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Amygdala, norepinephrine OR noradrenaline

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916533/activation-of-beta-and-alpha-2-adrenoceptors-in-the-basolateral-amygdala-has-opposing-effects-on-hippocampal-prefrontal-long-term-potentiation
#1
Ee Peng Lim, Gavin S Dawe, Thérèse M Jay
Noradrenaline (NA), released by the locus coeruleus (LC), plays a key role in mediating the effects of stress on memory functions. The LC provides diffuse projections to many forebrain nuclei including the hippocampus, the prefrontal cortex (PFC), and the basolateral amygdala (BLA). These three structures are intricately interlinked. The hippocampal-prefrontal (H-PFC) pathway is involved in various cognitive functions. The first aim of this study was to examine the role of BLA in H-PFC plasticity by infusion of drugs to activate and inactivate the BLA and studying the effects on H-PFC long-term potentiation (LTP) in the rat in vivo...
December 1, 2016: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818625/molecular-mechanisms-of-stress-induced-increases-in-fear-memory-consolidation-within-the-amygdala
#2
Antonio V Aubry, Peter A Serrano, Nesha S Burghardt
Stress can significantly impact brain function and increase the risk for developing various psychiatric disorders. Many of the brain regions that are implicated in psychiatric disorders and are vulnerable to the effects of stress are also involved in mediating emotional learning. Emotional learning has been a subject of intense investigation for the past 30 years, with the vast majority of studies focusing on the amygdala and its role in associative fear learning. However, the mechanisms by which stress affects the amygdala and amygdala-dependent fear memories remain unclear...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27762270/%C3%AE-adrenergic-receptors-regulate-the-acquisition-and-consolidation-phases-of-aversive-memory-formation-through-distinct-temporally-regulated-signaling-pathways
#3
Hillary C Schiff, Joshua P Johansen, Mian Hou, David E A Bush, Emily K Smith, JoAnna E Klein, Joseph E LeDoux, Robert M Sears
Memory formation requires the temporal coordination of molecular events and cellular processes following a learned event. During Pavlovian threat (fear) conditioning (PTC), sensory and neuromodulatory inputs converge on post-synaptic neurons within the lateral nucleus of the amygdala (LA). By activating an intracellular cascade of signaling molecules, these G-protein-coupled neuromodulatory receptors are capable of recruiting a diverse profile of plasticity-related proteins. Here we report that norepinephrine, through its actions on β-adrenergic receptors (βARs), modulates aversive memory formation following PTC through two molecularly and temporally distinct signaling mechanisms...
November 16, 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760517/neuroprotective-effects-of-htr1a-antagonist-way-100635-on-scopolamine-induced-delirium-in-rats-and-underlying-molecular-mechanisms
#4
Yimin Qiu, Dongmei Chen, Xiaojing Huang, Lina Huang, Liang Tang, Jihong Jiang, Lianhua Chen, Shitong Li
BACKGROUND: Limited surveys have assessed the performance of 5-hydroxytreptamine receptor 1A and its antagonist WAY-100635 in pharmacological manipulations targeting delirium therapies. The purpose of this paper was to assess the central pharmacological activity of WAY-100635 in a rat model of scopolamine-induced delirium and its underlying mechanism. RESULTS: A delirium rat model was established by intraperitoneal injection of scopolamine and behavioral changes evaluated through open field and elevated plus maze experiments...
October 19, 2016: BMC Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27720769/fear-conditioning-selectively-disrupts-noradrenergic-facilitation-of-gabaergic-inhibition-in-the-basolateral-amygdala
#5
M J Skelly, O J Ariwodola, J L Weiner
Inappropriate fear memory formation is symptomatic of many psychopathologies, and delineating the neurobiology of non-pathological fear learning may provide critical insight into treating these disorders. Fear memory formation is associated with decreased inhibitory signaling in the basolateral amygdala (BLA), and disrupted noradrenergic signaling may contribute to this decrease. BLA noradrenergic neurotransmission has been implicated in fear memory formation, and distinct adrenoreceptor (AR) subtypes modulate excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission in this region...
