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Physiology of ageing

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544918/senior-driving-under-the-influence-a-five-year-retrospective-study-of-alcoholized-road-users-aged-70-and-over
#1
Benjamin Kirsch, Christoph G Birngruber, Reinhard Dettmeyer
The demographic development in Germany shows a steady increase to senior citizens. The driving suitability of older road-users is of large social and political concern, because awareness and reactivity can be influenced by age-related diseases and potential medication, particularly in combination with the consumption of alcohol. This study provides an overview of senior road-users under the influence of alcohol. Therefore, 404 cases of drunken-driving by road-users aged 70 and over within the purview of the Institute of Legal Medicine at Justus-Liebig-University, Giessen, from the years 2009-2013 were evaluated in retrospect...
May 10, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544616/biochemical-isolation-of-myonuclei-employed-to-define-changes-to-the-myonuclear-proteome-that-occur-with-aging
#2
Alicia A Cutler, Eric B Dammer, Duc M Doung, Nicholas T Seyfried, Anita H Corbett, Grace K Pavlath
Skeletal muscle aging is accompanied by loss of muscle mass and strength. Examining changes in myonuclear proteins with age would provide insight into molecular processes which regulate these profound changes in muscle physiology. However, muscle tissue is highly adapted for contraction and thus comprised largely of contractile proteins making the nuclear proteins difficult to identify from whole muscle samples. By developing a method to purify myonuclei from whole skeletal muscle, we were able to collect myonuclei for analysis by flow cytometry, biochemistry, and mass spectrometry...
May 23, 2017: Aging Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544158/molecular-and-physiological-manifestations-and-measurement-of-aging-in-humans
#3
REVIEW
Sadiya S Khan, Benjamin D Singer, Douglas E Vaughan
Biological aging is associated with a reduction in the reparative and regenerative potential in tissues and organs. This reduction manifests as a decreased physiological reserve in response to stress (termed homeostenosis) and a time-dependent failure of complex molecular mechanisms that cumulatively create disorder. Aging inevitably occurs with time in all organisms and emerges on a molecular, cellular, organ, and organismal level with genetic, epigenetic, and environmental modulators. Individuals with the same chronological age exhibit differential trajectories of age-related decline, and it follows that we should assess biological age distinctly from chronological age...
May 23, 2017: Aging Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543987/modified-gap-index-for-prediction-of-acute-exacerbation-of-idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#4
Haruki Kobayashi, Shota Omori, Kazuhisa Nakashima, Kazushige Wakuda, Akira Ono, Hirotsugu Kenmotsu, Tateaki Naito, Haruyasu Murakami, Masahiro Endo, Toshiaki Takahashi
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Predicting the incidence rate of acute exacerbation (AE) of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and its prognosis in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and IPF is difficult. The aim was to study the incidence of IPF-AE during the clinical course of the disease and its prognosis in patients with both NSCLC and IPF. METHODS: In this retrospective study, we compared the incidence rate of AE during the clinical course of the disease as well as the 1-year survival rate and overall survival (OS) of patients with NSCLC and IPF using a modified gender, age and physiology (mGAP) staging system based on gender, age and percent predicted forced vital capacity...
May 23, 2017: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543885/dce-mri-prediction-of-survival-time-for-patients-with-glioblastoma-multiforme-using-an-adaptive-neuro-fuzzy-based-model-and-nested-model-selection-technique
#5
Azimeh N V Dehkordi, Alireza Kamali-Asl, Ning Wen, Tom Mikkelsen, Indrin J Chetty, Hassan Bagher-Ebadian
This pilot study investigates the construction of an Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) for the prediction of the survival time of patients with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). ANFIS is trained by the pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters estimated by the model selection (MS) technique in dynamic contrast enhanced-magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) data analysis, and patient age. DCE-MRI investigations of 33 treatment-naïve patients with GBM were studied. Using the modified Tofts model and MS technique, the following physiologically nested models were constructed: Model 1, no vascular leakage (normal tissue); Model 2, leakage without efflux; Model 3, leakage with bidirectional exchange (influx and efflux)...
