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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28352358/alterations-in-vegf-expression-induced-by-antidepressant-drugs-in-female-rats-under-chronic-social-stress
#1
Marta Maria Nowacka-Chmielewska, Monika Paul-Samojedny, Anna Maria Bielecka-Wajdman, Jarosław Jerzy Barski, Ewa Obuchowicz
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is thought to serve a role in neurogenesis and the stress response. Although a definite link between the action of antidepressants and VEGF has not been identified, it is assumed that VEGF, as a neurotrophic factor, serves an important role in the effects of antidepressant treatment. To examine this, the present study subjected adult female rats to four weeks of social instability stress and measured the effect of antidepressant treatment on the expression of VEGF. Firstly, endocrine markers of stress and body weight were measured in parallel with behavioral tests prior to and following subjection to stress...
February 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324703/arousal-amplifies-biased-competition-between-high-and-low-priority-memories-more-in-women-than-in-men-the-role-of-elevated-noradrenergic-activity
#2
David Clewett, Michiko Sakaki, Ringo Huang, Shawn E Nielsen, Mara Mather
Recent findings indicate that emotional arousal can enhance memory consolidation of goal-relevant stimuli while impairing it for irrelevant stimuli. According to one recent model, these goal-dependent memory tradeoffs are driven by arousal-induced release of norepinephrine (NE), which amplifies neural gain in target sensory and memory processing brain regions. Past work also shows that ovarian hormones modulate activity in the same regions thought to support NE's effects on memory, such as the amygdala, suggesting that men and women may be differentially susceptible to arousal's dual effects on episodic memory...
February 24, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280881/tryptophan-depletion-affects-compulsive-behaviour-in-rats-strain-dependent-effects-and-associated-neuromechanisms
#3
A Merchán, S V Navarro, A B Klein, S Aznar, L Campa, C Suñol, M Moreno, P Flores
RATIONALE: Compulsive behaviour, present in different psychiatric disorders, such as obsessive-compulsive disorder, schizophrenia and drug abuse, is associated with altered levels of monoamines, particularly serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine) and its receptor system. OBJECTIVES: The present study investigated whether 5-HT manipulation, through a tryptophan (TRP) depletion by diet in Wistar and Lister Hooded rats, modulates compulsive drinking in schedule-induced polydipsia (SIP) and locomotor activity in the open-field test...
April 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273522/determination-of-catecholamines-and-endogenous-related-compounds-in-rat-brain-tissue-exploring-their-native-fluorescence-and-liquid-chromatography
#4
Beatriz M Fonseca, Márcio Rodrigues, Ana C Cristóvão, Daniela Gonçalves, Ana Fortuna, Liliana Bernardino, Amílcar Falcão, Gilberto Alves
The profiling analysis of catecholamines and their metabolites in brain tissue offers a crucial key to understand their functions in the body and the opportunity to follow up neural diseases. A rapid and simple liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection (LC-FLD) method was developed and validated for simultaneously measuring several catecholamines and endogenous related compounds in the rat brain tissue samples. The target analytes measured in this bioanalytical assay were levodopa (L-DOPA), dopamine (DA), norepinephrine (NE), epinephrine (E), 3-O-methyldopa (3-O-MD), and homovanillic acid (HVA), being the 3,4-dihydroxybenzylamine (DHBA) used as internal standard (IS)...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261089/sex-and-age-differences-in-motion-sickness-in-rats-the-correlation-with-blood-hormone-responses-and-neuronal-activation-in-the-vestibular-and-autonomic-nuclei
#5
Wei Zhou, Junqin Wang, Leilei Pan, Ruirui Qi, Peng Liu, Jiluo Liu, Yiling Cai
Many studies have demonstrated sex and age differences in motion sickness, but the underlying physiological basis is still in controversy. In the present study, we tried to investigate the potential correlates of endocrine and/or neuronal activity with sex and age differences in rats with motion sickness. LiCl-induced nausea symptom was evaluated by conditioned gaping. Motion sickness was assessed by measurement of autonomic responses (i.e., conditioned gaping and defecation responses), motor impairments (i...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251298/perseveration-in-a-spatial-discrimination-serial-reversal-learning-task-is-differentially-affected-by-mao-a-and-mao-b-inhibition-and-associated-with-reduced-anxiety-and-peripheral-serotonin-levels
#6
Peter Zhukovsky, Johan Alsiö, Bianca Jupp, Jing Xia, Chiara Guiliano, Lucy Jenner, Jessica Griffiths, Errin Riley, Sajeed Ali, Angela C Roberts, Trevor W Robbins, Jeffrey W Dalley
RATIONALE: Impairments in behavioral flexibility lie at the core of anxiety and obsessive-compulsive disorders. Few studies, however, have investigated the neural substrates of natural variation in behavioral flexibility and whether inflexible behavior is linked to anxiety and peripheral markers of stress and monoamine function. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to investigate peripheral and central markers associated with perseverative behavior on a spatial-discrimination serial reversal learning task...
