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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781962/inflammation-and-its-resolution-and-the-musculoskeletal-system
#1
Jiri Gallo, Milan Raska, Eva Kriegova, Stuart B Goodman
Inflammation, an essential tissue response to extrinsic/intrinsic damage, is a very dynamic process in terms of complexity and extension of cellular and metabolic involvement. The aim of the inflammatory response is to eliminate the pathogenic initiator with limited collateral damage of the inflamed tissue, followed by a complex tissue repair to the preinflammation phenotype. Persistent inflammation is a major contributor to the pathogenesis of many musculoskeletal diseases including ageing-related pathologies such as osteoporosis, osteoarthritis, and sarcopaenia...
July 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Translation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721127/diabetes-in-the-elderly
#2
REVIEW
Katarzyna Mordarska, Małgorzata Godziejewska-Zawada
The prevalence of both type 2 diabetes and prediabetes increases with advancing age. The most important factors leading to hyperglycaemia are as follows: deficiency of insulin secretion developing with age, and growing insulin resistance caused by a change in body composition and sarcopaenia. Clinical features of diabetes in the elderly could be different. Diabetes in elderly people is often diagnosed with delay due to atypical symptoms (dementia, urinary incontinence) and occurrence of mainly postprandial hyperglycaemia...
June 2017: Przeglad Menopauzalny, Menopause Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684167/sarcopaenia-in-surgical-populations-a-review
#3
REVIEW
Rachel S M Heard, George Ramsay, Diane R Hildebrand
Sarcopaenia, or decreased muscle mass, has been the subject of a large quantity of recent literature in both medical and surgical disciplines. It has been shown, as outlined below, to be of great prognostic importance, and also may be used in certain circumstances to guide treatment. The greatest volume of research into this topic is in oncological surgical populations, in whom the prevalence of sarcopaenia has been shown to be high. However it is being increasingly studied in other patient groups. Interest in using sarcopaenia as an objective and potentially modifiable marker of frailty is increasing, especially with regards to pre-operative risk stratification and amelioration...
July 3, 2017: Surgeon: Journal of the Royal Colleges of Surgeons of Edinburgh and Ireland
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665444/prevalence-of-sarcopenia-and-its-association-with-dysphagia-in-cancer-patients-who-require-rehabilitation
#4
Hidetaka Wakabayashi, Rimiko Takahashi, Naoko Watanabe, Hideyuki Oritsu, Yoshitaka Shimizu
OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of sarcopaenia and the association between sarcopaenia, activities of daily living, and dysphagia in cancer patients who require rehabilitation. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed in 83 consecutive cancer patients referred to the Department of Rehabilitation Medicine. Skeletal muscle index was calculated as total psoas muscle area assessed via abdominal computed tomography divided by height squared. Sarcopaenia was diagnosed using the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia criteria...
August 31, 2017: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539680/sarcopaenia-and-rheumatoid-arthritis
#5
REVIEW
Tomasz Targowski
In October 2016 a new independent disease called sarcopaenia (according to ICD-10 classification) appeared. According to the recommendation of the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP), sarcopaenia is defined as abnormally low muscle mass plus low skeletal muscle strength or low physical performance. Sarcopaenia, as a primary disease, is mainly observed in older people, but it can also appear in younger adults in the course of many clinical chronic conditions. One of the most frequent chronic diseases associated with chronic inflammation and functional limitation of skeletal system is rheumatoid arthritis...
