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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101764/diazepam-in-the-treatment-of-moderate-to-severe-alcohol-withdrawal
#1
Steven J Weintraub
Benzodiazepines ameliorate or prevent the symptoms and complications of moderate to severe alcohol withdrawal, which can include autonomic hyperactivity, agitation, combativeness, hallucinations, seizures, delirium, and death. The benzodiazepines most commonly used for this purpose are lorazepam, chlordiazepoxide, oxazepam, and diazepam. It is widely asserted that no member of this group is superior to the others for treatment of alcohol withdrawal. However, of these, diazepam has the shortest time to peak effect, which facilitates both rapid control of symptoms and accurate titration to avoid over-sedation...
January 18, 2017: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101475/anticonvulsive-effects-of-licofelone-on-status-epilepticus-induced-by-lithium-pilocarpine-in-wistar-rats-a-role-for-inducible-nitric-oxide-synthase
#2
Seyyed Majid Eslami, Mohammad Mobin Moradi, Mehdi Ghasemi, Ahmad Reza Dehpour
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Status epilepticus (SE) is a neurological disorder with high prevalence and mortality rates, requiring immediate intervention. Licofelone is a cyclooxygenase (COX) and 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) inhibitor, which its effectiveness to treat osteoarthritis has been approved. Increasing evidence suggests an involvement of COX and LOX enzymes in epileptic disorders. Thus, in the present study we investigate possible effects of licofelone on prevention and termination of SE...
December 2016: Journal of Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101466/characterization-of-the-effect-of-drug-drug-interaction-on-protein-binding-in-concurrent-administration-of-sulfamethoxazol-and-diclofenac-sodium-using-bovine-serum-albumin
#3
Md Kamal Hossain, Amina Khatun, Mahmudur Rahman, Md Nahid Akter, Sadia Afreen Chowdhury, Sm Mahbubul Alam
Purpose: This project was aimed to determine the effect of concurrent administration of sulfamethoxazole and diclofenac sodium. Methods: Equilibrium dialysis method was adopted to study different protein binding aspects of sulfamethoxazole and diclofenac sodium. Results: Sulfamethoxazole showed two types of association constants; high affinity constant 29.0±0.20×10(6) M(-1) with lower number of binding sites of 0.7±1 and low affinity constant 1.13±0.20×10(6) M(-1) with higher number of binding sites of 3...
December 2016: Advanced Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094168/clinical-epidemiology-and-treatment-of-febrile-and-afebrile-convulsions-with-mild-gastroenteritis-a-multicenter-study
#4
Yousuke Higuchi, Toshihide Kubo, Toshiharu Mitsuhashi, Naoko Nakamura, Ichiro Yokota, Osamu Komiyama, Isamu Kamimaki, Shigenori Yamamoto, Yasushi Uchida, Kyoko Watanabe, Hironori Yamashita, Shigeki Tanaka, Kosei Iguchi, Ryouji Ichimi, Shinichiro Miyagawa, Toshimitsu Takayanagi, Hiroshi Koga, Akinori Shukuya, Akiko Saito, Keizo Horibe
BACKGROUND: We investigated features and responses to treatment in patients with febrile and afebrile convulsions with mild gastroenteritis and characterized convulsions with rotavirus and norovirus gastroenteritis. METHODS: We conducted a prospective, observational study to evaluate patients with febrile and afebrile convulsions with mild gastroenteritis who were hospitalized between November 2011 and March 2014 at 13 facilities in the National Hospital Organization...
August 3, 2016: Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094153/development-and-validation-of-a-fast-ionic-liquid-based-dispersive-liquid-liquid-microextraction-procedure-combined-with-lc-ms-ms-analysis-for-the-quantification-of-benzodiazepines-and-benzodiazepine-like-hypnotics-in-whole-blood
#5
Marieke De Boeck, Sophie Missotten, Wim Dehaen, Jan Tytgat, Eva Cuypers
To date, thorough clean-up of complex biological samples remains an essential part of the analytical process. The solid phase extraction (SPE) technique is the well-known standard, however, its main weaknesses are the labor-intensive and time-consuming protocols. In this respect, dispersive liquid-liquid microextractions (DLLME) seem to offer less complex and more efficient extraction procedures. Furthermore, ionic liquids (ILs) - liquid salts - are emerging as new promising extraction solvents, thanks to their non-flammable nature, negligible vapor pressure and easily adaptable physiochemical properties...