March 2, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188216/amygdalar-gating-of-early-sensory-processing-through-interactions-with-locus-coeruleus
#7
Cynthia D Fast, John P McGann
Fear- and stress-induced activity in the amygdala has been hypothesized to influence sensory brain regions through the influence of the amygdala on neuromodulatory centers. To directly examine this relationship, we used optical imaging to observe odor-evoked activity in populations of olfactory bulb inhibitory interneurons and of synaptic terminals of olfactory sensory neurons (the primary sensory neurons of the olfactory system, which provide the initial olfactory input to the brain) during pharmacological inactivation of amygdala and locus coeruleus (LC) in mice...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108062/chronic-vortioxetine-treatment-in-rodents-modulates-gene-expression-of-neurodevelopmental-and-plasticity-markers
#8
Jessica A Waller, Joseph A Tamm, Aicha Abdourahman, Alan L Pehrson, Yan Li, Manuel Cajina, Connie Sánchez
The multimodal antidepressant vortioxetine displays an antidepressant profile distinct from those of conventional selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) and possesses cognitive-enhancing properties in preclinical and clinical studies. Recent studies have begun to investigate molecular mechanisms that may differentiate vortioxetine from other antidepressants. Acute studies in adult rats and chronic studies in a middle-aged mouse model reveal upregulation of several markers that play a central role in synaptic plasticity...
February 2017: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27980072/memory-trace-reactivation-and-behavioral-response-during-retrieval-are-differentially-modulated-by-amygdalar-glutamate-receptors-activity-interaction-between-amygdala-and-insular-cortex
#9
Daniel Osorio-Gómez, Kioko Guzmán-Ramos, Federico Bermúdez-Rattoni
The insular cortex (IC) is required for conditioned taste aversion (CTA) retrieval. However, it remains unknown which cortical neurotransmitters levels are modified upon CTA retrieval. Using in vivo microdialysis, we observed that there were clear elevations in extracellular glutamate, norepinephrine, and dopamine in and around the center of the gustatory zone of the IC during CTA retrieval. Additionally, it has been reported that the amygdala-IC interaction is highly involved in CTA memory establishment. Therefore, we evaluated the effects of infusions of an AMPA receptor antagonist (CNQX) and a NMDA receptor antagonist (APV) into the amygdala on CTA retrieval and IC neurotransmitter levels...
January 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916533/activation-of-beta-and-alpha-2-adrenoceptors-in-the-basolateral-amygdala-has-opposing-effects-on-hippocampal-prefrontal-long-term-potentiation
#10
Ee Peng Lim, Gavin S Dawe, Thérèse M Jay
Noradrenaline (NA), released by the locus coeruleus (LC), plays a key role in mediating the effects of stress on memory functions. The LC provides diffuse projections to many forebrain nuclei including the hippocampus, the prefrontal cortex (PFC), and the basolateral amygdala (BLA). These three structures are intricately interlinked. The hippocampal-prefrontal (H-PFC) pathway is involved in various cognitive functions. The first aim of this study was to examine the role of BLA in H-PFC plasticity by infusion of drugs to activate and inactivate the BLA and studying the effects on H-PFC long-term potentiation (LTP) in the rat in vivo...