2017: Reumatologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420250/the-european-association-of-preventive-cardiology-exercise-prescription-in-everyday-practice-and-rehabilitative-training-expert-tool-a-digital-training-and-decision-support-system-for-optimized-exercise-prescription-in-cardiovascular-disease-concept-definitions
#6
Dominique Hansen, Paul Dendale, Karin Coninx, Luc Vanhees, Massimo F Piepoli, Josef Niebauer, Veronique Cornelissen, Roberto Pedretti, Eva Geurts, Gustavo R Ruiz, Ugo Corrà, Jean-Paul Schmid, Eugenio Greco, Constantinos H Davos, Frank Edelmann, Ana Abreu, Bernhard Rauch, Marco Ambrosetti, Simona S Braga, Olga Barna, Paul Beckers, Maurizio Bussotti, Robert Fagard, Pompilio Faggiano, Esteban Garcia-Porrero, Evangelia Kouidi, Michel Lamotte, Daniel Neunhäuserer, Rona Reibis, Martijn A Spruit, Christoph Stettler, Tim Takken, Cajsa Tonoli, Carlo Vigorito, Heinz Völler, Patrick Doherty
Background Exercise rehabilitation is highly recommended by current guidelines on prevention of cardiovascular disease, but its implementation is still poor. Many clinicians experience difficulties in prescribing exercise in the presence of different concomitant cardiovascular diseases and risk factors within the same patient. It was aimed to develop a digital training and decision support system for exercise prescription in cardiovascular disease patients in clinical practice: the European Association of Preventive Cardiology Exercise Prescription in Everyday Practice and Rehabilitative Training (EXPERT) tool...
July 2017: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316139/changes-in-body-composition-and-metabolic-profile-during-interleukin-6-inhibition-in-rheumatoid-arthritis
#7
Anne Tournadre, Bruno Pereira, Fréderic Dutheil, Charlotte Giraud, Daniel Courteix, Vincent Sapin, Thomas Frayssac, Sylvain Mathieu, Sandrine Malochet-Guinamand, Martin Soubrier
BACKGROUND: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by increased mortality associated with cardiometabolic disorders including dyslipidaemia, insulin resistance, and cachectic obesity. Tumour necrosis factor inhibitors and interleukin 6 receptor blocker licensed for the treatment of RA decrease inflammation and could thus improve cardiovascular risk, but their effects on body composition and metabolic profile need to be clarified. We investigated the effects of tocilizumab (TCZ), a humanized anti-interleukin 6 receptor antibody, on body composition and metabolic profile in patients treated for RA...
August 2017: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27456324/impact-of-physical-function-impairment-and-multimorbidity-on-mortality-among-community-living-older-persons-with-sarcopaenia-results-from-the-ilsirente-prospective-cohort-study
#8
Francesco Landi, Riccardo Calvani, Matteo Tosato, Anna Maria Martone, Roberto Bernabei, Graziano Onder, Emanuele Marzetti
OBJECTIVE: Sarcopaenia and physical function impairment may have a greater effect on survival than other clinical characteristics, including multimorbidity. In this study, we evaluated the impact of sarcopaenia on all-cause mortality and the interaction among muscle loss, physical function impairment and multimorbidity on mortality risk over 10 years in older community-dwellers. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Population-based study...
2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27050381/hypogonadotropic-hypogonadism-and-metabolic-syndrome-insights-from-the-high-fat-diet-experimental-rabbit-animal-model
#9
REVIEW
Annamaria Morelli, Linda Vignozzi, Mario Maggi
The etiology of metabolic syndrome (MetS) is complex and involves the interplay between environmental, lifestyle and genetic determinants. MetS in men can be associated with a biochemical pattern of partial hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HH). A similar pattern has been noted in both men and women with a variety of acute illnesses and chronic diseases, and there is ongoing debate regarding whether this phenomenon might adaptive (e.g. diverting resources from reproduction into survival), or maladaptive (e.g. anemia, sarcopenia, osteopenia and fatigue of androgen-deficiency amplify and widen the adverse consequences of the original disease-trigger)...
June 2016: Minerva Endocrinologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26857389/dietary-protein-intake-is-associated-with-better-physical-function-and-muscle-strength-among-elderly-women
#10
Masoud Isanejad, Jaakko Mursu, Joonas Sirola, Heikki Kröger, Toni Rikkonen, Marjo Tuppurainen, Arja T Erkkilä
Dietary protein intake might be beneficial to physical function (PF) in the elderly. We examined the cross-sectional and prospective associations of protein intake of g/kg body weight (BW), fat mass (FM) and lean mass (LM) with PF in 554 women aged 65·3-71·6 years belonging to the Osteoporosis Risk Factor and Prevention Fracture Prevention Study. Participants filled a questionnaire on lifestyle factors and 3-d food record in 2002. Body composition was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and PF measures were performed at baseline and at 3-year follow-up...
