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Amygdala, norepinephrine OR noradrenaline

M J Skelly, O J Ariwodola, J L Weiner
Inappropriate fear memory formation is symptomatic of many psychopathologies, and delineating the neurobiology of non-pathological fear learning may provide critical insight into treating these disorders. Fear memory formation is associated with decreased inhibitory signaling in the basolateral amygdala (BLA), and disrupted noradrenergic signaling may contribute to this decrease. BLA noradrenergic neurotransmission has been implicated in fear memory formation, and distinct adrenoreceptor (AR) subtypes modulate excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission in this region...
October 5, 2016: Neuropharmacology
Paul J Gasser, Matthew M Hurley, June Chan, Virginia M Pickel
Organic cation transporter 3 (OCT3) is a high-capacity, low-affinity transporter that mediates corticosterone-sensitive uptake of monoamines including norepinephrine, epinephrine, dopamine, histamine and serotonin. OCT3 is expressed widely throughout the amygdaloid complex and other brain regions where monoamines are key regulators of emotional behaviors affected by stress. However, assessing the contribution of OCT3 to the regulation of monoaminergic neurotransmission and monoamine-dependent regulation of behavior requires fundamental information about the subcellular distribution of OCT3 expression...
September 22, 2016: Brain Structure & Function
Kun Cheng Liu, Jun Yi Li, Wen Xie, Li Bo Li, Jin Zhang, Cheng Xue Du, Yu Ming Zhang, Hui Hui Tan, Hui Sheng Wang, Li Zhang
The role of dorsal hippocampus (DH) serotonin6 (5-HT6) receptors in memory is unknown, particularly in memory impairment of Parkinson's disease. We tested here effects of activation and blockade of DH 5-HT6 receptors on working and hippocampus-dependent memories in rats with unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine lesions of the medial forebrain bundle. The lesion induced working and hippocampus-dependent memory impairments as measured by the T-maze rewarded alternation and hole-board tests, and decreased dopamine (DA) levels in the striatum, medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), DH and amygdala...
November 1, 2016: Brain Research
M Vázquez-Gómez, D Valent, C García-Contreras, L Arroyo, C Óvilo, B Isabel, A Bassols, A González-Bulnes
The current study aimed to determine, using a swine model of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), whether short- and long-term neurological deficiencies and interactive dysfunctions of Low Birth-Weight (LBW) offspring might be related to altered pattern of neurotransmitters. Hence, we compared the quantities of different neurotransmitters (catecholamines and indoleamines), which were determined by HPLC, at brain structures related to the limbic system (hippocampus and amygdala) in 14 LBW and 10 Normal Body-Weight (NBW) newborn piglets...
September 9, 2016: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
Louk J M J Vanderschuren, E J Marijke Achterberg, Viviana Trezza
In the young of many mammalian species, including humans, a vigorous and highly rewarding social activity is abundantly expressed, known as social play behaviour. Social play is thought to be important for the development of social, cognitive and emotional processes and their neural underpinnings, and it is disrupted in pediatric psychiatric disorders. Here, we summarize recent progress in our understanding of the brain mechanisms of social play behaviour, with a focus on its rewarding properties. Opioid, endocannabinoid, dopamine and noradrenaline systems play a prominent role in the modulation of social play...
August 29, 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Majken B Thomsen, Thea P Lillethorup, Steen Jakobsen, Erik H Nielsen, Mette Simonsen, Gregers Wegener, Anne M Landau, R Andrew Tasker
RATIONALE: Epilepsy is a debilitating seizure disorder that affects approximately 50 million people. Noradrenaline reduces neuronal excitability, has anticonvulsant effects and is protective against seizure onset. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the role of α2-adrenoceptors in vivo in a neonatal domoic acid (DOM) rat model of epilepsy. METHODS: We injected male Sprague-Dawley rats daily from postnatal day 8-14 with saline or one of two sub-convulsive doses, 20 μg/kg (DOM20) or 60 μg/kg (DOM60) DOM, an AMPA/kainate receptor agonist...
October 2016: Psychopharmacology
Chen-Cheng Lin, Che-Se Tung, Pin-Hsuan Lin, Chuen-Lin Huang, Yia-Ping Liu
Central catecholamines regulate fear memory across the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), amygdala (AMYG), and hippocampus (HPC). However, inadequate evidence exists to address the relationships among these fear circuit areas in terms of the fear symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). By examining the behavioral profile in a Pavlovian fear conditioning paradigm together with tissue/efflux levels of dopamine (DA) and norepinephrine (NE) and their reuptake abilities across the fear circuit areas in rats that experienced single prolonged stress (SPS, a rodent model of PTSD), we demonstrated that SPS-impaired extinction retrieval was concomitant with the changes of central DA/NE in a dissociable manner...
