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Physiology of ageing

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037003/effects-of-temperature-and-pressure-on-acute-stroke-incidence-assessed-using-a-korean-nationwide-insurance-database
#1
Jae-Sung Lim, Hyung-Min Kwon, Seong-Eun Kim, Juneyoung Lee, Young-Seok Lee, Byung-Woo Yoon
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Many studies have evaluated the association between weather and stroke, with variable conclusions. Herein we determined the relationships between daily meteorological parameters and acute stroke incidence in South Korea. METHODS: Patients with acute stroke (2,894) were identified by standard sampling of a nationwide insurance claims database from January to December 2011. We used multiple Poisson regression analyses of stroke incidence and meteorological parameters (mean temperature, diurnal temperature change, temperature differences over the preceding 24 hours, atmospheric pressure, humidity, wind speed, and physiologically equivalent temperature) to calculate the relative risk of stroke incidence associated with meteorological parameters...
September 2017: Journal of Stroke
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036811/sildenafil-improves-vascular-and-metabolic-function-in-patients-with-alzheimer-s-disease
#2
Min Sheng, Hanzhang Lu, Peiying Liu, Yang Li, Harshan Ravi, Shin-Lei Peng, Ramon Diaz-Arrastia, Michael D Devous, Kyle B Womack
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the leading cause of degenerative dementia in the aging population. Patients with AD have alterations in cerebral hemodynamic function including reduced cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral metabolic rate. Therefore, improved cerebrovascular function may be an attractive goal for pharmaceutical intervention in AD. OBJECTIVE: We wished to observe the acute effects of sildenafil on cerebrovascular function and brain metabolism in patients with AD...
October 7, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036691/nuclear-localized-c9orf72-associated-arginine-containing-dipeptides-exhibit-age-dependent-toxicity-in-c-elegans
#3
Paige Rudich, Carley Snoznik, Simon C Watkins, John Monaghan, Udai Bhan Pandey, Todd Lamitina
A hexanucleotide repeat expansion mutation in the C9orf72 gene represents a prevalent genetic cause of several neurodegenerative diseases, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Non-canonical translation of this repeat gives rise to several distinct dipeptide protein species that could play pathological roles in disease. Here, we show in the model system C. elegans that expression of the arginine-containing dipeptides, but not alanine-containing dipeptides, produces toxic phenotypes in multiple cellular contexts, including motor neurons...
September 27, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036673/enhanced-desiccation-tolerance-in-mature-cultures-of-the-streptophytic-green-alga-zygnema-circumcarinatum-revealed-by-transcriptomics
#4
Martin Rippin, Burkhard Becker, Andreas Holzinger
Desiccation tolerance is commonly regarded as one of the key features for the colonization of terrestrial habitats by green algae and the evolution of land plants. Extensive studies, focused mostly on physiology, have been carried out assessing the desiccation tolerance and resilience of the streptophytic genera Klebsormidium and Zygnema. Here we present transcriptomic analyses of Zygnema circumcarinatum exposed to desiccation stress. Cultures of Z. circumcarinatum, grown in liquid medium or on agar plates, were desiccated at ∼86% relative air humidity until Y(II) ceased...
September 22, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036201/impact-of-social-separation-during-pregnancy-on-the-manifestation-of-defensive-behaviors-related-to-generalized-anxiety-and-panic-throughout-offspring-development
#5
Flaviane Cristina de Brito Guzzo Soliani, Rafael Cabbia, Matheus Fitipaldi Batistela, Amarylis Garcia Almeida, Vinícius Dias Kümpel, Luiz Yamauchi Junior, Telma Gonçalves Carneiro Spera de Andrade
The multiple insecurities, anatomical, physiological and psychological changes arising from the gestational period can generate an overload of stress in the mother and cause disturbances in the offspring, affecting it throughout its development. The existing analysis linking prenatal stress and offspring's anxiety have divergent results, being limited as to gestational week, type of stressor and age of progeny's assessment. Social separation has been described as a stressor that causes increase in anxiety. Thus, the present study evaluated the effects of social separation applied in one of the three gestational weeks of rat dams on the manifestation of the defensive behaviors related to generalized anxiety disorder and panic in the Elevated T Maze of the male progeny in three stages of development (1, 3 or 6 months of life)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036198/the-homeodomain-interacting-protein-kinase-hpk-1-preserves-protein-homeostasis-and-longevity-through-master-regulatory-control-of-the-hsf-1-chaperone-network-and-torc1-restricted-autophagy-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#6
Ritika Das, Justine A Melo, Manjunatha Thondamal, Elizabeth A Morton, Adam B Cornwell, Beresford Crick, Joung Heon Kim, Elliot W Swartz, Todd Lamitina, Peter M Douglas, Andrew V Samuelson
An extensive proteostatic network comprised of molecular chaperones and protein clearance mechanisms functions collectively to preserve the integrity and resiliency of the proteome. The efficacy of this network deteriorates during aging, coinciding with many clinical manifestations, including protein aggregation diseases of the nervous system. A decline in proteostasis can be delayed through the activation of cytoprotective transcriptional responses, which are sensitive to environmental stress and internal metabolic and physiological cues...
