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Physiology of ageing

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214837/efficacy-of-glucosamine-sulphate-in-skin-ageing-results-from-an-ex-vivo-anti-ageing-model-and-a-clinical-trial
#1
Audrey Gueniche, Isabelle Castiel-Higounenc
BACKGROUND: Glucosamine sulphate (GS) is essential in the biosynthesis of glycolipids, glycoproteins, glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), hyaluronate, and proteoglycans. Connective tissues primarily contain collagen and proteoglycans and play an important role in skin ageing. OBJECTIVE: The objectives were to assess ex vivo the impact of GS on skin ageing parameters and in vivo the effect of GS on the skin physiology of mature healthy volunteers after oral intake. METHODS: The impact of GS on skin ageing was assessed ex vivo via different immunohistochemical assays and histology and via a clinical study using biopsies...
February 18, 2017: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213843/effect-of-biofeedback-therapy-on-anorectal-physiological-parameters-among-patients-with-fecal-evacuation-disorder
#2
Abhai Verma, Asha Misra, Uday C Ghoshal
BACKGROUND: Though biofeedback therapy is often effective in patients with fecal evacuation disorder (FED), a common cause of chronic constipation (CC) in tertiary practice, data on anorectal physiological parameters following it are scanty. METHODS: Consecutive patients with FED with CC diagnosed by abnormalities in at least two of the three tests (anorectal manometry, defecography, and balloon expulsion test [BET]) undergoing biofeedback (two sessions per day, 30 min each, for 2 weeks) during a 3-year period were analyzed...
February 18, 2017: Indian Journal of Gastroenterology: Official Journal of the Indian Society of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213755/pedagogical-approaches-to-and-effects-of-fundamental-movement-skill-interventions-on-health-outcomes-a-systematic-review
#3
REVIEW
Claire Tompsett, Ross Sanders, Caitlin Taylor, Stephen Cobley
BACKGROUND: Fundamental movement skills (FMS) are assumed to be the basic prerequisite motor movements underpinning coordination of more integrated and advanced movement capabilities. FMS development and interventions have been associated with several beneficial health outcomes in individual studies. OBJECTIVE: The primary aim of this review was to identify FMS intervention characteristics that could be optimised to attain beneficial outcomes in children and adolescents, while the secondary aim was to update the evidence as to the efficacy of FMS interventions on physiological, psychological and behavioural health outcomes...
February 18, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212783/role-of-topical-dehydroepiandrosterone-in-ameliorating-isotretinoin-induced-meibomian-gland-dysfunction-in-adult-male-albino-rat
#4
Marwa A A Ibrahim, Walaa M Elwan
Isotretinoin broad effectiveness is limited by its detrimental effect on the Meibomian glands. Androgens have been reported to regulate the Meibomian gland function. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is an androgen precursor considered as an efficient and physiological anti-ageing skin agent. This study aimed to investigate the role of the topical DHEA in ameliorating Meibomian gland dysfunction caused by isotretinoin employing different histological and immunohistochemical techniques. Twenty-four adult male albino rats were divided into four equal groups; control group, DHEA-treated group (1% twice daily for 3 months), isotretinoin-treated group (0...
February 14, 2017: Annals of Anatomy, Anatomischer Anzeiger: Official Organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212626/a-global-characterization-of-the-translational-and-transcriptional-programs-induced-by-methionine-restriction-through-ribosome-profiling-and-rna-seq
#5
Ke Zou, Qi Ouyang, Hao Li, Jiashun Zheng
BACKGROUND: Among twenty amino acids, methionine has a special role as it is coded by the translation initiation codon and methionyl-tRNAi (Met-tRNAi) is required for the assembly of the translation initiation complex. Thus methionine may play a special role in global gene regulation. Methionine has also been known to play important roles in cell growth, development, cancer, and aging. In this work, we characterize the translational and transcriptional programs induced by methionine restriction (MetR) and investigate the potential mechanisms through which methionine regulates gene expression, using the budding yeast S...
February 17, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212113/age-and-gender-dependency-of-physiological-networks-in-sleep
#6
Dagmar Krefting, Christoph Jansen, Thomas Penzel, Fang Han, Jan Kantelhardt
Recently, time delay stability analysis of biosignals has been successfully applied as a multivariate time series analysis method to assess the human physiological network in young adults. The degree of connectivity between different network nodes is described by the so-called link strength. Based on polysomnographic recordings (PSGs), it could be shown that the network changes with the sleep stage. Here, we apply the method to a large set of healthy controls spanning six decades of age. As it is well known, that the overall sleep architecture is dependent both on age and on gender, we particularly address the question, if these changes are also found in the network dynamics...
