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Amygdala, norepinephrine OR noradrenaline

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814469/characterization-of-the-amplificatory-effect-of-norepinephrine-in-the-acquisition-of-pavlovian-threat-associations
#1
Lorenzo Díaz-Mataix, Walter T Piper, Hillary C Schiff, Clark H Roberts, Vincent D Campese, Robert M Sears, Joseph E LeDoux
The creation of auditory threat Pavlovian memory requires an initial learning stage in which a neutral conditioned stimulus (CS), such as a tone, is paired with an aversive one (US), such as a shock. In this phase, the CS acquires the capacity of predicting the occurrence of the US and therefore elicits conditioned defense responses. Norepinephrine (NE), through β-adrenergic receptors in the amygdala, enhances threat memory by facilitating the acquisition of the CS-US association, but the nature of this effect has not been described...
September 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802898/neurochemical-evidence-that-cocaine-and-amphetamine-regulated-transcript-cart-55-102-peptide-modulates-the-dopaminergic-reward-system-by-decreasing-the-dopamine-release-in-the-mouse-nucleus-accumbens
#2
Angelina Rakovska, Maria Baranyi, Katalin Windish, Polina Petkova-Kirova, Hristo Gagov, Reni Kalfin
CART (Cocaine- and Amphetamine-Regulated Transcript) peptide is a neurotransmitter naturally occurring in the CNS and found mostly in nucleus accumbens, ventrotegmental area, ventral pallidum, amygdalae and striatum, brain regions associated with drug addiction. In the nucleus accumbens, known for its significant role in motivation, pleasure, reward and reinforcement learning, CART peptide inhibits cocaine and amphetamine-induced dopamine-mediated increases in locomotor activity and behavior, suggesting a CART peptide interaction with the dopaminergic system...
August 9, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790188/noradrenergic-activation-of-the-basolateral-amygdala-maintains-hippocampus-dependent-accuracy-of-remote-memory
#3
Erika Atucha, Vanja Vukojevic, Raquel V Fornari, Giacomo Ronzoni, Philippe Demougin, Fabian Peter, Piray Atsak, Marcel W Coolen, Andreas Papassotiropoulos, James L McGaugh, Dominique J-F de Quervain, Benno Roozendaal
Emotional enhancement of memory by noradrenergic mechanisms is well-described, but the long-term consequences of such enhancement are poorly understood. Over time, memory traces are thought to undergo a neural reorganization, that is, a systems consolidation, during which they are, at least partly, transferred from the hippocampus to neocortical networks. This transfer is accompanied by a decrease in episodic detailedness. Here we investigated whether norepinephrine (NE) administration into the basolateral amygdala after training on an inhibitory avoidance discrimination task, comprising two distinct training contexts, alters systems consolidation dynamics to maintain episodic-like accuracy and hippocampus dependency of remote memory...
August 8, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708061/locus-coeruleus-to-basolateral-amygdala-noradrenergic-projections-promote-anxiety-like-behavior
#4
Jordan G McCall, Edward R Siuda, Dionnet L Bhatti, Lamley A Lawson, Zoe A McElligott, Garret D Stuber, Michael R Bruchas
Increased tonic activity of locus coeruleus noradrenergic (LC-NE) neurons induces anxiety-like and aversive behavior. While some information is known about the afferent circuitry that endogenously drives this neural activity and behavior, the downstream receptors and anatomical projections that mediate these acute risk aversive behavioral states via the LC-NE system remain unresolved. Here we use a combination of retrograde tracing, fast-scan cyclic voltammetry, electrophysiology, and in vivo optogenetics with localized pharmacology to identify neural substrates downstream of increased tonic LC-NE activity in mice...
July 14, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577990/the-regulation-of-corticosteroid-receptors-in-response-to-chronic-social-defeat
#5
Jia Zhang, Yan Fan, Muhammad U Raza, Yanqiang Zhan, Xiang-Dong Du, Paresh D Patel, Meng-Yang Zhu
Our previous studies demonstrated that chronic social defeat (CSD) up-regulated expression of the serotonin transporter (SERT) and norepinephrine transporter (NET) in the brain, which was mediated by corticosteroid receptors. In the present study we first analyzed the alterations of corticosteroid receptors in different brain regions after the CSD paradigm. The results showed that CSD significantly reduced glucocorticoid receptor (GR) protein levels in the CA1 and dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, as well as in central and basolateral nuclei of the amygdala, which was accompanied by the translocation of GR from cytoplasm to nuclei...