October 16, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035598/rpe-during-concentric-and-eccentric-cycling-are-we-measuring-effort-or-exertion
#7
Luis Peñailillo, Karen Mackay, Chris R Abbiss
Despite the terms often being used interchangeably it has been suggested that perceptions of effort and perceptions of exertion may differ. Eccentric cycling may provide a model of exercise by which differences between these perceptions can be examined. PURPOSE: of this study was to examine and compare perceptions of effort and exertion during eccentric and concentric cycling at four intensities. METHODS: Ten healthy male participants (mean ± SD; age: 29.8 ± 2...
October 16, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034462/a-model-based-cluster-analysis-of-maternal-emotion-regulation-and-relations-to-parenting-behavior
#8
Anne Shaffer, Monica Whitehead, Molly Davis, Diana Morelen, Cynthia Suveg
In a diverse community sample of mothers (N = 108) and their preschool-aged children (Mage  = 3.50 years), this study conducted person-oriented analyses of maternal emotion regulation (ER) based on a multimethod assessment incorporating physiological, observational, and self-report indicators. A model-based cluster analysis was applied to five indicators of maternal ER: maternal self-report, observed negative affect in a parent-child interaction, baseline respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), and RSA suppression across two laboratory tasks...
October 15, 2017: Family Process
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034337/new-biomarkers-of-post-settlement-growth-in-the-sea-urchin-strongylocentrotus-purpuratus
#9
Alyaa Elsaid Abdelaziz Fadl, Magdy Elsayed Mahfouz, Mona Mabrouk Taha El-Gamal, Andreas Heyland
Some sea urchins, including the purple sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, have been successfully used in aquaculture, but their slow growth and late reproduction are challenging to overcome when developing efficient aquaculture production techniques. S. purpuratus develops via an indirect life history that is characterized by a drastic settlement process at the end of a larval period that lasts for several weeks. During this transition, the bilateral larva is transformed into a pentaradial juvenile, which will start feeding and growing in the benthic habitat...
October 2017: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034255/perioperative-management-of-elderly-patients-with-gastrointestinal-malignancies-the-contribution-of-anesthesia
#10
REVIEW
Rudolf Mörgeli, Kathrin Scholtz, Johannes Kurth, Sascha Treskatsch, Bruno Neuner, Susanne Koch, Lutz Kaufner, Claudia Spies
INTRODUCTION: Elderly patients suffering from gastrointestinal malignancies are particularly prone to perioperative complications. Elderly patients often present with reduced physiological reserves, and comorbidities can limit treatment options and promote complications. Surgeons and anesthesiologists must be aware of strategies required to deal with this vulnerable subgroup. METHODS: We provide a brief review of current and emerging perioperative strategies for the treatment of elderly patients with gastrointestinal malignancies and frequent comorbidities...
August 2017: Visceral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032502/gut-microbiota-changes-in-the-extreme-decades-of-human-life-a-focus-on-centenarians
#11
REVIEW
Aurelia Santoro, Rita Ostan, Marco Candela, Elena Biagi, Patrizia Brigidi, Miriam Capri, Claudio Franceschi
The gut microbiota (GM) is a complex, evolutionarily molded ecological system, which contributes to a variety of physiological functions. The GM is highly dynamic, being sensitive to environmental stimuli, and its composition changes over the host's entire lifespan. However, the basic question of how much these changes may be ascribed to variables such as population, diet, genetics and gender, and/or to the aging process per se is still largely unanswered. We argue that comparison among studies on centenarians-the best model of healthy aging and longevity-recruited from different geographical areas/populations (different genetics and dietary habits) can help to disentangle the contribution of aging and non-aging-related variables to GM remodeling with age...
October 14, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032322/classroom-social-experiences-in-early-elementary-school-relate-to-diurnal-cortisol-levels
#12
Pia Behnsen, Marieke Buil, Susanne Koot, Anja Huizink, Pol van Lier
Social stress has been linked to altered hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocorticol (HPA) axis activation. During elementary school, children can become exposed to negative peer relations, such as poor appraisal among classroom peers, which is considered a social stressor. However, little is known about the association between classroom peer appraisal and the physiological stress system in children. The goal of this study was to examine the association of peer acceptance and peer non-acceptance with diurnal cortisol concentrations in 222 children from 20 mainstream elementary schools (Mage=6...