February 17, 2017: Physiological Measurement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211642/biomechanical-strain-exacerbates-inflammation-on-a-progeria-on-a-chip-model
#7
João Ribas, Yu Shrike Zhang, Patrícia R Pitrez, Jeroen Leijten, Mario Miscuglio, Jeroen Rouwkema, Mehmet Remzi Dokmeci, Xavier Nissan, Lino Ferreira, Ali Khademhosseini
Organ-on-a-chip platforms seek to recapitulate the complex microenvironment of human organs using miniaturized microfluidic devices. Besides modeling healthy organs, these devices have been used to model diseases, yielding new insights into pathophysiology. Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) is a premature aging disease showing accelerated vascular aging, leading to the death of patients due to cardiovascular diseases. HGPS targets primarily vascular cells, which reside in mechanically active tissues...
February 17, 2017: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211543/in-vitro-and-in-vivo-physiology-of-low-nanomolar-concentrations-of-zn-2-in-artificial-cerebrospinal-fluid
#8
Haruna Tamano, Ryusuke Nishio, Yukina Shakushi, Miku Sasaki, Yuta Koike, Misa Osawa, Atsushi Takeda
Artificial cerebrospinal fluid (ACSF), i.e., brain extracellular medium, which includes Ca(2+) and Mg(2+), but not other divalent cations such as Zn(2+), has been used for in vitro and in vivo experiments. The present study deals with the physiological significance of extracellular Zn(2+) in ACSF. Spontaneous presynaptic activity is suppressed in the stratum lucidum of brain slices from young rats bathed in ACSF containing 10 nM ZnCl2, indicating that extracellular Zn(2+) modifies hippocampal presynaptic activity...
February 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211481/effects-of-strength-training-on-osteogenic-differentiation-and-bone-strength-in-aging-female-wistar-rats
#9
Monique Patricio Singulani, Camila Tami Stringhetta-Garcia, Leandro Figueiredo Santos, Samuel Rodrigues Lourenço Morais, Mário Jefferson Quirino Louzada, Sandra Helena Penha Oliveira, Antonio Hernandes Chaves Neto, Rita Cássia Menegati Dornelles
The effects of strength training (ST) on the mechanical bone strength and osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (BMSCs) from adult, aged and exercised aged rats were determined. The exercised aged animals displayed higher values of areal bone mineral density, compression test, alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP) and biological mineralization, while oil red O staining for adipocytes was lower. ST increased gene expression of runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), osterix (Osx) as well as bone matrix protein expression, and reduced expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (Pparγ)...
February 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211121/relationship-between-qt-and-jt-peak-interval-variability-in-prepubertal-children
#10
Yuka Takeuchi, Yumi Omeki, Kayo Horio, Miki Nishio, Rina Nagata, Shota Oikawa, Yuri Mizutani, Arisa Nagatani, Yuri Funamoto, Hidetoshi Uchida, Masayuki Fujino, Yoshihiko Eryu, Hiroko Boda, Masafumi Miyata, Tadayoshi Hata
BACKGROUND: The QT variability index (QTVI) is a noninvasive index of repolarization lability that has been applied to subjects with cardiovascular disease. QTVI provides a ratio of normalized QT variability to normalized heart rate variability, and therefore includes an assessment of autonomic nervous activity. However, measurement of QT time is particularly difficult in children, who exhibit physiologically high heart rates compared with adults. In this study, we developed a set of standard values of J-point to Tpeak interval (JTp) for infants by age, and assessed the correlation of QTVI with the JTp variability index (JTpVI)...
February 17, 2017: Annals of Noninvasive Electrocardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210499/the-effectiveness-of-slow-stroke-back-massage-on-hospitalization-anxiety-and-physiological-parameters-in-school-age-children-a-randomized-clinical-trial-study
#11
Alia Jalalodini, Manijeh Nourian, Kiarash Saatchi, Amir Kavousi, Mahnaz Ghaljeh
BACKGROUND: The outcomes of hospitalization anxiety are mental health disorders. One of the methods of anxiety reduction is massage, which can cause reduction of pain and changes in physiological parameters. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate the effects of slow-stroke back massage (SSBM) on hospitalization anxiety and physiological parameters in school-age children. METHODS: This clinical trial study included 80 school-aged children from Ali Ebne Abi Taleb hospital, located in Zahedan, who were selected using sequential sampling and randomly divided into two groups: a massage group (40) and a control group (40)...
