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Francesco Landi, Riccardo Calvani, Matteo Tosato, Anna Maria Martone, Roberto Bernabei, Graziano Onder, Emanuele Marzetti
OBJECTIVE: Sarcopaenia and physical function impairment may have a greater effect on survival than other clinical characteristics, including multimorbidity. In this study, we evaluated the impact of sarcopaenia on all-cause mortality and the interaction among muscle loss, physical function impairment and multimorbidity on mortality risk over 10 years in older community-dwellers. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Population-based study...
2016: BMJ Open
Annamaria Morelli, Linda Vignozzi, Mario Maggi
The etiology of metabolic syndrome (MetS) is complex and involves the interplay between environmental, lifestyle and genetic determinants. MetS in men can be associated with a biochemical pattern of partial hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HH). A similar pattern has been noted in both men and women with a variety of acute illnesses and chronic diseases, and there is ongoing debate regarding whether this phenomenon might adaptive (e.g. diverting resources from reproduction into survival), or maladaptive (e.g. anemia, sarcopenia, osteopenia and fatigue of androgen-deficiency amplify and widen the adverse consequences of the original disease-trigger)...
June 2016: Minerva Endocrinologica
Masoud Isanejad, Jaakko Mursu, Joonas Sirola, Heikki Kröger, Toni Rikkonen, Marjo Tuppurainen, Arja T Erkkilä
Dietary protein intake might be beneficial to physical function (PF) in the elderly. We examined the cross-sectional and prospective associations of protein intake of g/kg body weight (BW), fat mass (FM) and lean mass (LM) with PF in 554 women aged 65·3-71·6 years belonging to the Osteoporosis Risk Factor and Prevention Fracture Prevention Study. Participants filled a questionnaire on lifestyle factors and 3-d food record in 2002. Body composition was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and PF measures were performed at baseline and at 3-year follow-up...
April 14, 2016: British Journal of Nutrition
Paul W O'Toole, Ian B Jeffery
The potential for the gut microbiota to affect health has a particular relevance for older individuals. This is because the microbiota may modulate aging-related changes in innate immunity, sarcopaenia, and cognitive function, all of which are elements of frailty. Both cell culture-dependent and -independent studies show that the gut microbiota of older people differs from that of younger adults. There is no chronological threshold or age at which the composition of the microbiota suddenly alters; rather, changes occur gradually with time...
December 4, 2015: Science
Roger W Byard
It is well recognised that there has been a striking increase in average body size (measured by the body mass index) in a number of countries over recent years, such that it has been referred to as an obesity epidemic. This has been associated with increased numbers of these cases in the forensic mortuary with the associated practical difficulties in body handling and the complexities of identifying multiple comorbidities. At the other extreme of body weight lies the frailty syndrome which manifests with unintentional weight loss, decreased muscle mass (sarcopaenia), reduced physical strength and activity, exhaustion and slow ambulation...
October 2015: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
Yong-Ho Lee, Kyu Sik Jung, Seung Up Kim, Hye-Jin Yoon, Yu Jung Yun, Byung-Wan Lee, Eun Seok Kang, Kwang-Hyub Han, Hyun Chul Lee, Bong-Soo Cha
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Although sarcopaenia is associated with obesity-related comorbidities, its influence on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) or steatohepatitis has not been fully determined. We aimed to investigate the direct relationship between sarcopaenia and NAFLD or steatohepatitis in the general population. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study using nationally representative samples of 15,132 subjects from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys 2008-2011...
August 2015: Journal of Hepatology
Iosief Abraha, Alfonso Cruz-Jentoft, Roy L Soiza, Denis O'Mahony, Antonio Cherubini
INTRODUCTION: Non-pharmacological therapies for common chronic medical conditions in older patients are underused in clinical practice. We propose a protocol for the assessment of the evidence of non-pharmacological interventions to prevent or treat relevant outcomes in several prevalent geriatric conditions in order to provide recommendations. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The conditions of interest for which the evidence about efficacy of non-pharmacological interventions will be searched include delirium, falls, pressure sores, urinary incontinence, dementia, heart failure, orthostatic hypotension, sarcopaenia and stroke...