January 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818625/molecular-mechanisms-of-stress-induced-increases-in-fear-memory-consolidation-within-the-amygdala
#11
Antonio V Aubry, Peter A Serrano, Nesha S Burghardt
Stress can significantly impact brain function and increase the risk for developing various psychiatric disorders. Many of the brain regions that are implicated in psychiatric disorders and are vulnerable to the effects of stress are also involved in mediating emotional learning. Emotional learning has been a subject of intense investigation for the past 30 years, with the vast majority of studies focusing on the amygdala and its role in associative fear learning. However, the mechanisms by which stress affects the amygdala and amygdala-dependent fear memories remain unclear...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27762270/%C3%AE-adrenergic-receptors-regulate-the-acquisition-and-consolidation-phases-of-aversive-memory-formation-through-distinct-temporally-regulated-signaling-pathways
#12
Hillary C Schiff, Joshua P Johansen, Mian Hou, David E A Bush, Emily K Smith, JoAnna E Klein, Joseph E LeDoux, Robert M Sears
Memory formation requires the temporal coordination of molecular events and cellular processes following a learned event. During Pavlovian threat (fear) conditioning (PTC), sensory and neuromodulatory inputs converge on post-synaptic neurons within the lateral nucleus of the amygdala (LA). By activating an intracellular cascade of signaling molecules, these G-protein-coupled neuromodulatory receptors are capable of recruiting a diverse profile of plasticity-related proteins. Here we report that norepinephrine, through its actions on β-adrenergic receptors (βARs), modulates aversive memory formation following PTC through two molecularly and temporally distinct signaling mechanisms...
March 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760517/neuroprotective-effects-of-htr1a-antagonist-way-100635-on-scopolamine-induced-delirium-in-rats-and-underlying-molecular-mechanisms
#13
Yimin Qiu, Dongmei Chen, Xiaojing Huang, Lina Huang, Liang Tang, Jihong Jiang, Lianhua Chen, Shitong Li
BACKGROUND: Limited surveys have assessed the performance of 5-hydroxytreptamine receptor 1A and its antagonist WAY-100635 in pharmacological manipulations targeting delirium therapies. The purpose of this paper was to assess the central pharmacological activity of WAY-100635 in a rat model of scopolamine-induced delirium and its underlying mechanism. RESULTS: A delirium rat model was established by intraperitoneal injection of scopolamine and behavioral changes evaluated through open field and elevated plus maze experiments...
October 19, 2016: BMC Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27720769/fear-conditioning-selectively-disrupts-noradrenergic-facilitation-of-gabaergic-inhibition-in-the-basolateral-amygdala
#14
M J Skelly, O J Ariwodola, J L Weiner
Inappropriate fear memory formation is symptomatic of many psychopathologies, and delineating the neurobiology of non-pathological fear learning may provide critical insight into treating these disorders. Fear memory formation is associated with decreased inhibitory signaling in the basolateral amygdala (BLA), and disrupted noradrenergic signaling may contribute to this decrease. BLA noradrenergic neurotransmission has been implicated in fear memory formation, and distinct adrenoreceptor (AR) subtypes modulate excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission in this region...
February 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27659446/organic-cation-transporter-3-oct3-is-localized-to-intracellular-and-surface-membranes-in-select-glial-and-neuronal-cells-within-the-basolateral-amygdaloid-complex-of-both-rats-and-mice
#15
Paul J Gasser, Matthew M Hurley, June Chan, Virginia M Pickel
Organic cation transporter 3 (OCT3) is a high-capacity, low-affinity transporter that mediates corticosterone-sensitive uptake of monoamines including norepinephrine, epinephrine, dopamine, histamine and serotonin. OCT3 is expressed widely throughout the amygdaloid complex and other brain regions where monoamines are key regulators of emotional behaviors affected by stress. However, assessing the contribution of OCT3 to the regulation of monoaminergic neurotransmission and monoamine-dependent regulation of behavior requires fundamental information about the subcellular distribution of OCT3 expression...