November 2016: Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210440/analytical-parameters-and-vital-signs-in-patients-subjected-to-dental-extraction
#12
Enric Jané-Pallí, Carlos Arranz-Obispo, Beatriz González-Navarro, Jesús Murat, Raúl Ayuso-Montero, Santiago Rojas, Amparo Santamaría, Enric Jané-Salas, José López-López
BACKGROUND: Dental consultation may provoke stress to the patient, especially when a dental surgery is going to be performed, stressful situations can cause a reaction in the sympathetic nervous system that could lead to cardiovascular alterations. Blood pressure and cardiac frequency are used often as an indirect measurement and this parameters combined can serve as good indicators of stress. Objective: Analyze the changes in vital signs and analytical parameters induced by a dental extraction...
February 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210101/acute-kidney-injury-in-elderly-intensive-care-patients-from-a-developing-country-clinical-features-and-outcome
#13
Laís Gabriela Yokota, Beatriz Motta Sampaio, Erica Rocha, André Luís Balbi, Daniela Ponce
AIM: The elderly are at high risk of acute kidney injury (AKI) because of structural and functional degeneration over time and with the aging of the population, the demand for intensive care unit (ICU) admission for older patients has risen recently. However, data from developing countries are scarce. This study aimed to describe the incidence of AKI in elderly patients admitted to ICU from a developing country, to determine the most frequent etiologies for renal impairment and identify its risk factors and outcome...
2017: International Journal of Nephrology and Renovascular Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210010/evaluation-and-treatment-of-anemia-in-premature-infants
#14
Edo Hasanbegovic, Nermana Cengic, Snijezana Hasanbegovic, Jasmina Heljic, Ismail Lutolli, Edin Begic
INTRODUCTION: Anemia in preterm infants is the pathophysiological process with greater and more rapid decline in hemoglobin compared to the physiological anemia in infants. There is a need for transfusions and administration of human recombinant erythropoietin. AIM: To determine the frequency of anemia in premature infants at the Pediatric Clinic, University Clinical Center Sarajevo, as well as parameter values in the blood count of premature infants and to explore a relationship between blood transfusions with the advent of intraventricular hemorrhage (determine treatment outcome in preterm infants)...
December 2016: Medical Archives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209996/transient-cannabinoid-receptor-2-blockade-during-immunization-heightens-intensity-and-breadth-of-antigen-specific-antibody-responses-in-young-and-aged-mice
#15
Emmanuel Dotsey, Irina Ushach, Egest Pone, Rie Nakajima, Algis Jasinskas, Donovan A Argueta, Andrea Dillon, Nicholas DiPatrizio, Huw Davies, Albert Zlotnik, Peter D Crompton, Philip L Felgner
The hallmark of vaccines is their ability to prevent the spread of infectious pathogens and thereby serve as invaluable public health tool. Despite their medical relevance, there is a gap in our understanding of the physiological factors that mediate innate and adaptive immune response to vaccines. The endocannabinoid (eCB) system is a critical modulator of homeostasis in vertebrates. Our results indicate that macrophages and dendritic cells produce the endocannabinoid, 2-arachidonoyl-sn-glycerol (2-AG) upon antigen activation...
February 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209728/evaluation-of-cell-therapy-on-exercise-performance-and-limb-perfusion-in-peripheral-artery-disease-the-cctrn-patients-with-intermittent-claudication-injected-with-aldh-bright-cells-pace-trial
#16
Emerson C Perin, Michael P Murphy, Keith L March, Roberto Bolli, John Loughran, Phillip C Yang, Nicholas J Leeper, Ronald L Dalman, Jason Q Alexander, Timothy D Henry, Jay H Traverse, Carl J Pepine, R David Anderson, Scott Berceli, James T Willerson, Raja Muthupillai, Amir A Gahremanpour, Ganesh Raveendran, Omaida C Velazquez, Joshua M Hare, Ivonne H Schulman, Vijaykumar S Kasi, William R Hiatt, Bharath Ambale-Venkatesh, João A Lima, Doris A Taylor, Micheline M Resende, Adrian P Gee, April G Durett, Jeannette Bloom, Sara Richman, Patricia G'Sell, Shari Williams, Fouzia Khan, Elsie G Ross, Michelle R Santoso, JoAnne Goldman, Dana Leach, Eileen Handberg, Benjamin Y C Cheong, Nichole A Piece, Darcy DiFede, Barb Bruhn-Ding, Emily Caldwell, Judy Bettencourt, Dejian Lai, Linda B Piller, Lara M Simpson, Michelle Cohen, Shelly L Sayre, Rachel W Vojvodic, Lem Moyé, Ray F Ebert, Robert D Simari, Alan T Hirsch
Background -Atherosclerotic peripheral artery disease (PAD) affects 8-12% of Americans over 65 and is associated with a major decline in functional status, increased myocardial infarction and stroke rates, and increased risk of ischemic amputation. Current treatment strategies for claudication have limitations. PACE is an NHLBI-sponsored, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 2, exploratory clinical trial designed to assess safety and efficacy of autologous bone marrow-derived aldehyde dehydrogenase bright (ALDHbr) cells in PAD patients and to explore associated claudication physiologic mechanisms...