December 26, 2016: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078241/the-effect-of-zataria-multiflora-boiss-hydroalcoholic-extract-and-fractions-in-pentylenetetrazole-induced-kindling-in-mice
#6
Ali Shamsizadeh, Farangis Fatehi, Fatemeh Arab Baniasad, Fatemeh Ayoobi, Mohammad Ebrahim Rezvani, Ali Roohbakhsh
OBJECTIVE: At present, there are many antiepileptic drugs with a wide range of side effects on the human body. It was assumed that Zataria multiflora Boiss (Z. multiflora) with sedative, anti-spasmodic and anti-inflammatory activity may be effective in the treatment of epilepsy. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the effect of Z. multiflora hydroalcoholic extract and its fraction extracts on pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced chemical kindling. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this experimental study, eight separate groups of male albino mice were used...
November 2016: Avicenna Journal of Phytomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077331/physiological-behavioral-changes-induced-by-a-fraction-with-antitumor-cleronade-diterpenes-from-an-atlantic-forest-brazilian-plant-and-computational-intermolecular-interactions-with-neuron-receptors
#7
Éverton José Ferreira de Araújo, Antônia Amanda Cardoso de Almeida, Oskar Almeida Silva, Iwyson Henrique Fernandes da Costa, Luis Mário Rezende Júnior, Francisco das Chagas Alves Lima, Luciano da Silva Lopes, Alberto José Cavalheiro, Paulo Michel Pinheiro Ferreira
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Casearia sylvestris is a medicinal plant traditionally used to treat snakebites, wounds, inflammation and gastric ulcers and scientific supports for have demonstrated its antitumor, antihyperlipidemic and antiparasitic properties. AIM OF THE STUDY: To assess the effects of a fraction with casearins (FC) on adult mice using classical experimental models of animal behavior and theoretical calculations to verify the interaction of Casearin X (Cas X) with neuron receptors...
January 7, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076313/ethnopharmacological-investigation-of-the-aerial-part-of-phragmites-karka-poaceae
#8
Ramiz Ahmed Sultan, Mohammad Shah Hafez Kabir, Mir Muhammad Nasir Uddin, Mohi Uddin, Zobaer Al Mahmud, Sheikh Zahir Raihan, Nazmul Qais
BACKGROUND: In this ethnopharmacological study, methanolic extract of the aerial plant parts of Phragmites karka (Family: Poaceae) and its petroleum ether and carbon tetrachloride fractions were investigated for bioactivities in Swiss-albino mice, namely, analgesic, central nervous system (CNS) depressant, hypoglycemic, and antidiarrheal activity. METHODS: The cold methanolic extract of the aerial plant parts of Phragmites karka (MEPK) was first prepared, and it was then further fractionated as petroleum ether (PEFMEPK) and carbon tetrachloride (CTFMEPK) fractions...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067776/sensitivity-of-quantitative-signal-detection-in-regards-to-pharmacological-neuroenhancement
#9
Maximilian Gahr, Bernhard J Connemann, Carlos Schönfeldt-Lecuona, René Zeiss
Pharmacological neuroenhancement (PNE) is a form of abuse and has not yet been addressed by methods of pharmacovigilance. In the present study, we tested if quantitative signal detection may be sensitive in regards to PNE. We evaluated the risk of drug abuse and dependence (DAAD) related to substances that are known to be used for PNE and divided this group into agents with (methylphenidate) and without a known abuse potential outside the field of PNE (atomoxetine, modafinil, acetylcholine esterase inhibitors, and memantine)...
January 5, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067180/dispensing-patterns-of-anxiolytics-and-sedative-hypnotics-a-feasibility-study-comparing-datasets-from-a-developed-and-developing-country-australia-and-south-africa
#10
Therése Kairuz, Ilse Truter, Laurence Rossato, Alex Pudmenzky
BACKGROUND: Dispensing patterns reflect drug usage trends. Benzodiazepines are known as drugs with potential for misuse, and frequent dispensing may be a surrogate marker of misuse. OBJECTIVE: The primary aim of this study was to obtain a comparative snapshot of anxiolytic and sedative-hypnotic dispensing in a developing country and a developed country, to determine whether further research about benzodiazepines is warranted. METHOD: A cross-national, cross-sectional retrospective drug utilisation study was conducted on benzodiazepines and z-drugs...
