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Dementia with lewy bodies

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164600/18f-pet-with-florbetaben-for-the-early-diagnosis-of-alzheimer-s-disease-dementia-and-other-dementias-in-people-with-mild-cognitive-impairment-mci
#1
REVIEW
Gabriel Martínez, Robin Wm Vernooij, Paulina Fuentes Padilla, Javier Zamora, Leon Flicker, Xavier Bonfill Cosp
BACKGROUND: (18)F-florbetaben uptake by brain tissue, measured by positron emission tomography (PET), is accepted by regulatory agencies like the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the European Medicine Agencies (EMA) for assessing amyloid load in people with dementia. Its added value is mainly demonstrated by excluding Alzheimer's pathology in an established dementia diagnosis. However, the National Institute on Aging and Alzheimer's Association (NIA-AA) revised the diagnostic criteria for Alzheimer's disease and confidence in the diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) due to Alzheimer's disease may be increased when using some amyloid biomarkers tests like (18)F-florbetaben...
November 22, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164172/hallucinations-are-real-to-patients-with-dementia
#2
R C Hamdy, A Kinser, J V Lewis, R Copeland, A Depelteau, T Kendall-Wilson, K Whalen
In this case study, we present a patient with preexistent posttraumatic stress disorder and psychosis who has been recently diagnosed with Dementia with Lewy Bodies. He is experiencing vivid hallucinations. What went wrong between him and his wife as a result of these hallucinations is presented. Alternative actions that could have been used are suggested. Objectives: At the end of this case study, readers will know the following:The characteristic clinical features of Dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB)...
January 2017: Gerontology & Geriatric Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155947/dementia-after-moderate-severe-traumatic-brain-injury-coexistence-of-multiple-proteinopathies
#3
Kimbra Kenney, Diego Iacono, Brian L Edlow, Douglas I Katz, Ramon Diaz-Arrastia, Kristen Dams-O'Connor, Daniel H Daneshvar, Allison Stevens, Allison L Moreau, Lee S Tirrell, Ani Varjabedian, Anastasia Yendiki, Andre van der Kouwe, Azma Mareyam, Jennifer A McNab, Wayne A Gordon, Bruce Fischl, Ann C McKee, Daniel P Perl
We report the clinical, neuroimaging, and neuropathologic characteristics of 2 patients who developed early onset dementia after a moderate-severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). Neuropathological evaluation revealed abundant β-amyloid neuritic and cored plaques, diffuse β-amyloid plaques, and frequent hyperphosphorylated-tau neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) involving much of the cortex, including insula and mammillary bodies in both cases. Case 1 additionally showed NFTs in both the superficial and deep cortical layers, occasional perivascular and depth-of-sulci NFTs, and parietal white matter rarefaction, which corresponded with decreased parietal fiber tracts observed on ex vivo MRI...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147836/effects-of-saffron%C3%A2-and-its-constituents-%C3%A2-crocin-1-crocin-2-and-crocetin-on-%C3%AE-synuclein-fibrils
#4
Eiji Inoue, Yasuharu Shimizu, Ryo Masui, Tomomi Hayakawa, Tomoe Tsubonoya, Satoko Hori, Keiichi Sudoh
Saffron, the stigma of Crocus sativus Linné (Iridaceae family), has been known to inhibit aggregation of β-amyloid, a nerve tissue protein. α-Synuclein (αS) is a 140-amino acid protein found abundantly in various regions of the brain. Its abnormal aggregation and accumulation in nerve tissue are said to cause neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease, Lewy body dementia, and multiple-system atrophy. This study (part of this study was presented at the 137th Annual Meeting of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan) examined the effects of saffron, its constituents (crocin-1, crocin-2, crocetin, and safranal), and crocetin structural analogs (hexadecanedioic acid, norbixin, and trans, trans-muconic acid) on αS aggregation, and αS fibril dissociation...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Natural Medicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146478/diacylglycerols-as-biomarkers-of-sustained-immune-activation-in-proteinopathies-associated-with-dementia
#5
REVIEW
Paul L Wood, John E Cebak, Randall L Woltjer
Cognitive decline is a devastating clinical condition, heavily correlated with age progression. In the cases of Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and Lewy body disease, the common neuropathologies are proteinopathies and neuroinflammation. Herein, we review current lipidomics findings and conclude that brain and circulating diacylglycerols represent biomarkers of this ongoing sustained immune response, presumably involving microglia. We further hypothesize that a logical next step will be to evaluate biomarkers of immune activation in a cohort of patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) and subsequently attempt to provide therapeutic intervention with anti-inflammatory therapy in MCI patients with immune activation...