April 14, 2016: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26785481/gut-microbiota-and-aging
#11
REVIEW
Paul W O'Toole, Ian B Jeffery
The potential for the gut microbiota to affect health has a particular relevance for older individuals. This is because the microbiota may modulate aging-related changes in innate immunity, sarcopaenia, and cognitive function, all of which are elements of frailty. Both cell culture-dependent and -independent studies show that the gut microbiota of older people differs from that of younger adults. There is no chronological threshold or age at which the composition of the microbiota suddenly alters; rather, changes occur gradually with time...
December 4, 2015: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26344457/forensic-issues-at-the-extremes-of-weight-from-frailty-syndrome-through-frail-obesity-to-morbid-obesity
#12
Roger W Byard
It is well recognised that there has been a striking increase in average body size (measured by the body mass index) in a number of countries over recent years, such that it has been referred to as an obesity epidemic. This has been associated with increased numbers of these cases in the forensic mortuary with the associated practical difficulties in body handling and the complexities of identifying multiple comorbidities. At the other extreme of body weight lies the frailty syndrome which manifests with unintentional weight loss, decreased muscle mass (sarcopaenia), reduced physical strength and activity, exhaustion and slow ambulation...
October 2015: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25772036/sarcopaenia-is-associated-with-nafld-independently-of-obesity-and-insulin-resistance-nationwide-surveys-knhanes-2008-2011
#13
MULTICENTER STUDY
Yong-Ho Lee, Kyu Sik Jung, Seung Up Kim, Hye-Jin Yoon, Yu Jung Yun, Byung-Wan Lee, Eun Seok Kang, Kwang-Hyub Han, Hyun Chul Lee, Bong-Soo Cha
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Although sarcopaenia is associated with obesity-related comorbidities, its influence on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) or steatohepatitis has not been fully determined. We aimed to investigate the direct relationship between sarcopaenia and NAFLD or steatohepatitis in the general population. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study using nationally representative samples of 15,132 subjects from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys 2008-2011...
August 2015: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25628049/evidence-of-and-recommendations-for-non-pharmacological-interventions-for-common-geriatric-conditions-the-senator-ontop-systematic-review-protocol
#14
REVIEW
Iosief Abraha, Alfonso Cruz-Jentoft, Roy L Soiza, Denis O'Mahony, Antonio Cherubini
INTRODUCTION: Non-pharmacological therapies for common chronic medical conditions in older patients are underused in clinical practice. We propose a protocol for the assessment of the evidence of non-pharmacological interventions to prevent or treat relevant outcomes in several prevalent geriatric conditions in order to provide recommendations. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The conditions of interest for which the evidence about efficacy of non-pharmacological interventions will be searched include delirium, falls, pressure sores, urinary incontinence, dementia, heart failure, orthostatic hypotension, sarcopaenia and stroke...
January 27, 2015: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24871333/test-retest-reliability-of-automated-whole-body-and-compartmental-muscle-volume-measurements-on-a-wide-bore-3t-mr-system
#15
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Marianna S Thomas, David Newman, Olof Dahlqvist Leinhard, Bahman Kasmai, Richard Greenwood, Paul N Malcolm, Anette Karlsson, Johannes Rosander, Magnus Borga, Andoni P Toms
PURPOSE: To measure the test-retest reproducibility of an automated system for quantifying whole body and compartmental muscle volumes using wide bore 3 T MRI. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty volunteers stratified by body mass index underwent whole body 3 T MRI, two-point Dixon sequences, on two separate occasions. Water-fat separation was performed, with automated segmentation of whole body, torso, upper and lower leg volumes, and manually segmented lower leg muscle volumes...
