de Carvalho Melo Cavalcante, Albena Momchilova, Rumyana Tzoneva
PURPOSE: Activation of CB1 receptors, produces anticonvulsant effect accompanied by memory disturbance both in animal seizure tests and in patients with epilepsy. Few reports considered the role of CB2 receptor on seizure susceptibility and cognitive functions. The aim of the present study was to explore the effect of a selective CB2 receptor agonist β-caryophyllene (BCP) in models of seizures and cognition in mice. METHODS: Dose-dependent effects of BCP was studied in maximal electroshock seizure (MES) test, subcutaneous pentylenetetrazole (scPTZ) test and Morris water maze test...
March 12, 2018: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
Ariana Sherdil, Stéphan Chabardès, Isabelle Guillemain, Sandrine Michallat, Shivadatta Prabhu, Karine Pernet-Gallay, Olivier David, Brigitte Piallat
PURPOSE: Our objective was to propose a new on demand non-human primate model of mesial temporal lobe seizures suitable for pre-clinical innovative therapeutic research. METHODS: Five macaques were stereotaxically implanted unilaterally with a deep recording electrode in the hippocampus. For each experiment, penicillin was injected into the hippocampus and animals were monitored during five consecutive hours. A total of 12-27 experiments with a mean cumulative dose of 162644 ± 70190 UI of penicillin have been performed per animal Injections were repeated at least once a week over a period of 98-276 days...
March 9, 2018: Epilepsy Research
Nan Zhang, Lei Zhang, Linyin Feng, Lei Yao
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Cananga odorata essential oil, known as ylang-ylang essential oil (YYO), was commonly used in the aromatherapy for relaxation and mood adjusting use. In our previous study, YYO played anxiolytic effects on the mice in several behavioral tests that based on the instinctive responses to novel environments. AIM OF THE STUDY: To investigate the effects and mechanisms of YYO reversing the anxiety induced by 5-HT2C receptor agonist 1-(3-chlorophenyl) piperazine (m-CPP)...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Jenny L Wilkerson, Zachary A Curry, Pamela D Kinlow, Brittany L Mason, Ku-Lung Hsu, Mario van der Stelt, Benjamin F Cravatt, Aron H Lichtman
A great need exists for the identification of new effective analgesics to treat sustained pain. However, most preclinical nociceptive assays measure behavioral responses evoked by noxious stimuli (i.e., pain-stimulated behavior), which presents a challenge to distinguish between motor impairing and antinociceptive effects of drugs. Here, we demonstrate that chronic constriction injury of the sciatic nerve (CCI) elicits common pain-stimulated responses (i.e., mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia) as well as reduces marble burying/digging behaviors that occur during the early stages of the neuropathy and resolve within one week...
March 8, 2018: Pain
Brandon Kar Meng Choo, Uday P Kundap, Yatinesh Kumari, Seow-Mun Hue, Iekhsan Othman, Mohd Farooq Shaikh
Epileptic seizures result from abnormal brain activity and can affect motor, autonomic and sensory function; as well as, memory, cognition, behavior, or emotional state. Effective anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) are available but have tolerability issues due to their side effects. The Malaysian herb Orthosiphon stamineus , is a traditional epilepsy remedy and possesses anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and free-radical scavenging abilities, all of which are known to protect against seizures. This experiment thus aimed to explore if an ethanolic leaf extract of O...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Monika Wieczerzak, Błażej Kudłak, Galina Yotova, Stefan Tsakovski, Vasil Simeonov, Jacek Namieśnik
Assessment of the impact of pharmaceutical residues on living organisms is a very complex subject. Apart from taking into account the toxicity of individual compounds, environmental factors should also be taken into account. In this paper, attempts were made to assess the impact of coexisting inorganic ions and changes in pH on the toxicity of ten selected pharmaceuticals. Two bioassays were used to measure the estrogenic and androgenic effects (XenoScreen YES/YAS - Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and acute toxicity (Microtox® - Vibrio fischeri)...
March 7, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Militiadis A Makrygiannakis, Eleftherios G Kaklamanos, Athanasios E Athanasiou
Background: As the taking of any medication may theoretically affect the complex pathways responsible for periodontal tissue homeostasis and the events leading to orthodontic tooth movement, it is considered important for the orthodontist to be able to identify prospective patients' history and patterns of pharmaceutical consumption. Objective: To systematically investigate and appraise the quality of the available evidence regarding the effect of commonly prescribed medications on the rate of orthodontic tooth movement...