2015: BMJ Open
Marianna S Thomas, David Newman, Olof Dahlqvist Leinhard, Bahman Kasmai, Richard Greenwood, Paul N Malcolm, Anette Karlsson, Johannes Rosander, Magnus Borga, Andoni P Toms
PURPOSE: To measure the test-retest reproducibility of an automated system for quantifying whole body and compartmental muscle volumes using wide bore 3 T MRI. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty volunteers stratified by body mass index underwent whole body 3 T MRI, two-point Dixon sequences, on two separate occasions. Water-fat separation was performed, with automated segmentation of whole body, torso, upper and lower leg volumes, and manually segmented lower leg muscle volumes...
September 2014: European Radiology
Christian M Girgis, Roderick J Clifton-Bligh, Nigel Turner, Sue Lynn Lau, Jenny E Gunton
Accompanying the high rates of vitamin D deficiency observed in many countries, there is increasing interest in the physiological functions of vitamin D. Vitamin D is recognized to exert extra-skeletal actions in addition to its classic roles in bone and mineral homeostasis. Here, we review the evidence for vitamin D's actions in muscle on the basis of observational studies, clinical trials and basic research. Numerous observational studies link vitamin D deficiency with muscle weakness and sarcopaenia. Randomized trials predominantly support an effect of vitamin D supplementation and the prevention of falls in older or institutionalized patients...
February 2014: Clinical Endocrinology
Carolina Gracia-Iguacel, Emilio González-Parra, M Vanesa Pérez-Gómez, Ignacio Mahíllo, Jesús Egido, Alberto Ortiz, Juan J Carrero
INTRODUCTION: Malnutrition has been described in patients with chronic kidney disease as well as its association with cardiovascular risk and mortality in haemodialysis patients. Recently, the new term "protein energy wasting" has been proposed with new diagnostic criteria (biochemical and anthropometric markers) for early identification of patients at risk for protein energy wasting and mortality. The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence, evolution over time and prognostic significance of PEW in a Spanish dialysis centre for the first time in Spain...
2013: Nefrología: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española Nefrologia
Anders Nedergaard, Kim Henriksen, Morten A Karsdal, Claus Christiansen
Loss of musculoskeletal mass and function is a natural ageing trait, reinforced by an unhealthy life style. Loss of bone (osteoporosis) and muscle (sarcopaenia) are conditions whose prevalence are increasing because of the change in population distribution in the western world towards an older mean age. Improvements in lifestyle factors, such as diet, smoking and exercise, are the most powerful tools to combat this decline efficiently; however, public health interventions aimed at tackling these problems have shown abysmal success at the population level, mostly due to failure in compliance...
October 2013: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology
Robin A McGregor, Sally D Poppitt
Epidemiological evidence shows that consumption of dairy products is associated with decreased prevalence of metabolic related disorders, whilst evidence from experimental studies points towards dairy protein as a dietary component which may aid prevention of type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Poor metabolic health is a common characteristic of overweight, obesity and aging, and is the forerunner of T2DM and cardiovascular disease (CVD), and an ever increasing global health issue. Progressive loss of metabolic control is evident from a blunting of carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism, which is commonly manifested through decreased insulin sensitivity, inadequate glucose and lipid control, accompanied by a pro-inflammatory environment and hypertension...
2013: Nutrition & Metabolism
Gabi Shefer, Gat Rauner, Pascal Stuelsatz, Dafna Benayahu, Zipora Yablonka-Reuveni
Satellite cells, the myogenic progenitors located at the myofibre surface, are essential for the repair of adult skeletal muscle. There is ample evidence for an age-linked decline in the number of satellite cells and performance in limb muscles. Hence, an effective means of activating and expanding the satellite cell pool may enhance muscle maintenance and reduce the impact of age-associated muscle deterioration (sarcopaenia). Accordingly, in the present study, we explored the beneficial effects of endurance exercise on satellite cells in young and old mice...