September 2016: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Richard Kvetnansky, Petr Novak, Peter Vargovic, Katarina Lejavova, Lubica Horvathova, Katarina Ondicova, George Manz, Peter Filipcik, Michal Novak, Boris Mravec
Neuroendocrine and behavioral stress responses are orchestrated by corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and norepinephrine (NE) synthesizing neurons. Recent findings indicate that stress may promote development of neurofibrillary pathology in Alzheimer's disease. Therefore, we investigated relationships among stress, tau protein phosphorylation, and brain NE using wild-type (WT) and CRH-knockout (CRH KO) mice. We assessed expression of phosphorylated tau (p-tau) at the PHF-1 epitope and NE concentrations in the locus coeruleus (LC), A1/C1 and A2/C2 catecholaminergic cell groups, hippocampus, amygdala, nucleus basalis magnocellularis, and frontal cortex of unstressed, singly stressed or repeatedly stressed mice...
July 2016: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
Fumiaki Ihara, Maki Nishimura, Yoshikage Muroi, Motamed Elsayed Mahmoud, Naoaki Yokoyama, Kisaburo Nagamune, Yoshifumi Nishikawa
Chronic infection with Toxoplasma gondii becomes established in tissues of the central nervous system, where parasites may directly or indirectly modulate neuronal function. Epidemiological studies have revealed that chronic infection in humans is a risk factor for developing mental diseases. However, the mechanisms underlying parasite-induced neuronal dysfunction in the brain remain unclear. Here, we examined memory associated with conditioned fear in mice and found that T. gondii infection impairs consolidation of conditioned fear memory...
October 2016: Infection and Immunity
Yukari Tanaka, Motoyori Kanazawa, Michiko Kano, Joe Morishita, Toyohiro Hamaguchi, Lukas Van Oudenhove, Huynh Giao Ly, Patrick Dupont, Jan Tack, Takuhiro Yamaguchi, Kazuhiko Yanai, Manabu Tashiro, Shin Fukudo
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) often comorbids mood and anxiety disorders. Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) is a major mediator of the stress response in the brain-gut axis, but it is not clear how CRH agonists change human brain responses to interoceptive stimuli. We tested the hypothesis that brain activation in response to colorectal distention is enhanced after CRH injection in IBS patients compared to healthy controls. Brain H215O- positron emission tomography (PET) was performed in 16 male IBS patients and 16 age-matched male controls during baseline, no distention, mild and intense distention of the colorectum using barostat bag inflation...
2016: PloS One
Yu-Ming Zhang, Li Zhang, Yong Wang, Yi-Na Sun, Yuan Guo, Cheng-Xue Du, Jin Zhang, Lu Yao, Shu-Qi Yu, Jian Liu
The role of prelimbic (PrL) 5-HT6 receptors in depression is poorly understood, particularly in Parkinson's disease-related depression. Here we reported that 6-hydroxydopamine lesions in rats decreased sucrose preference and increased immobility time as measured by the sucrose preference and forced swim tests when compared to sham-operated rats, indicating the induction of depressive-like behaviors. Intra-PrL injection of 5-HT6 receptor agonist WAY208466 induced depressive-like responses in sham-operated rats, and produced antidepressant-like effects in the lesioned rats...
November 2016: Neuropharmacology
Beverly A S Reyes, J L Kravets, K L Connelly, E M Unterwald, E J Van Bockstaele
It is well established that central nervous system norepinephrine (NE) and corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) systems are important mediators of behavioral responses to stressors. More recent studies have defined a role for delta opioid receptors (DOPR) in maintaining emotional valence including anxiety. The amygdala plays an important role in processing emotional stimuli, and has been implicated in the development of anxiety disorders. Activation of DOPR or inhibition of CRF in the amygdala reduces baseline and stress-induced anxiety-like responses...
July 4, 2016: Brain Structure & Function
Krishna G Seshadri
Romantic love could be considered as a collection of activities associated with the acquisition and retention of emotions needed to survive and reproduce. These emotions change the individual's behavioural strategies in a way that will increase the likelihood of achieving these goals. Love may be defined as an emergent property of an ancient cocktail of neuropeptides and neurotransmitters. It appears that lust, attachment and attraction appear to be distinct but intertwined processes in the brain each mediated by its own neurotransmitters and circuits...
