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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228218/nonhuman-primate-models-and-understanding-the-pathogenesis-of-hiv-infection-and-aids
#1
Ronald S Veazey, Andrew A Lackner
Research using nonhuman primates (NHPs) as models for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) has resulted in tremendous achievements not only in the prevention and treatment of HIV, but also in biomedical research more broadly. Once considered a death sentence, HIV infection is now fairly well controlled with combination antiretroviral treatments, almost all of which were first tested for efficacy and safety in nonhuman primates or other laboratory animals...
December 8, 2017: ILAR Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227926/enhanced-photocatalytic-h2-production-activity-of-c-dots-modified-g-c3n4-tio2-nanosheets-composites
#2
Yang Li, Xionghan Feng, Zhexue Lu, Hui Yin, Fan Liu, Quanjun Xiang
As a new carbon-based material, carbon dots (C-dots) have got widely preference because of its excellent electronic transfer capability. In this work, a novel ternary layered C-dots/g-C3N4/TiO2 nanosheets (CGT) composite photocatalysts were prepared by impregnation precipitation methods. The optimal ternary CGT composite samples revealed high photocatalytic hydrogen evolution rate in triethanolamine aqueous solutions, which exceeded the rate of the optimal g-C3N4/TiO2 composite sample by a factor of 5 times...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227802/prussian-blue-analogues-derived-magnetic-feco-alloy-carbon-composites-with-tunable-chemical-composition-and-enhanced-microwave-absorption
#3
Dawei Liu, Rong Qiang, Yunchen Du, Ying Wang, Chunhua Tian, Xijiang Han
A series of magnetic FeCo alloy/carbon composites have been successfully prepared through in situ pyrolysis of Prussian blue analogues (PBAs) with different Fe/Co ratios. The Fe/Co ratio can affect the crystalline phase, particle size, and magnetic property of the FeCo alloy particles, as well as the relative graphitization degree of the carbon frameworks. As a result, the electromagnetic functions of these composites will be highly associated with the Fe/Co ratio, where high Co content is beneficial to the formation of strong dielectric loss and moderate Co content can facilitate the magnetic loss...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227499/self-discriminating-fluorescent-hybrid-nanocrystals-efficient-and-accurate-tracking-of-translocation-via-oral-delivery
#4
Chengying Shen, Yinqian Yang, Baode Shen, Yike Xie, Jianping Qi, Xiaochun Dong, Weili Zhao, Weifeng Zhu, Wei Wu, Hailong Yuan, Yi Lu
The in vivo fate of nanocrystals is a controversial topic, i.e. dissolving versus integral absorption through the intestinal membrane. This is due to the lack of functional strategies to identify integral nanocrystals. In this study, the in vivo fate of quercetin hybrid nanocrystals (QT-HNCs) via the oral route is explored by physically embedding an environment-responsive probe in the crystal lattices of quercetin. The specific property of the probe is the water-initiated aggregation-caused quenching (ACQ) ability, by which integral QT-HNCs can be self-discriminated...
December 11, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226796/-if-i-speak-english-what-am-i-i-am-full-man-me-emotional-impact-and-barriers-for-refugees-and-asylum-seekers-learning-english
#5
Tania Salvo, Amanda C de C Williams
Lack of proficiency in the language of the host country predicts distress among refugees, but many refugees and asylum seekers in the United Kingdom have less than functional English. This study examined how learning English affected refugees' and asylum seekers' lives, particularly their emotional wellbeing, to explore what factors, particularly psychological ones, facilitated or impeded their learning English. We recruited 16 refugees and asylum seekers from an inner-city National Health Service trauma service and from a charity providing one-to-one English classes...
October 2017: Transcultural Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226214/the-legacy-of-slavery-and-contemporary-declines-in-heart-disease-mortality-in-the-u-s-south
#6
Michael R Kramer, Nyesha C Black, Stephen A Matthews, Sherman A James
Background: This study aims to characterize the role of county-specific legacy of slavery in patterning temporal (i.e., 1968-2014), and geographic (i.e., Southern counties) declines in heart disease mortality. In this context, the U.S. has witnessed dramatic declines in heart disease mortality since the 1960's, which have benefitted place and race groups unevenly, with slower declines in the South, especially for the Black population. Methods: Age-adjusted race- and county-specific mortality rates from 1968-2014 for all diseases of the heart were calculated for all Southern U...
December 2017: SSM—Population Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225976/intensive-care-in-a-patient-with-toxic-epidermal-necrolysis
#7
J Wallenborn, M Fischer
Toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) is a serious adverse drug reaction with high lethality, which usually requires intensive-medical care. A 44-year-old man developed generalized exanthema with increasing exfoliation and mucosal involvement after taking allopurinol, ibuprofen, and etoricoxib. The clinical diagnosis of TEN was histologically confirmed. Prednisolone therapy with 3 mg/kg body weight (BW) was not able to prevent further progress to finally 80% of the body surface, and infliximab 5 mg/kg BW was given as a single dose...
