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Physiology of ageing

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102613/congolese-children-with-sickle-cell-trait-may-exhibit-glomerular-hyperfiltration-a-case-control-study
#1
Michel Ntetani Aloni, René Makwala Ngiyulu, Célestin Ndosimao Nsibu, Pépé Mfutu Ekulu, Jean Robert Makulo, Jean-Lambert Gini-Ehungu, Nazaire Mangani Nseka, François Bompeka Lepira
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of sickle cell trait is extremely high in sub-Saharan Africa. Recent studies have reported the impact of sickle cell carriers on renal function. However, data on renal abnormalities in children with sickle cell trait in this part of the world are unknown. In this report, we assess the glomerular function of children with sickle cell trait (SCT). METHODS: A case control study was conducted to assess the glomerular function in 43 Congolese children with sickle cell trait (Hb-AS) matched for age to 65 children with sickle cell anemia in steady state (Hb-SS) and 67 normal controls (Hb-AA)...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102470/neuronal-ryanodine-receptors-in-development-and-aging
#2
REVIEW
Nawaf Abu-Omar, Jogita Das, Vivian Szeto, Zhong-Ping Feng
Ryanodine receptors (RyRs) are intracellular calcium-release channels found on the endoplasmic reticulum of all cells. All three RyR isoforms, RyR1-3, are expressed in the brain, with RyR2 predominating. RyRs are localized within the soma, axons, dendritic spines, and presynaptic terminals of neurons. RyRs are highly expressed in the cerebellum, hippocampus, olfactory region, basal ganglia, and cerebral cortex. During the physiological processes of development and aging, the intracellular calcium homeostasis is largely regulated by RyRs...
January 19, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102226/chronic-lymphocytic-leukaemia
#3
Thomas J Kipps, Freda K Stevenson, Catherine J Wu, Carlo M Croce, Graham Packham, William G Wierda, Susan O'Brien, John Gribben, Kanti Rai
Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) is a malignancy of CD5(+) B cells that is characterized by the accumulation of small, mature-appearing lymphocytes in the blood, marrow and lymphoid tissues. Signalling via surface immunoglobulin, which constitutes the major part of the B cell receptor, and several genetic alterations play a part in CLL pathogenesis, in addition to interactions between CLL cells and other cell types, such as stromal cells, T cells and nurse-like cells in the lymph nodes. The clinical progression of CLL is heterogeneous and ranges from patients who require treatment soon after diagnosis to others who do not require therapy for many years, if at all...
January 19, 2017: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102101/thyroid-in-pregnancy-from-physiology-to-screening
#4
Drahomira Springer, Jan Jiskra, Zdenka Limanova, Tomas Zima, Eliska Potlukova
Thyroid hormones are crucial for the growth and maturation of many target tissues, especially the brain and skeleton. During critical periods in the first trimester of pregnancy, maternal thyroxine is essential for fetal development as it supplies thyroid hormone-dependent tissues. The ontogeny of mature thyroid function involves organogenesis, and maturation of the hypothalamus, pituitary and the thyroid gland; and it is almost complete by the 12th-14th gestational week. In case of maternal hypothyroidism, substitution with levothyroxine must be started in early pregnancy...
January 19, 2017: Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101784/dental-implants-and-grafting-success-remain-high-despite-large-variations-in-maxillary-sinus-mucosal-thickening
#5
Bartosz Maska, Guo-Hao Lin, Abdullah Othman, Shabnam Behdin, Suncica Travan, Erika Benavides, Yvonne Kapila
BACKGROUND: Although mucosal thickening is the most common radiographic finding observed regarding sinus pathology, the knowledge regarding its clinical significance on the outcomes of dental implants and grafting in the maxillary sinuses is still limited. We hypothesized that mucosal thickening would not alter the predictability for sinus floor augmentation and dental implant placement. The purpose of this retrospective study was to evaluate the outcomes of dental implant placement in sinus-augmented areas with preexisting sinus mucosal thickening...