March 6, 2018: European Journal of Orthodontics
Shokouhsadat Hamedi, Fatemeh Forouzanfar, Hasan Rakhshandeh, Amirali Arian
OBJECTIVE: In Iranian Traditional Medicine, the herbs with cold and wet temperament can help to improve insomnia. Portulaca oleracea has cold and wet temperament, so the present study was carried out to investigate the sleep-prolonging effect of Portulaca oleracea. METHODS: This work was an experimental study on mice which were randomly divided into these groups: saline (control); Diazepam:) positive control); hydro-alcoholic extract of Portulaca oleracea (12.5, 25, 50, 75 and 100 mg/kg) by Soxhlet apparatus and maceration; in the effective (dose25 mg/kg), different fractions of extract were tested...
March 8, 2018: Current Drug Discovery Technologies
Lih-Chu Chiou, Hsin-Jung Lee, Margot Ernst, Wei-Jan Huang, Jui-Feng Chou, Hon-Lie Chen, Akihiro Mouri, Liang-Chieh Chen, Marco Treven, Takayoshi Mamiya, Pi-Chuan Fan, Daniel E Knutson, Chris Witzigmann, James Cook, Werner Sieghart, Toshitaka Nabeshima
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The pathophysiological role of α6 subunit-containing GABAA receptors (α6GABAA Rs), which are mainly expressed in cerebellar granule cells, remains unclear. Recently, we demonstrated that hispidulin, a flavonoid isolated from a local herb that remitted a patient's intractable motor tics, attenuated methamphetamine-induced hyperlocomotion in mice as a positive allosteric modulator (PAM) of cerebellar α6GABAA Rs. Here, using hispidulin and a selective α6GABAA R PAM, the pyrazoloquinolinone Compound 6, we revealed an unprecedented role of cerebellar α6GABAA Rs in disrupted prepulse inhibition (PPI), which reflects sensorimotor gating deficits manifested in several neuropsychiatric disorders...
March 8, 2018: British Journal of Pharmacology
Nela Vanova, Jaroslav Pejchal, David Herman, Alzbeta Dlabkova, Daniel Jun
Despite the main mechanism of organophosphate (OP) toxicity through inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) being well known over the years, some chronic adverse health effects indicate the involvement of additional pathways. Oxidative stress is among the most intensively studied. Overstimulation of cholinergic and glutamatergic nervous system is followed by intensified generation of reactive species and oxidative damage in many tissues. In this review, the role of oxidative stress in pathophysiology of OP poisoning and the influence of commonly used medical interventions on its levels are discussed...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
Morgayn I Read, Rebecca N Millen, Dominic M McCann, Joanne C Harrison, Douglas S Kerr, Ivan A Sammut
OBJECTIVE: Altered autonomic activity has been implicated in the development of cardiac dysfunction during seizures. This study investigates whether intervening in seizure progression with diazepam will reduce seizure-induced cardiomyopathy. Second, this study examines the hypothesis that combining atenolol with diazepam, as an intervention after seizure onset, will combat cardiac injury during status epilepticus. METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were implanted with electroencephalographic/electrocardiographic electrodes to allow simultaneous recordings during seizures induced by intrahippocampal (2 nmol, 1 μL) kainic acid (KA)...
March 7, 2018: Epilepsia
S Jongen, E F P M Vuurman, J G Ramaekers, A Vermeeren
OBJECTIVE: Screening of drug-induced performance impairment is needed to provide meaningful information for users and prescribers regarding the impact of drugs on driving. The main objective was to assess the effects of oxazepam 10 mg (OXA10), oxazepam 30 mg (OXA30), and diazepam 10 mg (DIA10) on standard deviation of lateral position (SDLP) in a highway driving test in actual traffic and to determine the ability of eight neurocognitive tests to detect comparable effects. METHODS: Twenty-three healthy volunteers participated in a four-way double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study...
March 2, 2018: Psychopharmacology
Snehalata V Gajbhiye, Raakhi K Tripathi, Anup Uttam Petare, Anirudha Vyankatesh Potey, Arun Shankar
INTRODUCTION: Anxiety and negative sensations due to alcohol withdrawal are factors leading to alcohol relapse and addiction. Minocycline, an antibiotic, can decrease alcohol consumption in rats, however, its effects on alcohol withdrawal anxiety and relapse have not been studied. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Part 1: Forced alcohol drinking in gradually increasing concentration was administered till day 22 in rats. Effect of drugs on anxiety was assessed using elevated plus maze (EPM) and two chambered box apparatus, after removal of alcohol...