2017: Case Reports in Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225949/improving-postpartum-care-delivery-and-uptake-by-implementing-context-specific-interventions-in-four-countries-in-africa-a-realist-evaluation-of-the-missed-opportunities-in-maternal-and-infant-health-momi-project
#8
Nehla Djellouli, Sue Mann, Bejoy Nambiar, Paula Meireles, Diana Miranda, Henrique Barros, Fadima Y Bocoum, W Maurice E Yaméogo, Clarisse Yaméogo, Sylvie Belemkoabga, Halima Tougri, Abou Coulibaly, Seni Kouanda, Vernon Mochache, Omar K Mwakusema, Eunice Irungu, Peter Gichangi, Zione Dembo, Angela Kadzakumanja, Charles Vidonji Makwenda, Judite Timóteo, Misete G Cossa, Malica de Melo, Sally Griffin, Nafissa B Osman, Severiano Foia, Emilomo Ogbe, Els Duysburgh, Tim Colbourn
Postpartum care (PPC) has remained relatively neglected in many interventions designed to improve maternal and neonatal health in sub-Saharan Africa. The Missed Opportunities in Maternal and Infant Health project developed and implemented a context-specific package of health system strengthening and demand generation in four African countries, aiming to improve access and quality of PPC. A realist evaluation was conducted to enable nuanced understanding of the influence of different contextual factors on both the implementation and impacts of the interventions...
2017: BMJ Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225613/a-multitasking-electrical-impedance-tomography-system-using-titanium-alloy-electrode
#9
Abdalla Salama, Amin Malekmohammadi, Shahram Mohanna, Rajprasad Rajkumar
This paper presents a multitasking electrical impedance tomography (EIT) system designed to improve the flexibility and durability of an existing EIT system. The ability of the present EIT system to detect, locate, and reshape objects was evaluated by four different experiments. The results of the study show that the system can detect and locate an object with a diameter as small as 1.5 mm in a testing tank with a diameter of 134 mm. Moreover, the results demonstrate the ability of the current system to reconstruct an image of several dielectric object shapes...
2017: International Journal of Biomedical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225544/novel-targets-for-developing-antiseizure-and-potentially-antiepileptogenic-drugs
#10
Dipan C Patel, Karen S Wilcox, Cameron S Metcalf
Epilepsy is a chronic neurological disorder caused by abnormal changes in the functions of neuronal circuits and manifested by seizures. It affects patients of all age, substantially worsens the quality of life for the patients as well as their families, and imposes a huge economic burden on the healthcare system. Historically, efforts for discovering and developing antiseizure therapies have been focused on modulating the functions of receptors, transporters, and enzymes expressed by neurons. These drug development efforts have paid off, as we have over 25 antiseizure drugs available in the clinic...
September 2017: Epilepsy Currents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225508/theory-of-energy-harvesting-from-heartbeat-including-the-effects-of-pleural-cavity-and-respiration
#11
Yangyang Zhang, Bingwei Lu, Chaofeng Lü, Xue Feng
Self-powered implantable devices with flexible energy harvesters are of significant interest due to their potential to solve the problem of limited battery life and surgical replacement. The flexible electronic devices made of piezoelectric materials have been employed to harvest energy from the motion of biological organs. Experimental measurements show that the output voltage of the device mounted on porcine left ventricle in chest closed environment decreases significantly compared to the case of chest open...
November 2017: Proceedings. Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225353/urban-landscape-genomics-identifies-fine-scale-gene-flow-patterns-in-an-avian-invasive
#12
G W Low, B Chattopadhyay, K M Garg, M Irestedt, Pgp Ericson, G Yap, Q Tang, S Wu, F E Rheindt
Invasive species exert a serious impact on native fauna and flora and have been the target of many eradication and management efforts worldwide. However, a lack of data on population structure and history, exacerbated by the recency of many species introductions, limits the efficiency with which such species can be kept at bay. In this study we generated a novel genome of high assembly quality and genotyped 4735 genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphic (SNP) markers from 78 individuals of an invasive population of the Javan Myna Acridotheres javanicus across the island of Singapore...