May 31, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562459/desipramine-rescues-emotional-memory-deficit-induced-by-low-doses-of-reserpine
#6
Yi Luo, Zhilian Li, Xiaoyan Peng, Liexin Xia, Lan Ma
Emotional memory deficit is a well-known complication in early Parkinson's disease. However, its molecular mechanism is still not well known. To address this issue, we examined the cue-related fear-conditioning task and long-term potentiation (LTP) of the thalamus to the lateral amygdala in rats treated with low doses of reserpine (Res). We found that low-dose Res treatment impaired emotional memory and LTP. We also found that exogenous upregulation of norepinephrine (NE) ameliorated the impairment of LTP by facilitating β-adrenergic receptors...
September 2017: Behavioural Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552029/a-standardized-hippophae-extract-sbl-1-counters-neuronal-tissue-injuries-and-changes-in-neurotransmitters-implications-in-radiation-protection
#7
Madhu Bala, Vanita Gupta, Jagdish Prasad
CONTEXT: Effects of a radioprotective, standardized leaf extract (code SBL-1) from traditional medicinal plant, sea buckthorn [Hippophae rhamnoides L. (Elaeagnaceae)], on neurotransmitters and brain injuries in rats showing radiation-induced conditioned taste aversion (CTA), are not known. Understanding CTA in rats is important because its process is considered parallel to nausea and vomiting in humans. OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the levels of neurotransmitters, antioxidant defences and histological changes in rats showing radiation CTA, and their modification by SBL-1...
December 2017: Pharmaceutical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536692/wistar-kyoto-female-rats-are-more-susceptible-to-develop-sugar-binging-a-comparison-with-wistar-rats
#8
Helena Papacostas-Quintanilla, Víctor Manuel Ortiz-Ortega, Carolina López-Rubalcava
The hedonic component of the feeding behavior involves the mesolimbic reward system and resembles addictions. Nowadays, the excessive consumption of sucrose is considered addictive. The Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rat strain is prone to develop anxiety and addiction-like behavior; nevertheless, a lack of information regarding their vulnerability to develop sugar binging-like behavior (SBLB) and how it affects the reward system persist. Therefore, the first aim of the present study was to compare the different predisposition of two rat strains, Wistar (W) and WKY to develop the SBLB in female and male rats...
2017: Frontiers in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499100/probing-for-neuroadaptations-to-unpredictable-stressors-in-addiction-translational-methods-and-emerging-evidence
#9
Jesse T Kaye, Daniel E Bradford, Katherine P Magruder, John J Curtin
Stressors clearly contribute to addiction etiology and relapse in humans, but our understanding of specific mechanisms remains limited. Rodent models of addiction offer the power, flexibility, and precision necessary to delineate the causal role and specific mechanisms through which stressors influence alcohol and other drug use. This review describes a program of research using startle potentiation to unpredictable stressors that is well positioned to translate between animal models and clinical research with humans on stress neuroadaptations in addiction...
May 2017: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455701/chronic-rem-sleep-restriction-in-juvenile-male-rats-induces-anxiety-like-behavior-and-alters-monoamine-systems-in-the-amygdala-and-hippocampus
#10
Janaína da Silva Rocha-Lopes, Ricardo Borges Machado, Deborah Suchecki
Adolescence is marked by major physiological changes, including those in the sleep-wake cycle, such as phase delay, which may result in reduced sleep hours. Sleep restriction and/or deprivation in adult rats activate stress response and seem to be a risk factor for triggering emotional disorders. In the present study, we sought to evaluate the behavioral and neurobiological consequences of prolonged REM sleep restriction in juvenile male rats. Immediately after weaning, on postnatal day 21, three males from each litter were submitted to REM sleep deprivation and the other three animals were maintained in their home-cages...