February 27, 2018: Current Clinical Pharmacology
Simon J C Davies, Binu Jacob, David Rudoler, Juveria Zaheer, Claire de Oliveira, Paul Kurdyak
Background: Although commonly used in anxiety and insomnia, recent guidelines recommend caution when prescribing benzodiazepines in the elderly. Here we examined rates of benzodiazepine prescribing to older adults in Ontario, Canada from 1998 to 2013 and impact of legislation that made prescribing regulations more strict. Method: Annual benzodiazepine prescription rates for Ontario residents aged 65 and over were examined using the Ontario Drug Benefit database which captures all publicly funded prescriptions...
March 2018: Therapeutic Advances in Psychopharmacology
Maria Isabel Bento Ayres Pereira Harry Leite, Sérgio Azevedo Ferreira Alves, Rui Paulo Vicente Reinas, Marta Gomes Rodrigues, Ana Sofia Martins das Neves Garrido, Otília Peixoto da Cunha, Joana Sofia Oliveira Rodrigues, Maria de Fátima Oliveira Santos Poças, Mário António Leite Resende Martins
A previously healthy 13-year-old girl presented with a 9-day history of acute onset severe neck pain associated with limited range of movement. Medical evaluation at day 2 was suggestive of muscle contracture, and she was discharged home with diazepam, antiinflammatory agents, and rest; however, she returned because of progressive clinical worsening with left arm distal paresthesia and paralysis since day 3. There was no history of trauma or other systemic complaints, and her familial medical history was unremarkable...
February 28, 2018: Pediatric Emergency Care
Soheila Samiee, Maxime Lévesque, Massimo Avoli, Sylvain Baillet
Polyrhythmic coupling of oscillatory components in electrophysiological signals results from the interactions between neuronal sub-populations within and between cell assemblies. Since the mechanisms underlying epileptic disorders should affect such interactions, abnormal level of cross-frequency coupling is expected to provide a signal marker of epileptogenesis. We measured phase-amplitude coupling (PAC), a form of cross-frequency coupling between neural oscillations, in a rodent model of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy...
February 24, 2018: Neurobiology of Disease
Norman Chen, Thomas Tanbonliong
PURPOSE: To investigate the effectiveness of oral morphine sulfate regimens in sedating pediatric dental patients and assess whether pre-sedation disposition and willingness to take the sedative were related to the outcome of the sedation. METHODS: The sedation records of 271 pediatric dental patients sedated with oral morphine were reviewed. Children were either sedated with regimen one (morphine plus midazolam plus hydroxyzine) or regimen two (morphine plus diazepam plus hydroxyzine)...
January 1, 2018: Pediatric Dentistry
Daniel E Knutson, Revathi Kodali, Branka Divovic, Marco Treven, Michael Rajesh Stephen, Nicolas M Zahn, Vladimir Dobričić, Alec T Huber, Matheus A Meirelles, Ranjit S Verma, Laurin Wimmer, Christopher Witzigmann, Leggy A Arnold, Lih-Chu Chiou, Margot Ernst, Marko D Mihovilovic, Miroslav M Savic, Werner Sieghart, James M Cook
Recent reports indicate that α6β2/3γ2 GABAA R selective ligands may be important for the treatment of trigeminal orofacial pain and neuropsychiatric disorders with sensori-motor gating deficits. Based on 3 functionally α6β2/3γ2 GABAA R selective pyrazoloquinolinones, 42 novel analogs were synthesized and their in vitro metabolic stability and cytotoxicity as well as their in vivo pharmacokinetics, basic behavioral pharmacology, and effects on locomotion was investigated. Incorporation of deuterium into the methoxy substituents of the ligands increased their duration of action via improved metabolic stability and bioavailability, while their selectivity for the GABAA R α6 subtype was retained...
February 26, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Qi-Hui Zhou, Xiao-Li Zhou, Meng-Bei Xu, Ting-Yu Jin, Pei-Qing Rong, Guo-Qing Zheng, Yan Lin
Insomnia disorder is a widespread and refractory disease. Semen Ziziphi Spinosae , Suanzaoren, a well-known Chinese herbal medicine, has been used for treating insomnia for thousands of years. Here, we aimed to assess the available evidence of Chinese herbal formulae that contains Suanzaoren (FSZR) for insomnia according to high-quality randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and reviewed their possible mechanisms based on animal-based studies. Electronic searches were performed in eight databases from inception to November 2016...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Brian Wilkinson, James Garwood, Stephen Langford
OBJECTIVE: Patients can be transferred many hundreds of kilometers with acute mental health disturbance for specialist mental health services in Western Australia. METHODS: A retrospective notes review of Royal Flying Doctor Service Western Operations records was undertaken over a 4-month period. Patients were identified from the transfer database by mental health diagnosis. Benzodiazepine and antipsychotic doses were converted into a reference drug per class for comparison...
March 2018: Air Medical Journal
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