May 25, 2017: NMR in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543744/repetitive-supra-physiological-shear-stress-impairs-red-blood-cell-deformability-and-induces-hemolysis
#6
Jarod T Horobin, Surendran Sabapathy, Michael J Simmonds
The supra-physiological shear stress that blood is exposed to while traversing mechanical circulatory assist devices affects the physical properties of red blood cells (RBCs), impairs RBC deformability, and may induce hemolysis. Previous studies exploring RBC damage following exposure to supra-physiological shear stress have employed durations exceeding clinical instrumentation, thus we explored changes in RBC deformability following exposure to shear stress below the reported "hemolytic threshold" using shear exposure durations per minute (i...
May 23, 2017: Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543688/glycated-human-albumin-alters-mitochondrial-respiration-in-preadipocyte-3t3-l1-cells
#7
Pascal Baret, Fanny Le Sage, Cynthia Planesse, Olivier Meilhac, Anne Devin, Emmanuel Bourdon, Philippe Rondeau
Diabetes and obesity are strongly associated with increased levels of circulating advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and reactive oxygen species (ROS). These two molecular phenomena affect the physiology of adipose tissue, a biological driver of the metabolic syndrome, leading to an inflammatory profile and insulin resistance, which could contribute to obesity/diabetes-associated complications, such as cardiovascular diseases. Herein, we investigated the impact of AGEs on mitochondrial bioenergetics in murine preadipocyte cells (3T3-L1) and cellular redox homeostasis...
May 22, 2017: BioFactors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543059/natural-pathology-of-the-captive-chimpanzee-pan-troglodytes-a-35-year-review
#8
REVIEW
Shyamesh Kumar, Hannah Laurence, Michael A Owston, R Mark Sharp, Priscilla Williams, Robert E Lanford, Gene B Hubbard, Edward J Dick
We present the spontaneous pathological lesions identified as a result of necropsy or biopsy for 245 chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) over a 35-year period. A review of the pathology database was performed for all diagnoses on chimpanzees from 1980 to 2014. All morphologic diagnoses, associated system, organ, etiology, and demographic information were reviewed and analyzed. Cardiomyopathy was the most frequent lesion observed followed by hemosiderosis, hyperplasia, nematodiasis, edema, and hemorrhage. The most frequently affected systems were the gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, urogenital, respiratory, and lymphatic/hematopoietic systems...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Medical Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542596/progressive-mitochondrial-protein-lysine-acetylation-and-heart-failure-in-a-model-of-friedreich-s-ataxia-cardiomyopathy
#9
Amanda R Stram, Gregory R Wagner, Brian D Fogler, P Melanie Pride, Matthew D Hirschey, R Mark Payne
INTRODUCTION: The childhood heart disease of Friedreich's Ataxia (FRDA) is characterized by hypertrophy and failure. It is caused by loss of frataxin (FXN), a mitochondrial protein involved in energy homeostasis. FRDA model hearts have increased mitochondrial protein acetylation and impaired sirtuin 3 (SIRT3) deacetylase activity. Protein acetylation is an important regulator of cardiac metabolism and loss of SIRT3 increases susceptibility of the heart to stress-induced cardiac hypertrophy and ischemic injury...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542382/uv-b-induced-fibrillization-of-crystallin-protein-mixtures
#10
Sibel Cetinel, Valentyna Semenchenko, Jae-Young Cho, Mehdi Ghaffari Sharaf, Karim F Damji, Larry D Unsworth, Carlo Montemagno
Environmental factors, mainly oxidative stress and exposure to sunlight, induce the oxidation, cross-linking, cleavage, and deamination of crystallin proteins, resulting in their aggregation and, ultimately, cataract formation. Various denaturants have been used to initiate the aggregation of crystallin proteins in vitro. All of these regimens, however, are obviously far from replicating conditions that exist in vivo that lead to cataract formation. In fact, it is our supposition that only UV-B radiation may mimic the observed in vivo cause of crystallin alteration leading to cataract formation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542339/bioenergetic-profile-of-human-coronary-artery-smooth-muscle-cells-and-effect-of-metabolic-intervention
#11
Mingming Yang, Amy E Chadwick, Caroline Dart, Tomoko Kamishima, John M Quayle
