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Physiology of ageing

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656578/long-term-single-center-comparison-of-icd-lead-survival-evidence-for-premature-linox-lead-failure
#1
Matthew O'Connor, Darren Hooks, Matthew Webber, Bijia Shi, Stephanie Morrison, Scott Harding, Peter Larsen
INTRODUCTION: ICD lead failure is a potential source of significant morbidity and mortality. This study investigates the survival rates of Sprint Quattro, Endotak Reliance and Linox ICD leads. METHODS AND RESULTS: A retrospective cohort study of all patients with an ICD implanted between January 2007 and December 2012 from the Wellington Hospital region, New Zealand, a tertiary referral center. Lead and patient details were established by review of clinical notes and the PaceArt Optima database...
April 14, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656108/epoxygenase-inactivation-exacerbates-diet-and-aging-associated-metabolic-dysfunction-resulting-from-impaired-adipogenesis
#2
Antoni Olona, Ximena Terra, Jeong-Hun Ko, Carme Grau-Bové, Montserrat Pinent, Anna Ardevol, Ana Garcia Diaz, Aida Moreno-Moral, Matthew Edin, David Bishop-Bailey, Darryl C Zeldin, Timothy J Aitman, Enrico Petretto, Mayte Blay, Jacques Behmoaras
OBJECTIVE: When molecular drivers of healthy adipogenesis are perturbed, this can cause hepatic steatosis. The role of arachidonic acid (AA) and its downstream enzymatic cascades, such as cyclooxygenase, in adipogenesis is well established. The exact contribution of the P450 epoxygenase pathway, however, remains to be established. Enzymes belonging to this pathway are mainly encoded by the CYP2J locus which shows extensive allelic expansion in mice. Here we aimed to establish the role of endogenous epoxygenase during adipogenesis under homeostatic and metabolic stress conditions...
March 9, 2018: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655919/endocannabinoid-system-in-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-first-evidence-for-a-deranged-2-arachidonoylglycerol-metabolism
#3
Luca Navarini, Tiziana Bisogno, Pamela Mozetic, Fabiana Piscitelli, Domenico Paolo Emanuele Margiotta, Fabio Basta, Antonella Afeltra, Mauro Maccarrone
The endocannabinoid (eCB) system plays a key role in many physiological and pathological conditions and its dysregulation has been described in several rheumatological and autoimmune diseases. Yet, its possible alteration in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) has never been investigated. Here, we aimed filling this gap in plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of patients with SLE and age- and sex- matched healthy subjects (HS). Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry quantitation of eCB levels highlighted that plasma levels of 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) were significantly increased in SLE patients compared to HS (p = 0...
April 12, 2018: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653151/selective-decline-in-the-prevalence-of-slowly-adapting-type-i-mechanoreceptors-during-development
#4
Peter M B Cahusac, Solomon Senok
Merkel nerve endings are identified physiologically as slowly adapting type I mechanoreceptor units. They are important for fine acuity tactile perception. We examined the effect of age on the electrophysiological availability of different types of slowly adapting mechanoreceptor units. Using 6 - 50 week old rats, we observed an obvious decline with age in the probability of recording from St I units of the deep vibrissal nerve. The precipitous decline occurred between ages 6 - 14 weeks and then stabilized...
April 10, 2018: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653112/a-comparison-of-two-types-of-running-wheel-in-terms-of-mouse-preference-health-and-welfare
#5
Michael Walker, Georgia Mason
Voluntary wheel running occurs in mice of all strains, sexes, and ages. Mice find voluntary wheel running rewarding, and it leads to numerous health benefits. For this reason wheels are used both to enhance welfare and to create models of exercise. However, many designs of running wheel are used. This makes between-study comparisons difficult, as this variability could potentially affect the amount, pattern, and/or intensity of running behaviour, and thence the wheels' effects on welfare and exercise-related changes in anatomy and physiology...