February 16, 2017: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208791/impact%C3%A2-of%C3%A2-flavonols%C3%A2-on%C3%A2-cardiometabolic%C3%A2-biomarkers-%C3%A2-a%C3%A2-meta-analysis%C3%A2-of%C3%A2-randomized%C3%A2-controlled%C3%A2-human%C3%A2-trials%C3%A2-to%C3%A2-explore%C3%A2-the%C3%A2-role%C3%A2-of%C3%A2-inter-individual%C3%A2-variability
#17
REVIEW
Regina Menezes, Ana Rodriguez-Mateos, Antonia Kaltsatou, Antonio González-Sarrías, Arno Greyling, Christoforos Giannaki, Cristina Andres-Lacueva, Dragan Milenkovic, Eileen R Gibney Julie Dumont, Manuel Schär, Mar Garcia-Aloy, Susana Alejandra Palma-Duran, Tatjana Ruskovska, Viktorija Maksimova, Emilie Combet, Paula Pinto
Several  epidemiological  studies  have  linked  flavonols  with  decreased  risk  of  cardiovascular  disease  (CVD).  However,  some  heterogeneity  in  the  individual  physiological  responses to the consumption of these compounds has been identified. This meta-analysis aimed to  study the effect of flavonol supplementation on biomarkers of CVD risk such as, blood lipids, blood  pressure and plasma glucose, as well as factors affecting their inter-individual variability...
February 9, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208028/early-life-wildfire-smoke-exposure-is-associated-with-immune-dysregulation-and-lung-function-decrements-in-adolescence
#18
Carolyn Black, Joan E Gerriets, Justin H Fontaine, Richart W Harper, Nicholas J Kenyon, Fern Tablin, Edward S Schelegle, Lisa A Miller
RATIONALE: The long-term health effects of wildfire smoke exposure in pediatric populations are not known. OBJECTIVE: To determine if early life exposure to wildfire smoke can affect parameters of immunity and airways physiology that are detectable with maturity. METHODS: We studied a mixed gender cohort of rhesus macaque monkeys that were exposed as infants to ambient wood smoke from a series of Northern California wildfires in the summer of 2008...
February 16, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207613/vagal-regulation-of-cardiac-function-in-early-childhood-and-cardiovascular-risk-in-adolescence
#19
Meghan J Gangel, Lilly Shanahan, Jacek Kolacz, James A Janssen, Ashley Brown, Susan D Calkins, Susan P Keane, Laurie Wideman
OBJECTIVE: Poor behavioral self-regulation in the first two decades of life has been identified as an important precursor of disease risk in adulthood. However, physiological regulation has not been well-studied as a disease risk factor before adulthood. We tested whether physiological regulation at age two, in the form of vagal regulation of cardiac function (indexed by RSA change), would predict three indicators of cardiovascular risk at age 16 (diastolic and systolic blood pressure and body mass index)...
February 15, 2017: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207204/concise-review-increasing-the-validity-of-cerebrovascular-disease-models-and-experimental-methods-for-translational-stem-cell-research
#20
Johannes Boltze, Franziska Nitzsche, Jukka Jolkkonen, Gesa Weise, Claudia Pösel, Björn Nitzsche, Daniel-Christoph Wagner
Interspecies differences, anatomical and physiological aspects as wells as simplified study designs contribute to an overestimation of treatment effects and limit the transferability of experimental results into clinical applications. Confounders of cell therapies for cerebrovascular disorders (CVD) include common CVD comorbidities, frequent medications potentially affecting endogenous and transplanted stem cells, as well as age- and immune-system-related effects. All of those can contribute to a substantial modelling bias, ultimately limiting the prospective quality of preclinical research programs regarding the clinical value of a particular cell therapy...
February 16, 2017: Stem Cells
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