January 9, 2017: Current Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066107/anxiolytic-activity-of-aqueous-extract-of-camellia-sinensis-in-rats
#11
Rajeshwari Shastry, Sheetal Dinkar Ullal, Shreyas Karkala, Seema Rai, Akash Gadgade
OBJECTIVES: The present study was undertaken to evaluate anxiolytic effect of Camellia sinensis (CS) and possible mechanism on acute and chronic administration in rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eight groups of rats with six in each group were used. Group I served as control. Group II received diazepam (1 mg/kg). Groups III, IV, and V received CS in doses of 3.3, 16.5, and 33 mg/kg, respectively. Three pharmacologically validated experimental models - elevated plus maze (EPM), light and dark box (LDB), and open field tests (OFT) - were employed...
November 2016: Indian Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054809/differential-patterns-of-constant-frequency-50-and-22-khz-usv-production-are-related-to-intensity-of-negative-affective-state
#12
James O Taylor, Catherine M Urbano, Brenton G Cooper
Adult rat ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) are a valuable tool for noninvasively assessing an animal's emotional state. USVs are produced in 1 of 2 frequency ranges labeled as 22 kHz or 50 kHz vocalizations. One USV subtype within the 50 kHz call category, constant frequency 50 kHz (CF 50 kHz) calls, is not viewed as signaling an emotional state. The current study tested the hypothesis that CF 50 kHz calls are related to a mild negative affective state. In Experiment 1, diazepam (1, 2.5, or 5 mg/kg), or control injections were administered prior to receiving a sequence of mild footshocks (0...
January 5, 2017: Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049943/repeated-cold-stress-enhances-the-acute-restraint-stress-induced-hyperthermia-in-mice
#13
Tomoyoshi Miyamoto, Yoshinori Funakami, Erika Kawashita, Ai Nomura, Nanako Sugimoto, Haruka Saeki, Maho Tsubota, Seiji Ichida, Atsufumi Kawabata
The rodents exposed to repeated cold stress according to a specific schedule, known as specific alternation of rhythm in temperature (SART), exhibit autonomic imbalance, and is now used as an experimental model of fibromyalgia. To explore the susceptibility of SART-stressed animals to novel acute stress, we tested whether exposure of mice to SART stress for 1 week alters the extent of acute restraint stress-induced hyperthermia. Mice were subjected to 7-d SART stress sessions; i.e., the mice were alternately exposed to 24 and 4°C at 1-h intervals during the daytime (09:00-16:00) and kept at 4°C overnight (16:00-09:00)...
2017: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045944/pharmaceutical-metabolism-in-fish-using-a-3-d-hepatic-in-vitro-model-to-assess-clearance
#14
Matthew G Baron, Kate S Mintram, Stewart F Owen, Malcolm J Hetheridge, A John Moody, Wendy M Purcell, Simon K Jackson, Awadhesh N Jha
At high internal doses, pharmaceuticals have the potential for inducing biological/pharmacological effects in fish. One particular concern for the environment is their potential to bioaccumulate and reach pharmacological levels; the study of these implications for environmental risk assessment has therefore gained increasing attention. To avoid unnecessary testing on animals, in vitro methods for assessment of xenobiotic metabolism could aid in the ecotoxicological evaluation. Here we report the use of a 3-D in vitro liver organoid culture system (spheroids) derived from rainbow trout to measure the metabolism of seven pharmaceuticals using a substrate depletion assay...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042145/hippocampal-expression-of-connexin36-and-connexin43-during-epileptogenesis-in-pilocarpine-model-of-epilepsy
#15
Sahel Motaghi, Mohammad Sayyah, Vahab Babapour, Reza Mahdian
BACKGROUND: Gap junctions (GJs) provide direct intercellular communications that are formed by hexameric protein subunits, called connexin (Cx). The role of Cxs in epileptogenesis has not received sufficient attention. Hippocampus with critical function in epileptogenesis has a wide network of GJs. We examined the protein expression levels of hippocampal Cx36 (the prominent Cx present between GABAergic interneurons) and Cx43 (the main Cx expressed by astrocytes) during epileptogenesis in the pilocarpine model of epilepsy...