December 2017: International Journal of Implant Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100992/multiple-magnetic-foreign-bodies-causing-severe-digestive-tract-injuries-in-a-child
#6
Xinmin Si, Baofeng Du, Lei Huang
Foreign body (FB) ingestion is a common emergency as well as a major cause of accidental injury and represents a severe public health problem in childhood, especially in infants. Most cases of FB ingestion reported in children aged between 6 months and 3 years depend primarily on the fact that young children are more likely to explore objects using their mouth and are not able to distinguish edible objects from nonedible ones, their teeth are physiologically lacking, and they have poor swallowing coordination...
September 2016: Case Reports in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100604/sufficient-protein-quality-of-food-aid-varies-with-the-physiologic-status-of-recipients
#7
Meghan Callaghan, Momo Oyama, Mark Manary
Protein quality scores use the amino acid (AA) requirements of a healthy North American child. AA requirements vary with physiologic status. We estimated AA requirements for healthy North American children, children with environmental enteric dysfunction, children recovering from wasting, and children with an acute infection. The protein quality of food aid products was then calculated to determine whether it was sufficient in all these groups, and we found that it may not be adequate for all of them. Physiologic status is important when assessing the protein quality of food aid...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100569/multiple-pregnancy-in-a-primigravida-with-uncorrected-pentalogy-of-fallot
#8
Pamela Partana, Jarrod Kah Hwee Tan, Ju Le Tan, Lay Kok Tan
Pentalogy of Fallot is a cyanotic congenital heart disease that has guarded prognosis without surgical intervention in infancy. Women with uncorrected defects rarely survive into childbearing age and pregnancy in this group is associated with a high rate of perinatal loss. Physiological cardiovascular changes in pregnancy can lead to maternal haemodynamic instability with subsequent adverse cardiac sequelae with or without fetal decompensation. Optimum management and pregnancy outcomes in mother with uncorrected Pentalogy of Fallot and twin pregnancy have not been described in the literature...
January 18, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099964/advancing-age-decreases-pressure-sensitive-modulation-of-calcium-signaling-in-the-endothelium-of-intact-and-pressurized-arteries
#9
Calum Wilson, Christopher D Saunter, John M Girkin, John G McCarron
Aging is the summation of many subtle changes which result in altered cardiovascular function. Impaired endothelial function underlies several of these changes and precipitates plaque development in larger arteries. The endothelium transduces chemical and mechanical signals into changes in the cytoplasmic calcium concentration to control vascular function. However, studying endothelial calcium signaling in larger arteries in a physiological configuration is challenging because of the requirement to focus through the artery wall...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Vascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099636/use-of-reactive-hyperemia-peripheral-arterial-tonometry-and-circulating-biological-markers-to-predict-outcomes-in-sepsis
#10
Vandack Nobre, Thiago Bragança Ataíde, Luisa Caldeira Brant, Clara Rodrigues Oliveira, Lucas Vieira Rodrigues, Antonio Luiz Pinho Ribeiro, Fernanda Barbosa Lopes, Ivan Euclides Saraiva, Marcus Vinícius Andrade
Objective: To evaluate the usefulness and prognostic value of reactive hyperemia - peripheral arterial tonometry in patients with sepsis. Moreover, we investigated the association of reactive hyperemia - peripheral arterial tonometry results with serum levels of certain inflammatory molecules. Methods: Prospective study, conducted in an 18-bed mixed intensive care unit for adults. The exclusion criteria included severe immunosuppression or antibiotic therapy initiated more than 48 hours before assessment...
October 2016: Revista Brasileira de Terapia Intensiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099285/comparison-of-silicone-hydrogel-and-hydrogel-daily-disposable-contact-lenses
#11
Jennie Diec, Daniel Tilia, Varghese Thomas
OBJECTIVE: To compare subjective, objective and safety performance of silicone hydrogel (SiHy) daily disposable (DD) with hydrogel (Hy) DD contact lenses. METHOD: Retrospective analysis on approximately 40 participants (Px) each in 5 trials. Lenses grouped into SiHy (delefilcon A, somofilcon A, narafilcon A) and Hy (omafilcon A, nelfilcon A). Participants attended follow-up visits at baseline, 2 weeks, 1 and 3 months. Subjective ratings (1-10 scale), adverse events (percentage of Px), physiological variables (0-4 scale), and wearing time were collected at each visit and compared between groups...