April 28, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442354/the-influence-of-stress-on-neuroinflammation-and-alterations-in-brain-structure-and-function-in-major-depressive-disorder
#11
REVIEW
Yong-Ku Kim, Eunsoo Won
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a condition which has often been associated with chronic stress. The sympathetic nervous system is continuously activated without the normal counteraction of the parasympathetic nervous system under the influence of chronic stress. As a result, epinephrine and norepinephrine levels are increased, and acetylcholine levels are decreased, which in turn can increase the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Peripheral inflammatory responses can access the brain, with neuroinflammation contributing to the increase in neurotoxic kynurenine pathway metabolites such as 3-hydroxykynurenine, 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid and quinolinic acid, and decrease in neuroprotective metabolites such as kynurenic acid...
June 30, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28352358/alterations-in-vegf-expression-induced-by-antidepressant-drugs-in-female-rats-under-chronic-social-stress
#12
Marta Maria Nowacka-Chmielewska, Monika Paul-Samojedny, Anna Maria Bielecka-Wajdman, Jarosław Jerzy Barski, Ewa Obuchowicz
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is thought to serve a role in neurogenesis and the stress response. Although a definite link between the action of antidepressants and VEGF has not been identified, it is assumed that VEGF, as a neurotrophic factor, serves an important role in the effects of antidepressant treatment. To examine this, the present study subjected adult female rats to four weeks of social instability stress and measured the effect of antidepressant treatment on the expression of VEGF. Firstly, endocrine markers of stress and body weight were measured in parallel with behavioral tests prior to and following subjection to stress...
February 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324703/arousal-amplifies-biased-competition-between-high-and-low-priority-memories-more-in-women-than-in-men-the-role-of-elevated-noradrenergic-activity
#13
David Clewett, Michiko Sakaki, Ringo Huang, Shawn E Nielsen, Mara Mather
Recent findings indicate that emotional arousal can enhance memory consolidation of goal-relevant stimuli while impairing it for irrelevant stimuli. According to one recent model, these goal-dependent memory tradeoffs are driven by arousal-induced release of norepinephrine (NE), which amplifies neural gain in target sensory and memory processing brain regions. Past work also shows that ovarian hormones modulate activity in the same regions thought to support NE's effects on memory, such as the amygdala, suggesting that men and women may be differentially susceptible to arousal's dual effects on episodic memory...
June 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280881/tryptophan-depletion-affects-compulsive-behaviour-in-rats-strain-dependent-effects-and-associated-neuromechanisms
#14
A Merchán, S V Navarro, A B Klein, S Aznar, L Campa, C Suñol, M Moreno, P Flores
RATIONALE: Compulsive behaviour, present in different psychiatric disorders, such as obsessive-compulsive disorder, schizophrenia and drug abuse, is associated with altered levels of monoamines, particularly serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine) and its receptor system. OBJECTIVES: The present study investigated whether 5-HT manipulation, through a tryptophan (TRP) depletion by diet in Wistar and Lister Hooded rats, modulates compulsive drinking in schedule-induced polydipsia (SIP) and locomotor activity in the open-field test...