September 2013: FEBS Journal
Catarina M Henriques, Madalena C Carneiro, Inês M Tenente, António Jacinto, Miguel Godinho Ferreira
Telomerase activity is restricted in humans. Consequentially, telomeres shorten in most cells throughout our lives. Telomere dysfunction in vertebrates has been primarily studied in inbred mice strains with very long telomeres that fail to deplete telomeric repeats during their lifetime. It is, therefore, unclear how telomere shortening regulates tissue homeostasis in vertebrates with naturally short telomeres. Zebrafish have restricted telomerase expression and human-like telomere length. Here we show that first-generation tert(-/-) zebrafish die prematurely with shorter telomeres...
2013: PLoS Genetics
Qian Wang, Alexandra C McPherron
Muscle fibres are multinucleated post-mitotic cells that can change dramatically in size during adulthood. It has been debated whether muscle fibre hypertrophy requires activation and fusion of muscle stem cells, the satellite cells. Myostatin (MSTN) is a negative regulator of skeletal muscle growth during development and in the adult, and MSTN inhibition is therefore a potential therapy for muscle wasting diseases, some of which are associated with a depletion of satellite cells. Conflicting results have been obtained in previous analyses of the role of MSTN on satellite cell quiescence...
May 1, 2012: Journal of Physiology
Hugues Magne, Isabelle Savary-Auzeloux, Carole Migné, Marie-Agnès Peyron, Lydie Combaret, Didier Rémond, Dominique Dardevet
During ageing, immobilization periods increase and are partially responsible of sarcopaenia by inducing a muscle atrophy which is hardly recovered from. Immobilization-induced atrophy is due to an increase of muscle apoptotic and proteolytic processes and decreased protein synthesis. Moreover, previous data suggested that the lack of muscle mass recovery might be due to a defect in protein synthesis response during rehabilitation. This study was conducted to explore protein synthesis during reloading and leucine supplementation effect as a nutritional strategy for muscle recovery...
April 15, 2012: Journal of Physiology
K T A Ngo, C Denis, M A Saafi, L Feasson, J Verney
AIM: Endurance and resistance training (ET and RT, respectively) in older subjects have been proven beneficial against metabolic or cardiovascular disorders and against sarcopaenia respectively. Like ET, RT may also increase muscle oxidative capacities. In addition, it could be questioned whether RT, similarly to ET, is able to increase muscle energetic stores such as intra-myocellular lipids (IMCL) and glycogen contents. To evaluate a possible ET- and RT-induced parallel increase in oxidative capacity and energetic stores, active elderly men (72 ± 2 years) were submitted to a 14-week training programme (three times week(-1) ) combining lower body endurance and upper body resistance...
May 2012: Acta Physiologica
Hugues Magne, Isabelle Savary-Auzeloux, Emilie Vazeille, Agnès Claustre, Didier Attaix, Listrat Anne, Santé-Lhoutellier Véronique, Gatellier Philippe, Dominique Dardevet, Lydie Combaret
Immobilization periods increase with age because of decreased mobility and/or because of increased pathological episodes that require bed-rest. Then, sarcopaenia might be partially explained by an impaired recovery of skeletal muscle mass after a catabolic state due to an imbalance of muscle protein metabolism, apoptosis and cellular regeneration. Mechanisms involved during muscle recovery have been little studied and in elderly they remain almost unknown. We show, in rats, that a short immobilization period during ageing initiated muscle atrophy that was indeed not recovered after 40 days...
February 1, 2011: Journal of Physiology
William J Evans
The prevention and treatment of late-life dysfunction are the goals of most geriatricians and should be the primary target for discovery and development of new medicines for elderly people. However, the development of new medicines for elderly people will face a number of challenges that are not seen for other patient populations. The burdens of multiple chronic diseases, low physiological reserve and polypharmacy must result in new clinical trials in frail older people with a high expectation of safety and efficacy...
January 12, 2011: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
M D L O'Connell, A Tajar, S A Roberts, F C W Wu
The term frailty describes an age-related state of vulnerable health. The aetiology of this condition is not well understood. A number of mechanisms may contribute to frailty. Amongst these is the possible influence of age-related perturbations of sex hormones, particularly, the fall in testosterone in ageing men. This declining androgenic function has been thought to contribute to the loss of muscle mass (sarcopaenia) and strength that occurs with ageing and thereby underpin the development of frailty. Testosterone replacement has therefore been suggested as a possible intervention to treat frailty...
June 2011: International Journal of Andrology
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