January 17, 2017: Eye & Contact Lens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099161/menstrual-cycle-and-the-temporal-discrimination-threshold
#12
Eavan M Mc Govern, Emer O'Connor, Ines Beiser, Laura Williams, John S Butler, Brendan Quinlivan, Shruti Narasiham, Rebecca Beck, Richard B Reilly, Sean O'Riordan, Michael Hutchinson
The temporal discrimination threshold (TDT) is a proposed pre-clinical biomarker (endophenotype) for adult onset isolated focal dystonia (AOIFD). Age- and sex-related effects on temporal discrimination demonstrate that women, before the age of 40 years, have faster temporal discrimination than men but their TDTs worsen with age at almost three times the rate of men. Thus after 40 years the TDT in women is progressively worse than in men. AOIFD is an increasingly female-predominant disorder after the age of 40; it is not clear whether this age-related sexually-dimorphic difference observed for both the TDT and sex ratio at disease onset in AOIFD is a hormonal or chromosomal effect...
January 18, 2017: Physiological Measurement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097376/elemental-labelling-and-mass-spectrometry-for-the-specific-detection-of-sulfenic-acid-groups-in-model-peptides-a-proof-of-concept
#13
Mona Sharar, Essa M Saied, Mario C Rodriguez, Christoph Arenz, Maria Montes-Bayón, Michael W Linscheid
Oxidative transformation of cysteine thiol groups into different functional groups is considered a significant posttranslational modification of great importance in pathological and physiological processes. A cysteine sulfenic acid (SA) residue is the transient state for thiol group oxidation and it can react with free thiols to form disulfide bonds or can be further oxidized with reactive oxygen/reactive nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) to form sulfinic and sulfonic acids. The increase in ROS/RNS concentrations is correlated to age-related diseases such as cancer and Alzheimer's disease...
January 17, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096832/perioperative-care-in-elderly-cardiac-surgery-patients
#14
Ewa Kucewicz-Czech, Katarzyna Kiecak, Ewa Urbańska, Tomasz Maciejewski, Robert Kaliś, Waldemar Pakosiewicz, Tadeusz Kołodziej, Piotr Knapik, Roman Przybylski, Marian Zembala
INTRODUCTION: Surgery is an extreme physiological stress for the elderly. Aging is inevitably associated with irreversible and progressive cellular degeneration. Patients above 75 years of age are characterized by impaired responses to operative stress and a very narrow safety margin. AIM: To evaluate perioperative complications in patients aged ≥ 75 years who underwent cardiac surgery in comparison to outcomes in younger patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was conducted at the Silesian Centre for Heart Diseases in Zabrze in 2009-2014 after a standard of perioperative care in seniors was implemented to reduce complications, in particular to decrease the duration of mechanical ventilation and reduce postoperative delirium...
December 2016: Kardiochirurgia i Torakochirurgia Polska, Polish Journal of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095847/the-biomedical-piglet-establishing-reference-intervals-for-haematology-and-clinical-chemistry-parameters-of-two-age-groups-with-and-without-iron-supplementation
#15
Domenico Ventrella, Francesco Dondi, Francesca Barone, Federica Serafini, Alberto Elmi, Massimo Giunti, Noemi Romagnoli, Monica Forni, Maria L Bacci
BACKGROUND: The similarities between swine and humans in physiological and genomic patterns, and the great correlation in size and anatomy, make pigs extremely useful in preclinical studies. New-born piglets can represent a model for congenital and genetic diseases in new-born children. It is known that piglets may have significant differences in clinicopathological results compared to adult pigs. Therefore, adult laboratory reference intervals cannot be applied to piglets. The aim of this study was to compare haematological and chemical variables in piglets of two ages and determinate age-related reference intervals for commercial hybrid young pigs...