November 13, 2017: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146111/microrna-expression-patterns-in-human-anterior-cingulate-and-motor-cortex-a-study-of-dementia-with-lewy-bodies-cases-and-controls
#6
Peter T Nelson, Wang-Xia Wang, Sarah A Janse, Katherine L Thompson
OVERVIEW: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been implicated in neurodegenerative diseases including Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here, we evaluated the expression of miRNAs in anterior cingulate (AC; Brodmann area [BA] 24) and primary motor (MO; BA 4) cortical tissue from aged human brains in the University of Kentucky AD Center autopsy cohort, with a focus on dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). METHODS: RNA was isolated from gray matter of brain samples with pathology-defined DLB, AD, AD+DLB, and low-pathology controls, with n=52 cases initially included (n=23 with DLB), all with low (<4hrs) postmortem intervals...
November 13, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145189/rem-sleep-behavior-disorder
#7
Claudio L Bassetti, Panagiotis Bargiotas
Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is a brain disorder, characterized by the dream enactment during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep due to a lack of physiologic muscle atonia and increased muscle twitching. Schenk was the first to describe this disorder in 1986; however, few authors reported in the 1970-1980s loss of physiological muscle atonia combined with dream enactment in the course of brainstem disorders and as a consequence of alcoholism and antidepressant treatment. RBD affects less than 1% of the adult population, but can be found in up to 25-50% of neurodegenerative disorders including Parkinson's disease, multisystem atrophy, and dementia with Lewy body...
2018: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143692/non-pharmacological-interventions-for-lewy-body-dementia-a-systematic-review
#8
Michael H Connors, Lena Quinto, Ian McKeith, Henry Brodaty, Louise Allan, Claire Bamford, Alan Thomas, John-Paul Taylor, John T O'Brien
Lewy body dementia (consisting of dementia with Lewy bodies and Parkinson's disease dementia) is a common neurodegenerative disease characterised by visual hallucinations, fluctuating attention, motor disturbances, falls, and sensitivity to antipsychotics. This combination of features presents challenges for pharmacological management. Given this, we sought to review evidence for non-pharmacological interventions with patients with Lewy body dementia and their carers. Bibliographic databases were searched using a wide range of search terms and no restrictions were placed on study design, language, or clinical setting...
November 16, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142140/imaging-and-csf-analyses-effectively-distinguish-cjd-from-its-mimics
#9
Peter Rudge, Harpreet Hyare, Alison Green, John Collinge, Simon Mead
OBJECTIVE: To review clinical and investigation findings in patients referred to a specialist prion clinic who were suspected to have sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD) and yet were found to have an alternative final diagnosis. METHODS: Review the clinical findings and investigations in 214 patients enrolled into the UK National Prion Monitoring Cohort Study between October 2008 and November 2015 who had postmortem confirmed sCJD and compare these features with 50 patients referred over the same period who had an alternative final diagnosis (CJD mimics)...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133699/referral-practice-reporting-standards-and-the-impact-of-dopamine-transporter-scans-done-in-a-tertiary-hospital
#10
Shakya Bhattacharjee, Albi J Chalissery, Tim Barry, Donagh O'Sullivan, Martin O'Connell, Timothy Lynch
AIMS: We studied the referral practice, reporting standards, and the impact of 123 ioflupane single photon emission computed tomogram dopamine transporters (DAT-SPECT) scans conducted for the diagnosis and clinical management of patients. SETTINGS AND DESIGNS: The present study was a retrospective, non-interventional study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We assessed the DAT scan referral and the official reports available from the Nuclear Medicine Department of the Mater Misericordiae University Hospital over 1 year (2013)...