October 2, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032129/linear-measurements-of-vocal-folds-and-laryngeal-dimensions-in-freshly-excised-human-larynges
#13
Mohamed K Mobashir, Abd El Raof S Mohamed, Amal S Quriba, Ahmad M Anany, Elham M Hassan
INTRODUCTION: Understanding the morphology of the larynx, one of the most complex organs of the human body, is an important step toward understanding the detailed laryngeal anatomy, and physiology. Different studies have described the linear measurements of the larynx in different measuring methods, but no studies have been structured to describe vocal fold length in freshly excised larynges. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to describe exact anatomical measurements of vocal folds and some laryngeal structures in freshly excised larynges, and to compare such measurements between males and females...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031555/beneficial-effects-of-dietary-restriction-in-aging-brain
#14
REVIEW
Ibanylla Kynjai Hynniewta Hadem, Teikur Majaw, Babiangshisha Kharbuli, Ramesh Sharma
Aging is a multifactorial complex process that leads to the deterioration of biological functions wherein its underlying mechanism is not fully elucidated. It affects the organism at the molecular and cellular level that contributes to the deterioration of structural integrity of the organs. The central nervous system is the most vulnerable organ affected by aging and its effect is highly heterogeneous. Aging causes alteration in the structure, metabolism and physiology of the brain leading to impaired cognitive and motor-neural functions...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031532/neuroimaging-of-vascular-reserve-in-patients-with-cerebrovascular-diseases
#15
REVIEW
Meher R Juttukonda, Manus J Donahue
Cerebrovascular reactivity, defined broadly as the ability of brain parenchyma to adjust cerebral blood flow in response to altered metabolic demand or a vasoactive stimulus, is being measured with increasing frequency and may have a use for portending new or recurrent stroke risk in patients with cerebrovascular disease. The purpose of this review is to outline (i) the physiological basis of variations in cerebrovascular reactivity, (ii) available approaches for measuring cerebrovascular reactivity in research and clinical settings, and (iii) clinically-relevant cerebrovascular reactivity findings in the context of patients with cerebrovascular disease, including atherosclerotic arterial steno-occlusion, non-atherosclerotic arterial steno-occlusion, anemia, and aging...
October 11, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031343/musculoskeletal-injuries-and-regenerative-medicine-in-the-elderly-patient
#16
REVIEW
John C Cianca, Prathap Jayaram
Regenerative medicine has gained increasing popularity in its clinical applications, particularly in the field of musculoskeletal medicine. Regenerative medicine, a broad term, can be thought of as a particular medical strategy that strives to rebuild and restore diseased tissue to normal physiologic tissue baseline. Simply put, regenerative strategies augment the body's innate physiology to heal pathologic processes. This article focuses on specific regenerative strategies and the uses of them for common pathologies in the aging adult, including platelet-rich plasma, mesenchymal stem cells, viscosupplementation, and prolotherapy...
November 2017: Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031338/normal-changes-in-gait-and-mobility-problems-in-the-elderly
#17
REVIEW
Maricarmen Cruz-Jimenez
There are normal physiologic changes that occur as people age. Gait and mobility are altered with aging, and these changes are a combination of alterations in the gait pattern and in the function of organs. Changes in gait are associated with functional decline, less independence, and impaired quality of life. Reduced walking speed is the most consistent age-related change, but there are other contributors to an altered gait: impaired balance and stability, lower extremity strength, and the fear of falling.
November 2017: Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031337/physiologic-changes-of-the-musculoskeletal-system-with-aging-a-brief-review
#18
REVIEW
Walter R Frontera
Aging is one of the important challenges of modern society. Advanced adult age is associated with changes in many physiologic systems. Of particular interest is the musculoskeletal system because it directly contributes to mobility and functional independence. Skeletal muscle mass and strength decline with age. These changes are mostly due to a reduction in the number of muscle fibers and cellular and molecular changes that reduce the force-generation process. Bone mass and architecture are compromised and may result in fractures...
November 2017: Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031333/benefits-of-exercise-in-the-older-population
#19
REVIEW
Juan Galloza, Brenda Castillo, William Micheo
Older adults 65 years of age and older compose a great portion of the US population. Physiologic changes of aging that limit function and general quality of life occur at a faster rate as we get older. There is high-quality evidence that exercise activity has many favorable benefits for older adults. The ideal exercise program in older adults should include aerobic, resistance, flexibility, and balance training. The exercise recommendations should be individually tailored to the abilities, precautions, and goals of each person...
November 2017: Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031316/identifying-the-unmet-supportive-care-needs-with-concomitant-influencing-factors-in-adult-acute-leukemia-patients-in-china
#20
Fang-Fang Yu, Yan-Ni Bai, Hua He, Li Zhu, Rui-Li Zhang, Hong-Xia Jiao, Qiao-Yan Li, Ju-Fang Fu
PURPOSE: To understand the supportive care needs (SCNs), with associated influencing factors, related to five unmet need dimensions in adult Acute Leukemia (AL) patients, in China. METHODS: This multi-center cross-sectional study enrolled 340 pathologically confirmed adult, Chinese AL patients who were requested to complete a self-reported questionnaire, detailing demographic information, general status and physical functions, and Supportive Care Needs Survey-Short Form 34 (SCNS-SF34), revealing their unmet SCNs...
October 2017: European Journal of Oncology Nursing: the Official Journal of European Oncology Nursing Society
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