January 17, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095739/expression-and-localization-of-fibroblast-growth-factor-fgf-23-and-klotho-in-the-spleen-its-physiological-and-functional-implications
#16
Yuri Nakashima, Toru Mima, Mitsuru Yashiro, Tomohiro Sonou, Masaki Ohya, Asuka Masumoto, Shintaro Yamanaka, Daisuke Koreeda, Koichi Tatsuta, Yoshiyuki Hanba, Mari Moribata, Shigeo Negi, Takashi Shigematsu
The FGF23-Klotho signaling axis is known to exert anti-aging effects via calcium-phosphorus metabolism. In mice deficient in FGF23-Klotho signaling, however, the number of splenocytes is reduced. FGF23 is expressed in both bone and spleen, with regulation of its production differing in these organs. As FGF23-Klotho signaling may play an immunological role in the spleen, splenocytes in male C57BL/6J mice were assayed for expression of Klotho or FGF23 by flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry. Cells that expressed Klotho included CD45R/B220(+) CD21/CD35(+) CD1d(+) CD43(-) marginal zone B cells...
January 18, 2017: Growth Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095141/an-old-problem-aging-and-skeletal-muscle-strain-injury
#17
Brent A Baker
: Clinical Scenario: Even though chronological aging is an inevitable phenomenological consequence occurring in every living organism, it is biological aging that may be the most significant factor challenging our quality of life. Development of functional limitations, resulting from improper maintenance and restoration of various organ systems, ultimately leads to reduced health and independence. Skeletal muscle is an organ system, that when challenged, is often injured in response to varying stimuli...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Sport Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095067/pacing-strategies-and-metabolic-responses-during-4-minute-running-time-trials
#18
Jonathan Watkins, Simon Platt, Erik Andersson, Kerry McGawley
PURPOSE: The aim of the current study was to investigate pacing strategies and the distribution of physiological resources in best versus worst performances during a series of 4-minute, self-paced running time-trials (RunTTs). METHODS: Five male and five female recreational runners (age 32 ± 7 years) completed a sub-maximal ramp test and five RunTTs on a motor-driven treadmill fitted with a speed-controlling laser system. The supramaximal V̇O2 demand was estimated by linear extrapolation from the sub-maximal relationship between V̇O2 and speed, enabling computation of the accumulated oxygen deficit (AOD)...
January 17, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094877/hypothalamus-specific-re-introduction-of-snord116-into-otherwise-snord116-deficient-mice-increased-energy-expenditure
#19
Y Qi, L Purtell, M Fu, L Zhang, S Zolotukhin, L Campbell, H Herzog
The Snord116 gene cluster has been recognized as a critical contributor to the Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS) with mice lacking Snord116 displaying many classical PWS phenotypes including low postnatal body weight, reduced bone mass and increased food intake. However, these mice do not develop obesity due to increased energy expenditure. To understand the physiological function of Snord116 better and potentially rescue the altered metabolism of Snord116(-/-) mice, we used an adeno-associated viral (AAV) approach to reintroduce the Snord116 gene product into the hypothalamus in Snord116(-/-) mice at different ages...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094430/comparison-of-sleep-quality-and-sleepiness-in-patients-operated-for-pituitary-adenoma-and-in-healthy-individuals
#20
Nail Caglar Temiz, Yunus Kacar, Royal Mehdiyev, Mehmet Can Ezgu, Omer Karakoc
AIM: To investigate whether sleep quality and sleepiness of patients who undergo surgery for pituitary adenomas differ from healthy individuals. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Forty-four patients who were operated for pituitary adenomas and 44 healthy individuals, 88 people in total, were evaluated by a questionnaire. All questionnaires and scales were made by the same researcher without the name of the participant in order to maintain consistency. Statistical analyzes were done with SPSS for Windows 23...
December 14, 2016: Turkish Neurosurgery
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