April 10, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653081/need-for-pulmonary-arterioplasty-during-glenn-independently-predicts-inferior-surgical-outcome
#6
John D Cleveland, Susanna Tran, Cheryl Takao, Winfield J Wells, Vaughn A Starnes, S Ram Kumar
BACKGROUND: Bidirectional cavopulmonary anastomosis (BDCA) can be accomplished with low morbidity and mortality. The impact of concomitant pulmonary arterioplasty (PAplasty) is not known. We hypothesized that the need for and extent of PAplasty adversely affect BDCA outcomes. METHODS: Patients who underwent BDCA at our institution between 2006 and 2014 were included. Patient demographics, operative characteristics, mortality and morbidity were analyzed. Serious physiologic adverse event following Glenn (GAE) was defined as need for extracorporeal support, BDCA takedown or percutaneous intervention during same admission, hospital length of stay 1 standard deviation or more from mean, or need for supplemental oxygen at discharge...
April 10, 2018: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652618/transcriptome-network-analysis-reveals-aging-related-mitochondrial-and-proteasomal-dysfunction-and-immune-activation-in-human-thyroid
#7
Byuri Angela Cho, Seong-Keun Yoo, Young Shin Song, Su-Jin Kim, Kyu Eun Lee, Minho Shong, Young Joo Park, Jeong-Sun Seo
BACKGROUND: Elucidating aging-related transcriptomic changes in human organs is necessary to understand the aging physiology and mechanisms, but little is known regarding the thyroid gland. We investigated aging-related transcriptomic alterations in the human thyroid gland and characterized the related molecular functions. METHODS: Publicly available RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) data of 322 thyroid tissue samples from the Genotype-Tissue Expression project were analyzed...
March 20, 2018: Thyroid: Official Journal of the American Thyroid Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652545/strategies-for-optimal-cardiovascular-aging
#8
Douglas R Seals, Vienna E Brunt, Matthew J Rossman
This review summarizes the opening keynote presentation overview of the American Physiological Society conference on Cardiovascular Aging: New Frontiers and Old Friends held in Westminster, CO, in August 2017. Age is the primary risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Without effective intervention, increased numbers of older adults in the future will translate to greater prevalence of CVD and related disorders. Advancing age increases the risk of CVD partly via direct effects on the heart and through increases in blood pressure; however, much of the risk is mediated by arterial dysfunction, including large elastic artery stiffening and both macro- and micro-vascular endothelial dysfunction...
April 13, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651785/predicting-escitalopram-exposure-to-breastfeeding-infants-integrating-analytical-and-in-silico-techniques
#9
Sarah R Delaney, Paul R V Malik, Cristiana Stefan, Andrea N Edginton, David A Colantonio, Shinya Ito
BACKGROUND: Escitalopram is used for post-partum depression; however, there are limited pharmacokinetic data of escitalopram in milk and plasma of infants breastfed by women taking the drug. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to apply physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modelling to predict infant drug exposure (plasma area under the curve from time zero to infinity [AUC∞ ]) based on drug monitoring data of escitalopram in breast milk. METHODS: Using a newly developed liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method, we quantified escitalopram concentrations in milk samples of 18 breastfeeding women with escitalopram therapy at steady state, collected at three to five time points...
April 12, 2018: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651685/cardiogoniometry-compared-to-fractional-flow-reserve-at-identifying-physiologically-significant-coronary-stenosis-the-cardioflow-study
#10
Oliver I Brown, Andrew L Clark, Raj Chelliah, Benjamin J Davison, Adam N Mather, Michael S Cunnington, Joseph John, Albert Alahmar, Richard Oliver, Konstantinos Aznaouridis, Angela Hoye
Cardiogoniometry (CGM) is method of 3-dimensional electrocardiographic assessment which has been shown to identify patients with angiographically defined, stable coronary artery disease (CAD). However, angiographic evidence of CAD, does not always correlate to physiologically significant disease. The aim of our study was to assess the ability of CGM to detect physiologically significant coronary stenosis defined by fractional flow reserve (FFR). In a tertiary cardiology centre, elective patients with single vessel CAD were enrolled into a prospective double blinded observational study...
April 12, 2018: Cardiovascular Engineering and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651395/fat-grafting-technique-a-paradigm-shift-in-the-treatment-of-tuberous-breast
#11
Claudiox Claudio Silva-Vergara, Joan Fontdevila, Omar Weshahy
BACKGROUND: The tuberous breast syndrome is a condition that affects young women and can bring on serious disorders of self-esteem. There are numerous surgical techniques to correct this condition, but most of them include the use of breast implants to replace lack of volume. Nowadays, patients are increasingly becoming more demanding to get a definitive solution with minimal aesthetic sequelae. METHODS: We present a series of 11 patients with tuberous breast deformities treated with lipofilling technique...