September 22, 2016: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27616337/activation-and-blockade-of-serotonin6-receptors-in-the-dorsal-hippocampus-enhance-t-maze-and-hole-board-performance-in-a-unilateral-6-hydroxydopamine-rat-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#16
Kun Cheng Liu, Jun Yi Li, Wen Xie, Li Bo Li, Jin Zhang, Cheng Xue Du, Yu Ming Zhang, Hui Hui Tan, Hui Sheng Wang, Li Zhang
The role of dorsal hippocampus (DH) serotonin6 (5-HT6) receptors in memory is unknown, particularly in memory impairment of Parkinson's disease. We tested here effects of activation and blockade of DH 5-HT6 receptors on working and hippocampus-dependent memories in rats with unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine lesions of the medial forebrain bundle. The lesion induced working and hippocampus-dependent memory impairments as measured by the T-maze rewarded alternation and hole-board tests, and decreased dopamine (DA) levels in the striatum, medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), DH and amygdala...
November 1, 2016: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27616302/sex-and-intrauterine-growth-restriction-modify-brain-neurotransmitters-profile-of-newborn-piglets
#17
M Vázquez-Gómez, D Valent, C García-Contreras, L Arroyo, C Óvilo, B Isabel, A Bassols, A González-Bulnes
The current study aimed to determine, using a swine model of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), whether short- and long-term neurological deficiencies and interactive dysfunctions of Low Birth-Weight (LBW) offspring might be related to altered pattern of neurotransmitters. Hence, we compared the quantities of different neurotransmitters (catecholamines and indoleamines), which were determined by HPLC, at brain structures related to the limbic system (hippocampus and amygdala) in 14 LBW and 10 Normal Body-Weight (NBW) newborn piglets...
December 2016: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27587003/the-neurobiology-of-social-play-and-its-rewarding-value-in-rats
#18
REVIEW
Louk J M J Vanderschuren, E J Marijke Achterberg, Viviana Trezza
In the young of many mammalian species, including humans, a vigorous and highly rewarding social activity is abundantly expressed, known as social play behaviour. Social play is thought to be important for the development of social, cognitive and emotional processes and their neural underpinnings, and it is disrupted in pediatric psychiatric disorders. Here, we summarize recent progress in our understanding of the brain mechanisms of social play behaviour, with a focus on its rewarding properties. Opioid, endocannabinoid, dopamine and noradrenaline systems play a prominent role in the modulation of social play...
November 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27557950/neonatal-domoic-acid-alters-in-vivo-binding-of-11-c-yohimbine-to-%C3%AE-2-adrenoceptors-in-adult-rat-brain
#19
Majken B Thomsen, Thea P Lillethorup, Steen Jakobsen, Erik H Nielsen, Mette Simonsen, Gregers Wegener, Anne M Landau, R Andrew Tasker
RATIONALE: Epilepsy is a debilitating seizure disorder that affects approximately 50 million people. Noradrenaline reduces neuronal excitability, has anticonvulsant effects and is protective against seizure onset. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the role of α2-adrenoceptors in vivo in a neonatal domoic acid (DOM) rat model of epilepsy. METHODS: We injected male Sprague-Dawley rats daily from postnatal day 8-14 with saline or one of two sub-convulsive doses, 20 μg/kg (DOM20) or 60 μg/kg (DOM60) DOM, an AMPA/kainate receptor agonist...
October 2016: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27492886/traumatic-stress-causes-distinctive-effects-on-fear-circuit-catecholamines-and-the-fear-extinction-profile-in-a-rodent-model-of-posttraumatic-stress-disorder
#20
Chen-Cheng Lin, Che-Se Tung, Pin-Hsuan Lin, Chuen-Lin Huang, Yia-Ping Liu
Central catecholamines regulate fear memory across the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), amygdala (AMYG), and hippocampus (HPC). However, inadequate evidence exists to address the relationships among these fear circuit areas in terms of the fear symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). By examining the behavioral profile in a Pavlovian fear conditioning paradigm together with tissue/efflux levels of dopamine (DA) and norepinephrine (NE) and their reuptake abilities across the fear circuit areas in rats that experienced single prolonged stress (SPS, a rodent model of PTSD), we demonstrated that SPS-impaired extinction retrieval was concomitant with the changes of central DA/NE in a dissociable manner...
September 2016: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
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