April 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273522/determination-of-catecholamines-and-endogenous-related-compounds-in-rat-brain-tissue-exploring-their-native-fluorescence-and-liquid-chromatography
#15
Beatriz M Fonseca, Márcio Rodrigues, Ana C Cristóvão, Daniela Gonçalves, Ana Fortuna, Liliana Bernardino, Amílcar Falcão, Gilberto Alves
The profiling analysis of catecholamines and their metabolites in brain tissue offers a crucial key to understand their functions in the body and the opportunity to follow up neural diseases. A rapid and simple liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection (LC-FLD) method was developed and validated for simultaneously measuring several catecholamines and endogenous related compounds in the rat brain tissue samples. The target analytes measured in this bioanalytical assay were levodopa (L-DOPA), dopamine (DA), norepinephrine (NE), epinephrine (E), 3-O-methyldopa (3-O-MD), and homovanillic acid (HVA), being the 3,4-dihydroxybenzylamine (DHBA) used as internal standard (IS)...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261089/sex-and-age-differences-in-motion-sickness-in-rats-the-correlation-with-blood-hormone-responses-and-neuronal-activation-in-the-vestibular-and-autonomic-nuclei
#16
Wei Zhou, Junqin Wang, Leilei Pan, Ruirui Qi, Peng Liu, Jiluo Liu, Yiling Cai
Many studies have demonstrated sex and age differences in motion sickness, but the underlying physiological basis is still in controversy. In the present study, we tried to investigate the potential correlates of endocrine and/or neuronal activity with sex and age differences in rats with motion sickness. LiCl-induced nausea symptom was evaluated by conditioned gaping. Motion sickness was assessed by measurement of autonomic responses (i.e., conditioned gaping and defecation responses), motor impairments (i...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251298/perseveration-in-a-spatial-discrimination-serial-reversal-learning-task-is-differentially-affected-by-mao-a-and-mao-b-inhibition-and-associated-with-reduced-anxiety-and-peripheral-serotonin-levels
#17
Peter Zhukovsky, Johan Alsiö, Bianca Jupp, Jing Xia, Chiara Guiliano, Lucy Jenner, Jessica Griffiths, Errin Riley, Sajeed Ali, Angela C Roberts, Trevor W Robbins, Jeffrey W Dalley
RATIONALE: Impairments in behavioral flexibility lie at the core of anxiety and obsessive-compulsive disorders. Few studies, however, have investigated the neural substrates of natural variation in behavioral flexibility and whether inflexible behavior is linked to anxiety and peripheral markers of stress and monoamine function. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to investigate peripheral and central markers associated with perseverative behavior on a spatial-discrimination serial reversal learning task...
May 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188216/amygdalar-gating-of-early-sensory-processing-through-interactions-with-locus-coeruleus
#18
Cynthia D Fast, John P McGann
Fear- and stress-induced activity in the amygdala has been hypothesized to influence sensory brain regions through the influence of the amygdala on neuromodulatory centers. To directly examine this relationship, we used optical imaging to observe odor-evoked activity in populations of olfactory bulb inhibitory interneurons and of synaptic terminals of olfactory sensory neurons (the primary sensory neurons of the olfactory system, which provide the initial olfactory input to the brain) during pharmacological inactivation of amygdala and locus coeruleus (LC) in mice...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108062/chronic-vortioxetine-treatment-in-rodents-modulates-gene-expression-of-neurodevelopmental-and-plasticity-markers
#19
Jessica A Waller, Joseph A Tamm, Aicha Abdourahman, Alan L Pehrson, Yan Li, Manuel Cajina, Connie Sánchez
The multimodal antidepressant vortioxetine displays an antidepressant profile distinct from those of conventional selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) and possesses cognitive-enhancing properties in preclinical and clinical studies. Recent studies have begun to investigate molecular mechanisms that may differentiate vortioxetine from other antidepressants. Acute studies in adult rats and chronic studies in a middle-aged mouse model reveal upregulation of several markers that play a central role in synaptic plasticity...
February 2017: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27980072/memory-trace-reactivation-and-behavioral-response-during-retrieval-are-differentially-modulated-by-amygdalar-glutamate-receptors-activity-interaction-between-amygdala-and-insular-cortex
#20
Daniel Osorio-Gómez, Kioko Guzmán-Ramos, Federico Bermúdez-Rattoni
The insular cortex (IC) is required for conditioned taste aversion (CTA) retrieval. However, it remains unknown which cortical neurotransmitters levels are modified upon CTA retrieval. Using in vivo microdialysis, we observed that there were clear elevations in extracellular glutamate, norepinephrine, and dopamine in and around the center of the gustatory zone of the IC during CTA retrieval. Additionally, it has been reported that the amygdala-IC interaction is highly involved in CTA memory establishment. Therefore, we evaluated the effects of infusions of an AMPA receptor antagonist (CNQX) and a NMDA receptor antagonist (APV) into the amygdala on CTA retrieval and IC neurotransmitter levels...
January 2017: Learning & Memory
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