January 2018: World Journal of Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651153/decipher-reliable-biomarkers-of-brain-aging-by-integrating-literature-based-evidence-with-interactome-data
#12
Sang-Hun Bae, Han Wool Kim, SeoJeong Shin, Joopyung Kim, Yun-Hwa Jeong, Jisook Moon
Aging is an inevitable progressive decline in every physiological function and serves as a primary risk factor for cognitive decline and Alzheimer's disease. Thus, age-dependent impairments in cognitive function must be understood in association with general aging processes with an integrative approach in a systemic manner. An integrative aging gene network was constructed based on mutual molecular interactions using literature-curated interactome data and separated into functionally distinct modules. To investigate key surrogate biomarkers of the aging brain in the context of the general aging process, co-expression networks were built on post-mortem and Alzheimer's brain transcriptome data...
April 13, 2018: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650408/normothermic-ex-vivo-preservation-with-the-portable-organ-care-system-lung-device-for-bilateral-lung-transplantation-inspire-a-randomised-open-label-non-inferiority-phase-3-study
#13
Gregor Warnecke, Dirk Van Raemdonck, Michael A Smith, Gilbert Massard, Jasleen Kukreja, Federico Rea, Gabriel Loor, Fabio De Robertis, Jayan Nagendran, Kumud K Dhital, Francisco Javier Moradiellos Díez, Christoph Knosalla, Christian A Bermudez, Steven Tsui, Kenneth McCurry, I-Wen Wang, Tobias Deuse, Guy Lesèche, Pascal Thomas, Igor Tudorache, Christian Kühn, Murat Avsar, Bettina Wiegmann, Wiebke Sommer, Arne Neyrinck, Marco Schiavon, Fiorella Calebrese, Nichola Santelmo, Anne Olland, Pierre-Emanuel Falcoz, Andre R Simon, Andres Varela, Joren C Madsen, Marshall Hertz, Axel Haverich, Abbas Ardehali
BACKGROUND: Severe primary graft dysfunction (PGD) of grade 3 (PGD3) is a common serious complication following lung transplantation. We aimed to assess physiological donor lung preservation using the Organ Care System (OCS) Lung device compared with cold static storage. METHODS: In this non-inferiority, randomised, controlled, open-label, phase 3 trial (INSPIRE) recipients were aged 18 years or older and were registered as standard criteria primary double lung transplant candidates...
April 9, 2018: Lancet Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650297/n-terminal-pro-b-type-natriuretic-peptide-is-inversely-correlated-with-low-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol-in-the-very-elderly
#14
F Spannella, F Giulietti, G Cocci, L Landi, E Borioni, F E Lombardi, G Rosettani, B Bernardi, V Bordoni, P Giordano, M Bordicchia, R Sarzani
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Laboratory studies on human adipose tissue and differentiated adipocytes indicate that natriuretic peptides (NPs) affect lipid metabolism and plasma cholesterol. Few previous clinical studies in non-elderly populations found associations between NPs in the physiological range and cholesterol. AIM: evaluate the association between NT-proBNP and lipid profile in very elderly hospitalized patients characterized by a wide range of NT-proBNP levels...
February 27, 2018: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649768/the-level-of-circulating-fibroblast-activation-protein-correlates-with-incorporation-of-alpha-2-antiplasmin-into-the-fibrin-clot
#15
Shirley Uitte de Willige, Joyce J C M Malfliet, Shiraazkhan Abdul, Frank W G Leebeek, Dingeman C Rijken
INTRODUCTION: Circulating fibroblast activation protein (cFAP) cleaves alpha-2-antiplasmin (α2AP) N-terminally, converting native Met-α2AP into Asn-α2AP. Previous studies in purified model systems showed that Asn-α2AP is faster incorporated into a fibrin clot by activated factor XIII than Met-α2AP, making the fibrin clot more resistant to fibrinolysis. The objective was to investigate whether cFAP level in plasma associated with the amount of α2AP incorporation into fibrin in a new plasma-based clotting assay...