September 2014: European Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24256495/effects-of-vitamin-d-in-skeletal-muscle-falls-strength-athletic-performance-and-insulin-sensitivity
#16
REVIEW
Christian M Girgis, Roderick J Clifton-Bligh, Nigel Turner, Sue Lynn Lau, Jenny E Gunton
Accompanying the high rates of vitamin D deficiency observed in many countries, there is increasing interest in the physiological functions of vitamin D. Vitamin D is recognized to exert extra-skeletal actions in addition to its classic roles in bone and mineral homeostasis. Here, we review the evidence for vitamin D's actions in muscle on the basis of observational studies, clinical trials and basic research. Numerous observational studies link vitamin D deficiency with muscle weakness and sarcopaenia. Randomized trials predominantly support an effect of vitamin D supplementation and the prevention of falls in older or institutionalized patients...
February 2014: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23897181/prevalence-of-protein-energy-wasting-syndrome-and-its-association-with-mortality-in-haemodialysis-patients-in-a-centre-in-spain
#17
Carolina Gracia-Iguacel, Emilio González-Parra, M Vanesa Pérez-Gómez, Ignacio Mahíllo, Jesús Egido, Alberto Ortiz, Juan J Carrero
INTRODUCTION: Malnutrition has been described in patients with chronic kidney disease as well as its association with cardiovascular risk and mortality in haemodialysis patients. Recently, the new term "protein energy wasting" has been proposed with new diagnostic criteria (biochemical and anthropometric markers) for early identification of patients at risk for protein energy wasting and mortality. The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence, evolution over time and prognostic significance of PEW in a Spanish dialysis centre for the first time in Spain...
2013: Nefrología: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española Nefrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23891483/musculoskeletal-ageing-and-primary-prevention
#18
REVIEW
Anders Nedergaard, Kim Henriksen, Morten A Karsdal, Claus Christiansen
Loss of musculoskeletal mass and function is a natural ageing trait, reinforced by an unhealthy life style. Loss of bone (osteoporosis) and muscle (sarcopaenia) are conditions whose prevalence are increasing because of the change in population distribution in the western world towards an older mean age. Improvements in lifestyle factors, such as diet, smoking and exercise, are the most powerful tools to combat this decline efficiently; however, public health interventions aimed at tackling these problems have shown abysmal success at the population level, mostly due to failure in compliance...
October 2013: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23822206/milk-protein-for-improved-metabolic-health-a-review-of-the-evidence
#19
Robin A McGregor, Sally D Poppitt
Epidemiological evidence shows that consumption of dairy products is associated with decreased prevalence of metabolic related disorders, whilst evidence from experimental studies points towards dairy protein as a dietary component which may aid prevention of type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Poor metabolic health is a common characteristic of overweight, obesity and aging, and is the forerunner of T2DM and cardiovascular disease (CVD), and an ever increasing global health issue. Progressive loss of metabolic control is evident from a blunting of carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism, which is commonly manifested through decreased insulin sensitivity, inadequate glucose and lipid control, accompanied by a pro-inflammatory environment and hypertension...
July 3, 2013: Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23464362/moderate-intensity-treadmill-running-promotes-expansion-of-the-satellite-cell-pool-in-young-and-old-mice
#20
Gabi Shefer, Gat Rauner, Pascal Stuelsatz, Dafna Benayahu, Zipora Yablonka-Reuveni
Satellite cells, the myogenic progenitors located at the myofibre surface, are essential for the repair of adult skeletal muscle. There is ample evidence for an age-linked decline in the number of satellite cells and performance in limb muscles. Hence, an effective means of activating and expanding the satellite cell pool may enhance muscle maintenance and reduce the impact of age-associated muscle deterioration (sarcopaenia). Accordingly, in the present study, we explored the beneficial effects of endurance exercise on satellite cells in young and old mice...
September 2013: FEBS Journal
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