November 2017: Neurology India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131019/utility-of-autonomic-function-tests-to-differentiate-dementia-with-lewy-bodies-and-parkinson-disease-with-dementia-from-alzheimer-disease
#11
Shuta Toru, Tadashi Kanouchi, Takanori Yokota, Yosuke Yagi, Akira Machida, Takayoshi Kobayashi
OBJECTIVE: We studied autonomic disturbance in patients with dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), Parkinson disease with dementia (PDD), Alzheimer disease (AD), to determine whether autonomic function tests can be used to distinguish these disorders. METHODS: Autonomic function was tested in 56 patients with DLB, 37 patients with PDD, and 59 patients with AD by using the sympathetic skin response, coefficient of variation in R-R interval, the head-up tilt test, serum norepinephrine concentration, and 123I-meta-iodobenzylguanidine cardiac scintigraphy...
November 13, 2017: European Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126445/ykl-40-in-the-brain-and-cerebrospinal-fluid-of-neurodegenerative-dementias
#12
Franc Llorens, Katrin Thüne, Waqas Tahir, Eirini Kanata, Daniela Diaz-Lucena, Konstantinos Xanthopoulos, Eleni Kovatsi, Catharina Pleschka, Paula Garcia-Esparcia, Matthias Schmitz, Duru Ozbay, Susana Correia, Ângela Correia, Ira Milosevic, Olivier Andréoletti, Natalia Fernández-Borges, Ina M Vorberg, Markus Glatzel, Theodoros Sklaviadis, Juan Maria Torres, Susanne Krasemann, Raquel Sánchez-Valle, Isidro Ferrer, Inga Zerr
BACKGROUND: YKL-40 (also known as Chitinase 3-like 1) is a glycoprotein produced by inflammatory, cancer and stem cells. Its physiological role is not completely understood but YKL-40 is elevated in the brain and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in several neurological and neurodegenerative diseases associated with inflammatory processes. Yet the precise characterization of YKL-40 in dementia cases is missing. METHODS: In the present study, we comparatively analysed YKL-40 levels in the brain and CSF samples from neurodegenerative dementias of different aetiologies characterized by the presence of cortical pathology and disease-specific neuroinflammatory signatures...
November 10, 2017: Molecular Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119326/neurodegeneration-and-the-ordered-assembly-of-%C3%AE-synuclein
#13
REVIEW
Maria Grazia Spillantini, Michel Goedert
In 2017, it was 200 years since James Parkinson published 'An Essay on the Shaking Palsy' and 20 years since α-synuclein aggregation came to the fore. In 1998, multiple system atrophy joined Parkinson's disease and dementia with Lewy bodies as the third major synucleinopathy. Here, we describe the work that led to the identification of α-synuclein in Lewy bodies, Lewy neurites and Papp-Lantos bodies. We also review some of the findings reported since 1997.
November 8, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116402/a-critical-review-of-the-prion-hypothesis-of-human-synucleinopathies
#14
REVIEW
Gültekin Tamgüney, Amos D Korczyn
Parkinson's disease (PD), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), and multiple system atrophy (MSA) are neurodegenerative disorders which have been pathologically classified as synucleinopathies, since they are associated with pathognomonic deposits of misfolded alpha-synuclein in cells of the nervous system. Recently PD, DLB, and MSA were also suggested to be prion-like disorders. Much controversy exists regarding this analogy between synucleinopathies and prion diseases. Here, we discuss what characterizes prion diseases and in which way synucleinopathies may be considered prion-like or -unlike...
November 8, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116145/cingulate-island-sign-temporally-changes-in-dementia-with-lewy-bodies
#15
Tomomichi Iizuka, Rui Iizuka, Masashi Kameyama
The cingulate island sign (CIS) that reflects sparing of the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) relative to the precuneus plus cuneus on FDG-PET and brain perfusion SPECT, has been proposed as a feature of dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). As the CIS is influenced by concomitant Alzheimer's disease (AD)-type neurofibrillary tangle (NFT) pathology, we postulated that the CIS gradually disappears as DLB progresses. To determine temporal changes in the CIS, 24 patients with mild DLB and 7 with prodromal DLB underwent (123)I-IMP-SPECT and MMSE twice at an interval of two years...