April 3, 2018: Thrombosis Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649363/a-targeted-differential-top-down-proteomic-methodology-for-comparison-of-apoa-i-proteoforms-in-individuals-with-high-and-low-hdl-efflux-capacity
#16
Henrique Dos Santos Seckler, Luca Fornelli, R Kannan Mutharasan, C Shad Thaxton, Ryan T Fellers, Martha Daviglus, Allan Sniderman, Daniel Rader, Neil L Kelleher, Donald M Lloyd-Jones, Philip D Compton, John T Wilkins
Top-down proteomics (TDP) allows precise determination/characterization of the different proteoforms derived from the expression of a single gene. In this study, we targeted apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I), a mediator of high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol efflux (HDL-E), which is inversely associated with coronary heart disease risk. Absolute ApoA-I concentration and allelic variation only partially explain inter-individual HDL-E variation. Therefore, we hypothesize that differences in HDL-E are associated with the abundances of different ApoA-I proteoforms...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649216/serum-microrna-profiles-in-athyroid-patients-on-and-off-levothyroxine-therapy
#17
Elske T Massolt, Layal Chaker, Theo J Visser, Ad J M Gillis, Lambert C J Dorssers, Carolien M Beukhof, Boen L R Kam, Gaston J Franssen, Giulia Brigante, Tessa M van Ginhoven, W Edward Visser, Leendert H J Looijenga, Robin P Peeters
BACKGROUND: Levothyroxine replacement treatment in hypothyroidism is unable to restore physiological thyroxine and triiodothyronine concentrations in serum and tissues completely. Normal serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) concentrations reflect only pituitary euthyroidism and, therefore, novel biomarkers representing tissue-specific thyroid state are needed. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), small non-coding regulatory RNAs, exhibit tissue-specific expression patterns and can be detectable in serum...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649083/targeted-distraction-spinal-growth-in-children-with-early-onset-scoliosis-treated-with-a-tail-gating-technique-for-magnetically-controlled-growing-rods
#18
Mihai Mardare, David Christopher Kieser, Adil Ahmad, Thejasvi Subramanian, Shahnawaz Haleem, Chrishan Thakar, James Wilson-MacDonald, Colin Nnadi
STUDY DESIGN: Prospective cohort study OBJECTIVE.: To understand the efficacy of a tail-gating technique (TGT) to mirror the normal spinal growth of children with early-onset scoliosis (EOS) treated with magnetically controlled growing rods (MCGR). SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: MCGR allow outpatient distraction and guided spinal growth without the need for repeat surgery. Two techniques (maximal and targeted) are currently employed to determine the distraction amount, however the efficacy of each is unknown...
April 11, 2018: Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648848/howard-b-eichenbaum-1947-2017
#19
Neal J Cohen, Matthew Shapiro
Presents an obituary of Howard B. Eichenbaum (1947-2017). Eichenbaum, a world leader in the study of memory and the brain, died in Boston, Massachusetts, on July 21, 2017, at age 69, following recent spine surgery. Eichenbaum was a hugely creative and integrative scientist whose work combined cognitive and lesion analyses with high-density neuronal recordings, providing insights into brain computations and representations that help bridge psychological and physiological mechanisms of memory. His theories and original and elegant experiments in animals have greatly advanced our knowledge of the nature and brain mechanisms of memory in animals and humans alike...
April 2018: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644870/a-novel-polyphenolic-prebiotic-and-probiotic-formulation-have-synergistic-effects-on-the-gut-microbiota-influencing-drosophila-melanogaster-physiology
#20
Susan Westfall, Nikita Lomis, Satya Prakash
The gut microbiota is a vast community of synergistic bacterial species providing health benefits to the host. Imbalances in the gut microbiota (dysbiosis) due to diet, antibiotic use, age and stress contribute to disease development including diabetes, obesity, colon cancer, inflammatory bowel disease, inflammaging and neurodegeneration. Fortunately, a probiotic regime with a diet rich in prebiotics may reverse dysbiosis promoting health and wellness in age. The current study designs, optimizes and tests a novel probiotic and synbiotic formulation consisting of three metabolically active probiotics Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus fermentum and Bifidobacteria infantis together with a novel polyphenol-rich prebiotic, Triphala...
April 12, 2018: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
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