Bioenergetics of artery smooth muscle cells is critical in cardiovascular health and disease. An acute rise in metabolic demand causes vasodilation in systemic circulation while a chronic shift in bioenergetic profile may lead to vascular diseases. A decrease in intracellular ATP level may trigger physiological responses while dedifferentiation of contractile smooth muscle cells to a proliferative and migratory phenotype is often observed during pathological processes. Although it is now possible to dissect multiple building blocks of bioenergetic components quantitatively, detailed cellular bioenergetics of artery smooth muscle cells is still largely unknown...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542335/interventions-that-effectively-target-anopheles-funestus-mosquitoes-could-significantly-improve-control-of-persistent-malaria-transmission-in-south-eastern-tanzania
#12
Emmanuel W Kaindoa, Nancy S Matowo, Halfan S Ngowo, Gustav Mkandawile, Arnold Mmbando, Marcelina Finda, Fredros O Okumu
Malaria is transmitted by many Anopheles species whose proportionate contributions vary across settings. We re-assessed the roles of Anopheles arabiensis and Anopheles funestus, and examined potential benefits of species-specific interventions in an area in south-eastern Tanzania, where malaria transmission persists, four years after mass distribution of long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs). Monthly mosquito sampling was done in randomly selected households in three villages using CDC light traps and back-pack aspirators, between January-2015 and January-2016, four years after the last mass distribution of LLINs in 2011...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540638/in-silico-dose-prediction-for-long-acting-rilpivirine-and-cabotegravir-administration-to-children-and-adolescents
#13
Rajith K R Rajoli, David J Back, Steve Rannard, Caren Freel Meyers, Charles Flexner, Andrew Owen, Marco Siccardi
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Long-acting injectable antiretrovirals represent a pharmacological alternative to oral formulations and an innovative clinical option to address adherence and reduce drug costs. Clinical studies in children and adolescents are characterised by ethical and logistic barriers complicating the identification of dose optimisation. Physiologically-based pharmacokinetic modelling represents a valuable tool to inform dose finding prior to clinical trials. The objective of this study was to simulate potential dosing strategies for existing long-acting injectable depot formulations of cabotegravir and rilpivirine in children and adolescents (aged 3-18 years) using physiologically-based pharmacokinetic modelling...
May 24, 2017: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540590/pediatric-psoriasis
#14
REVIEW
Maria Relvas, Tiago Torres
Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory systemic disease associated with an important physical and physiological burden. It primarily affects the skin, but it is associated with several serious medical co-morbidities. One third of total psoriatic cases have their onset during the pediatric age, although some of them may not be diagnosed until the patient reaches adulthood. Additionally, in the pediatric age, there is an association with several medical co-morbidities; thus, an early recognition of the disease and a subsequent appropriate approach may delay or even prevent considerable co-morbidities...
May 24, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540446/lipid-per-oxidation-in-mitochondria-an-emerging-target-in-the-ageing-process
#15
REVIEW
O S Ademowo, H K I Dias, D G A Burton, H R Griffiths
Lipids are essential for physiological processes such as maintaining membrane integrity, providing a source of energy and acting as signalling molecules to control processes including cell proliferation, metabolism, inflammation and apoptosis. Disruption of lipid homeostasis can promote pathological changes that contribute towards biological ageing and age-related diseases. Several age-related diseases have been associated with altered lipid metabolism and an elevation in highly damaging lipid peroxidation products; the latter has been ascribed, at least in part, to mitochondrial dysfunction and elevated ROS formation...
May 24, 2017: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540066/cine-cmr-partial-voxel-segmentation-demonstrates-increased-aortic-stiffness-among-patients-with-marfan-syndrome
#16
Parmanand Singh, Zaid Almarzooq, Noel C F Codell, Yi Wang, Mary J Roman, Richard B Devereux, Jonathan W Weinsaft
BACKGROUND: Standard cine-cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging is commonly used to evaluate cardiac structure, geometry and function. Prior studies have shown that automated segmentation via partial voxel interpolation (PVI) accurately quantifies phantom-based cardiac chamber volumes and necropsy left ventricular myocardial mass. Despite this, the applicability and usefulness of PVI in the determination of physiologic parameters of the aorta such as aortic stiffness has yet to be investigated...