January 2, 2017: Iranian Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038309/diazepam-inhibits-electrically-evoked-and-tonic-dopamine-release-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-and-reverses-the-effect-of-amphetamine
#16
Alexander Gomez-A, Amanda Maino Fiorenza, Suelen Lucio Boschen, Adam H Sugi, Danielle Beckman, Sergio T Ferreira, Kendall H Lee, Charles D Blaha, Claudio Da Cunha
Diazepam is a benzodiazepine receptor agonist with anxiolytic and addictive properties. Although most drugs of abuse increase dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens, here we show that not only it causes the opposite effect but also prevents amphetamine action on increasing dopamine release. We used 20 min sampling in vivo microdialysis and subsecond fast-scan cyclic voltammetry recordings at carbon-fiber microelectrodes to show that diazepam caused a dose-dependent decrease in tonic and electrically-evoked dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens of urethane anesthetized adult male Swiss mice...
December 30, 2016: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034961/role-of-prefrontal-serotonergic-and-dopaminergic-systems-in-encounter-induced-hyperactivity-in-methamphetamine-sensitized-mice
#17
Tatsunori Tanaka, Yukio Ago, Chiaki Umehara, Emina Imoto, Shigeru Hasebe, Hitoshi Hashimoto, Kazuhiro Takuma, Toshio Matsuda
BACKGROUND: Isolation-reared mice show social encounter-induced hyperactivity with activation of prefrontal serotonergic and dopaminergic systems, but it is not known whether this stress response is observed in other pathological conditions. Here we examined whether the social encounter stimulation induces abnormal behavior during withdrawal in chronic methamphetamine (METH)-treated mice. METHODS: To induce METH-induced behavioral sensitization, male mice were injected with METH (1 mg/kg) once daily for 7 days...
December 29, 2016: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033583/evaluation-of-antibacterial-antioxidant-and-nootropic-activities-of-tiliacora-racemosa-colebr-leaves-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-approach
#18
Vivek Kumar T, Vishalakshi M, Gangaraju M, Parijat Das, Pratiti Roy, Anindita Banerjee, Sayan Dutta Gupta
The antibacterial and antioxidant potential of Tiliacora racemosa leaf extracts in various solvents (methanolic, hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate) was determined. Additionally, the presence of bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloids in the plant prompted us to evaluate the nootropic activity of the methanolic extract in mice. Further, we seek to verify the nootropic effect by examining the anticholinesterase inhibition potential of the methanolic extract. The leaf extracts in various solvents were evaluated for their antibacterial and antioxidant activity by agar diffusion technique and α, α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging method, respectively...
December 26, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029289/effects-of-diurnal-variation-and-anesthetic-agents-on-intraocular-pressure-in-syrian-hamsters-mesocricetus-auratus
#19
Seyed Mehdi Rajaei, Maneli Ansari Mood, Mohammad Reza Paryani, David L Williams
OBJECTIVE To determine effects of diurnal variation and anesthetic agents on intraocular pressure (IOP) in Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus). ANIMALS 90 healthy adult Syrian hamsters (45 males and 45 females). PROCEDURES IOP was measured with a rebound tonometer. In phase 1, IOP was measured in all hamsters 3 times during a 24-hour period (7 am, 3 pm, and 11 pm). In phase 2, hamsters were assigned to 5 groups (18 animals [9 males and 9 females]/group). Each group received an anesthetic agent or combination of anesthetic agents (ketamine hydrochloride, xylazine hydrochloride, diazepam, ketamine-diazepam [KD], or ketamine-xylazine [KX] groups) administered via the IP route...
January 2017: American Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027673/non-invasive-assessment-of-altered-activity-following-restraint-in-mice-using-an-automated-physiological-monitoring-system
#20
Jereme G Spiers, Hsiao-Jou Cortina Chen, Frederik J Steyn, Nickolas A Lavidis, Trent M Woodruff, John D Lee
In the laboratory setting, typical endocrine and targeted behavioral tests are limited in their ability to provide a direct assessment of stress in animals housed in undisturbed conditions. We hypothesized that an automated phenotyping system would allow the detection of subtle stress-related behavioral changes well beyond the time-frames examined using conventional methods. In the present study, we have utilized the TSE PhenoMaster system to continuously record basal behaviors and physiological parameters including activity, body weight, food intake, and oxygen consumption in undisturbed and stressed C57Bl/6J male mice (n = 12/group), with a pharmacological intervention using the conventional anxiolytic, diazepam (5 mg kg(-1) i...
December 27, 2016: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
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