November 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112909/potential-diagnostic-value-of-131-i-mibg-myocardial-scintigraphy-in-discrimination-between-alzheimer-disease-and-dementia-with-lewy-bodies
#16
Mehrshad Abbasi, Nafise Ghalandari, Saeed Farzanefar, Vajiheh Aghamollaii, Mona Ahmadi, Morsaleh Ganji, Mohsen Afarideh, Sogol Loloee, Maryam Naseri, Abbas Tafakhori
OBJECTIVES: Clinical difficulty to discriminate between the Alzheimer disease (AD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) has led researchers to focus on highly sensitive functional imaging modalities. The aim of the present study was to assess (131)I-MIBG cardiac imaging to distinguish between AD and DLB. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Seventeen patients who were known cases of dementia underwent (131)I-MIBG myocardial scintigraphy to differentiate AD from DLB. Planar and (131)I-MIBG SPECT were obtained 2h after the injection of 1mCi (131)I-MIBG on a dual head gamma camera...
October 25, 2017: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111367/synthesis-and-biological-evaluation-of-novel-radioiodinated-benzimidazole-derivatives-for-imaging-%C3%AE-synuclein-aggregates
#17
Hiroyuki Watanabe, Taisuke Ariyoshi, Akihiko Ozaki, Masafumi Ihara, Masahiro Ono, Hideo Saji
α-Synuclein (α-syn) aggregates are commonly found in the brains of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), and some other diseases. Therefore, in vivo imaging of α-syn aggregates would aid in drug development, early diagnosis, and monitoring of disease status. In order to develop imaging probes targeting α-syn aggregates, we synthesized and evaluated three novel radioiodinated benzimidazole (BI) derivatives for selective imaging of α-syn aggregates. In binding experiments, BI-2 exhibited the highest selective binding affinity for α-syn aggregates among the BI derivatives...
October 14, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110781/cerebrospinal-fluid-in-the-dementias
#18
Henrik Zetterberg, Jonathan D Rohrer, Jonathan M Schott
Alzheimer disease, vascular dementia, dementia with Lewy bodies, and frontotemporal dementia are the most common central nervous system disorders that cause progressive neurocognitive dysfunction and ultimately dementia. A number of biomarkers for pathologies reflecting each condition have been developed. Here, we review these and give an overview of the current state of practice and research regarding cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers for these disorders. The chapter discusses both established (most of which are tau- and amyloid β-related) and upcoming biomarkers and details, wherever appropriate, clinical use and differential diagnostics aspects...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103031/transcranial-sonography-in%C3%A2-neurodegenerative-diseases-with-cognitive-decline
#19
Silvia Favaretto, Uwe Walter, Claudio Baracchini, Annachiara Cagnin
Transcranial sonography (TCS) of the brain parenchyma detects alterations in the substantia nigra (SN), raphe nuclei, and basal ganglia; this technique has been established as a tool for the early diagnosis of Parkinson's disease and differential diagnosis from atypical parkinsonian syndromes. Here, we aimed to review the main applications of TCS in neurodegenerative diseases presenting with dementia syndrome, focusing on Alzheimer's disease (AD), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), frontotemporal lobar degeneration, idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus, and atypical and secondary parkinsonisms...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101940/rem-sleep-behavior-disorder-diagnosis-clinical-implications-and-future-directions
#20
REVIEW
Erik K St Louis, Bradley F Boeve
Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is diagnosed by a clinical history of dream enactment accompanied by polysomnographic rapid eye movement sleep atonia loss (rapid eye movement sleep without atonia). Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder is strongly associated with neurodegenerative disease, especially synucleinopathies such as Parkinson disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, and multiple system atrophy. A history of RBD may begin several years to decades before onset of any clear daytime symptoms of motor, cognitive, or autonomic impairments, suggesting that RBD is the presenting manifestation of a neurodegenerative process...
November 2017: Mayo Clinic Proceedings
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