December 11, 2017: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225209/dapagliflozin-reduces-fat-mass-without-affecting-muscle-mass-in-type-2-diabetes
#13
Seigo Sugiyama, Hideaki Jinnouchi, Noboru Kurinami, Kunio Hieshima, Akira Yoshida, Katsunori Jinnouchi, Hiroyuki Nishimura, Tomoko Suzuki, Fumio Miyamoto, Keizo Kajiwara, Tomio Jinnouchi
AIM: Sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor (SGLT2i) therapy has been demonstrated to improve glycemic control and reduce body weight and fat mass in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Here, our aim was to investigate the effects of SGLT2i dapagliflozin-treatment on body muscle mass and muscle fat content in patients with T2DM. METHODS: We prospectively recruited uncontrolled (hemoglobin A1c [HbA1c] >7%) Japanese T2DM patients who had a body mass index (BMI) <35 kg/m2...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224105/nuclear-and-membrane-actions-of-estrogen-receptor-alpha-contribution-to-the-regulation-of-energy-and-glucose-homeostasis
#14
Maeva Guillaume, Alexandra Montagner, Coralie Fontaine, Françoise Lenfant, Jean-François Arnal, Pierre Gourdy
Estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) has been demonstrated to play a key role in reproduction but also to exert numerous functions in nonreproductive tissues. Accordingly, ERα is now recognized as a key regulator of energy homeostasis and glucose metabolism and mediates the protective effects of estrogens against obesity and type 2 diabetes. This chapter attempts to summarize our current understanding of the mechanisms of ERα activation and their involvement in the modulation of energy balance and glucose metabolism...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222679/-objective-audiometry-and-clinical-application
#15
M Cebulla, D Ehrmann-Müller, W Shehata-Dieler
Subjective and objective hearing tests are used for evaluation of hearing impairments. Objective methods include impedance measurement with tympanometry and stapedius reflex measurement, otoacoustic emissions (OAE), and auditory evoked potentials (AEP). Combined with statistical analysis, the introduction of auditory steady state responses (ASSR) has enabled objective hearing tests in newborn hearing screening and automated hearing threshold assessment. The type and degree of hearing loss can be determined using the abovementioned methods...
December 8, 2017: HNO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222653/ultrasensitive-colorimetric-detection-of-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-protein-at-picomolar-levels-using-target-induced-passivation-of-nanoparticles
#16
P Abdul Rasheed, Jae-Seung Lee
We developed a highly sensitive and selective sensor based on the nanoprobe conjugates of catalytic nanoparticles and double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) for the colorimetric detection of NF-κB protein. The sensing mechanism takes advantage of the catalytic activity of nanoparticle surfaces and the specific binding of NF-κB to a dsDNA sequence. In the presence of NF-κB, the highly selective interactions between dsDNA and NF-κB lead to the passivation of the catalytic nanoparticle surfaces, impeding the sodium borohydride-mediated reduction rate of 4-nitrophenol...
December 9, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222510/semiconductor-sers-enhancement-enabled-by-oxygen-incorporation
#17
Zuhui Zheng, Shan Cong, Wenbin Gong, Jinnan Xuan, Guohui Li, Weibang Lu, Fengxia Geng, Zhigang Zhao
Semiconductor-based surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) substrates represent a new frontier in the field of SERS. However, the application of semiconductor materials as SERS substrates is still seriously impeded by their low SERS enhancement and inferior detection sensitivity, especially for non-metal-oxide semiconductor materials. Herein, we demonstrate a general oxygen incorporation-assisted strategy to magnify the semiconductor substrate-analyte molecule interaction, leading to significant increase in SERS enhancement for non-metal-oxide semiconductor materials...
December 8, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222346/adiposity-inflammation-and-breast-cancer-pathogenesis-in-asian-women
#18
Neil M Iyengar, I-Chun Chen, Xi K Zhou, Dilip D Giri, Domenick J Falcone, Lisle A Winston, Hanhan Wang, Samantha Williams, Yen-Shen Lu, Tsu-Hsin Hsueh, Ann-Lii Cheng, Clifford A Hudis, Ching-Hung Lin, Andrew J Dannenberg
Obesity is associated with white adipose tissue (WAT) inflammation in the breast, elevated levels of the estrogen biosynthetic enzyme, aromatase, and systemic changes that predispose to breast cancer development. We examined whether WAT inflammation and its associated systemic effects correlate with body fat levels in an Asian population where body mass index (BMI) is not an accurate assessment of obesity and cancer risk. We also investigated whether biologic differences could account for the greater proportion of premenopausal estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer in Asian versus western countries...
December 8, 2017: Cancer Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222245/novel-approaches-to-therapy-in-cml
#19
REVIEW
Ravi Bhatia
Treatment with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) results in remission and prolongation of survival in most chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patients but fails to eliminate the leukemia stem cells (LSCs) responsible for disease development and propagation. This accounts for the clinical observation that TKI discontinuation leads to rapid leukemia relapse. Most patients require continued treatment to prevent relapse, with associated risk of relapse, toxicity, teratogenic effects, financial burden, and noncompliance...
December 8, 2017: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222030/regional-ventilation-distribution-and-dead-space-in-anaesthetised-horses-treated-with-and-without-continuous-positive-airway-pressure-novel-insights-by-electrical-impedance-tomography-and-volumetric-capnography
#20
Martina Mosing, Ulrike Auer, Paul MacFarlane, David Bardell, Johannes P Schramel, Stephan H Böhm, Regula Bettschart-Wolfensberger, Andreas D Waldmann
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) on regional distribution of ventilation and dead space in anaesthetized horses. STUDY DESIGN: Randomized, experimental, crossover study. ANIMALS: A total of eight healthy adult horses. METHODS: Horses were anaesthetized twice with isoflurane in 50% oxygen and medetomidine as continuous infusion in dorsal recumbency, and administered in random order either CPAP (8 cmH2O) or NO CPAP for 3 hours...
July 3, 2017: Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia
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