April 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539430/physiologic-thymic-involution-underlies-age-dependent-accumulation-of-senescence-associated-cd4-t-cells
#17
Kyosuke Sato, Aiko Kato, Miho Sekai, Yoko Hamazaki, Nagahiro Minato
Immune aging may underlie various aging-related disorders, including diminished resistance to infection, chronic inflammatory disorders, and autoimmunity. PD-1(+) and CD153(+) CD44(high) CD4(+) T cells with features of cellular senescence, termed senescence-associated T (SA-T) cells, increasingly accumulate with age and may play a role in the immune aging phenotype. In this article, we demonstrate that, compared with young mice, the aged mouse environment is highly permissive for spontaneous proliferation of transferred naive CD4(+) T cells, and it drives their transition to PD-1(+) and CD153(+) CD44(high) CD4(+) T cells after extensive cell divisions...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539414/moderately-elevated-homocysteine-does-not-contribute-to-thoracic-aortic-aneurysm-in-mice
#18
Jasmin Roohi, Benjamin Kang, David Bernard, Djahida Bedja, Harry C Dietz, Lawrence C Brody
Background: Moderate hyperhomocysteinemia is an attractive target for intervention because it is present in 5-7% of the population and can be reversed by diet. This approach presupposes that hyperhomocysteinemia is directly involved in the disease process. Epidemiologic studies have indicated that moderately elevated homocysteine may contribute to thoracic aortic aneurysm (TAA) dilatation and dissection in humans. In vitro, elevated homocysteine disrupts the structure and function of extracellular matrix components, suggesting that moderate hyperhomocysteinemia may contribute to the development and/or progression of TAA...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539383/glomerulosclerosis-induced-by-deficiency-of-membrane-associated-guanylate-kinase-inverted-2-in-kidney-podocytes
#19
Naritoshi Shirata, Kan-Ichiro Ihara, Kanae Yamamoto-Nonaka, Takuto Seki, Shin-Ichi Makino, Juan Alejandro Oliva Trejo, Takafumi Miyake, Hiroyuki Yamada, Kirk Nicholas Campbell, Takahiko Nakagawa, Kiyoshi Mori, Motoko Yanagita, Peter Mundel, Katsuhiko Nishimori, Katsuhiko Asanuma
Membrane-associated guanylate kinase inverted 2 (MAGI-2) is a component of the slit diaphragm (SD) of glomerular podocytes. Here, we investigated the podocyte-specific function of MAGI-2 using newly generated podocyte-specific MAGI-2-knockout (MAGI-2-KO) mice. Compared with podocytes from wild-type mice, podocytes from MAGI-2-KO mice exhibited SD disruption, morphologic abnormalities of foot processes, and podocyte apoptosis leading to podocyte loss. These pathologic changes manifested as massive albuminuria by 8 weeks of age and glomerulosclerosis and significantly higher plasma creatinine levels at 12 weeks of age; all MAGI-2-KO mice died by 20 weeks of age...
May 24, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539263/nutrients-neurogenesis-and-brain-ageing-from-disease-mechanisms-to-therapeutic-opportunities
#20
REVIEW
Marco Fidaleo, Virve Cavallucci, Giovambattista Pani
Appreciation of the physiological relevance of mammalian adult neurogenesis has in recent years rapidly expanded from a phenomenon of homeostatic cell replacement and brain repair to the current view of a complex process involved in high order cognitive functions. In parallel, an array of endogenous or exogenous triggers of neurogenesis have also been identified, among which metabolic and nutritional cues have drawn significant attention. Converging evidence from animal and in vitro studies point to nutrient sensing and energy metabolism as major physiological determinants of neural stem cell fate, and modulators of the whole neurogenic process...
May 21, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
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