July 2016: Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
Yannick Vermeiren, Jana Janssens, Tony Aerts, Jean-Jacques Martin, Anne Sieben, Debby Van Dam, Peter P De Deyn
Routinely prescribed psychoactive drugs in behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (FTD) for improvement of (non)cognitive symptoms are primarily based on monoamine replacement or augmentation strategies. These were, however, initially intended to symptomatically treat other degenerative, behavioral, or personality disorders, and thus lack disease specificity. Moreover, current knowledge on brain monoaminergic neurotransmitter deficiencies in this presenile disorder is scarce, particularly with reference to changes in Alzheimer's disease (AD)...
June 15, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Omkar L Patkar, Arnauld Belmer, Joan Y Holgate, Josephine R Tarren, Masroor R Shariff, Michael Morgan, Matthew J Fogarty, Mark C Bellingham, Selena E Bartlett, Paul M Klenowski
Alcohol dependence is a debilitating disorder with current therapies displaying limited efficacy and/or compliance. Consequently, there is a critical need for improved pharmacotherapeutic strategies to manage alcohol use disorders (AUDs). Previous studies have shown that the development of alcohol dependence involves repeated cycles of binge-like ethanol intake and abstinence. Therefore, we used a model of binge-ethanol consumption (drinking-in-the-dark) in mice to test the effects of compounds known to modify the activity of neurotransmitters implicated in alcohol addiction...
January 11, 2016: Addiction Biology
Martin J Brodie, Frank Besag, Alan B Ettinger, Marco Mula, Gabriella Gobbi, Stefano Comai, Albert P Aldenkamp, Bernhard J Steinhoff
Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) have many benefits but also many side effects, including aggression, agitation, and irritability, in some patients with epilepsy. This article offers a comprehensive summary of current understanding of aggressive behaviors in patients with epilepsy, including an evidence-based review of aggression during AED treatment. Aggression is seen in a minority of people with epilepsy. It is rarely seizure related but is interictal, sometimes occurring as part of complex psychiatric and behavioral comorbidities, and it is sometimes associated with AED treatment...
July 2016: Pharmacological Reviews
D Borsook, C Linnman, V Faria, A M Strassman, L Becerra, I Elman
Converging lines of evidence suggest that the pathophysiology of pain is mediated to a substantial degree via allostatic neuroadaptations in reward- and stress-related brain circuits. Thus, reward deficiency (RD) represents a within-system neuroadaptation to pain-induced protracted activation of the reward circuits that leads to depletion-like hypodopaminergia, clinically manifested anhedonia, and diminished motivation for natural reinforcers. Anti-reward (AR) conversely pertains to a between-systems neuroadaptation involving over-recruitment of key limbic structures (e...
September 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Rebecca C Hendrickson, Murray A Raskind
A central role for noradrenergic dysregulation in the pathophysiology of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is increasingly suggested by both clinical and basic neuroscience research. Here, we integrate recent findings from clinical and animal research with the earlier literature. We first review the evidence for net upregulation of the noradrenergic system and its responsivity to stress in individuals with PTSD. Next, we trace the evidence that the α1 noradrenergic receptor antagonist prazosin decreases many of the symptoms of PTSD from initial clinical observations, to case series, to randomized controlled trials...
May 21, 2016: Experimental Neurology
Giacomo Ronzoni, Alberto Del Arco, Francisco Mora, Gregorio Segovia
Increased activity of the noradrenergic system in the amygdala has been suggested to contribute to the hyperarousal symptoms associated with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, only two studies have examined the content of noradrenaline or its metabolites in the amygdala of rats previously exposed to traumatic stress showing inconsistent results. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of an inescapable foot shock (IFS) procedure (1) on reactivity to novelty in an open-field (as an index of hyperarousal), and (2) on noradrenaline release in the amygdala during an acute stress...
August 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Mazher Mohammed, Keerthi Kulasekara, Youichirou Ootsuka, William W Blessing
The amygdala, innervated by the noradrenergic locus coeruleus, processes salient environmental events. α2-adrenoceptor-stimulating drugs (clonidine-like agents) suppress the behavioral and physiological components of the response to salient events. Activation of sympathetic outflow to the cutaneous vascular bed is part of the physiological response to salience-mediated activation of the amygdala. We have determined whether acute systemic and intra-amygdala administration of clonidine, and chronic immunotoxin-mediated destruction of the noradrenergic innervation of the amygdala, impairs salience-related vasoconstrictor episodes in the tail artery of conscious freely moving Sprague-Dawley rats...
June 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
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