October 5, 2016: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27659446/organic-cation-transporter-3-oct3-is-localized-to-intracellular-and-surface-membranes-in-select-glial-and-neuronal-cells-within-the-basolateral-amygdaloid-complex-of-both-rats-and-mice
#6
Paul J Gasser, Matthew M Hurley, June Chan, Virginia M Pickel
Organic cation transporter 3 (OCT3) is a high-capacity, low-affinity transporter that mediates corticosterone-sensitive uptake of monoamines including norepinephrine, epinephrine, dopamine, histamine and serotonin. OCT3 is expressed widely throughout the amygdaloid complex and other brain regions where monoamines are key regulators of emotional behaviors affected by stress. However, assessing the contribution of OCT3 to the regulation of monoaminergic neurotransmission and monoamine-dependent regulation of behavior requires fundamental information about the subcellular distribution of OCT3 expression...
September 22, 2016: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27616337/activation-and-blockade-of-serotonin6-receptors-in-the-dorsal-hippocampus-enhance-t-maze-and-hole-board-performance-in-a-unilateral-6-hydroxydopamine-rat-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#7
Kun Cheng Liu, Jun Yi Li, Wen Xie, Li Bo Li, Jin Zhang, Cheng Xue Du, Yu Ming Zhang, Hui Hui Tan, Hui Sheng Wang, Li Zhang
The role of dorsal hippocampus (DH) serotonin6 (5-HT6) receptors in memory is unknown, particularly in memory impairment of Parkinson's disease. We tested here effects of activation and blockade of DH 5-HT6 receptors on working and hippocampus-dependent memories in rats with unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine lesions of the medial forebrain bundle. The lesion induced working and hippocampus-dependent memory impairments as measured by the T-maze rewarded alternation and hole-board tests, and decreased dopamine (DA) levels in the striatum, medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), DH and amygdala...
November 1, 2016: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27616302/sex-and-intrauterine-growth-restriction-modify-brain-neurotransmitters-profile-of-newborn-piglets
#8
M Vázquez-Gómez, D Valent, C García-Contreras, L Arroyo, C Óvilo, B Isabel, A Bassols, A González-Bulnes
The current study aimed to determine, using a swine model of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), whether short- and long-term neurological deficiencies and interactive dysfunctions of Low Birth-Weight (LBW) offspring might be related to altered pattern of neurotransmitters. Hence, we compared the quantities of different neurotransmitters (catecholamines and indoleamines), which were determined by HPLC, at brain structures related to the limbic system (hippocampus and amygdala) in 14 LBW and 10 Normal Body-Weight (NBW) newborn piglets...
September 9, 2016: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27587003/the-neurobiology-of-social-play-and-its-rewarding-value-in-rats
#9
REVIEW
Louk J M J Vanderschuren, E J Marijke Achterberg, Viviana Trezza
In the young of many mammalian species, including humans, a vigorous and highly rewarding social activity is abundantly expressed, known as social play behaviour. Social play is thought to be important for the development of social, cognitive and emotional processes and their neural underpinnings, and it is disrupted in pediatric psychiatric disorders. Here, we summarize recent progress in our understanding of the brain mechanisms of social play behaviour, with a focus on its rewarding properties. Opioid, endocannabinoid, dopamine and noradrenaline systems play a prominent role in the modulation of social play...
November 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27557950/neonatal-domoic-acid-alters-in-vivo-binding-of-11-c-yohimbine-to-%C3%AE-2-adrenoceptors-in-adult-rat-brain
#10
Majken B Thomsen, Thea P Lillethorup, Steen Jakobsen, Erik H Nielsen, Mette Simonsen, Gregers Wegener, Anne M Landau, R Andrew Tasker
RATIONALE: Epilepsy is a debilitating seizure disorder that affects approximately 50 million people. Noradrenaline reduces neuronal excitability, has anticonvulsant effects and is protective against seizure onset. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the role of α2-adrenoceptors in vivo in a neonatal domoic acid (DOM) rat model of epilepsy. METHODS: We injected male Sprague-Dawley rats daily from postnatal day 8-14 with saline or one of two sub-convulsive doses, 20 μg/kg (DOM20) or 60 μg/kg (DOM60) DOM, an AMPA/kainate receptor agonist...
October 2016: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27492886/traumatic-stress-causes-distinctive-effects-on-fear-circuit-catecholamines-and-the-fear-extinction-profile-in-a-rodent-model-of-posttraumatic-stress-disorder
#11
Chen-Cheng Lin, Che-Se Tung, Pin-Hsuan Lin, Chuen-Lin Huang, Yia-Ping Liu
Central catecholamines regulate fear memory across the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), amygdala (AMYG), and hippocampus (HPC). However, inadequate evidence exists to address the relationships among these fear circuit areas in terms of the fear symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). By examining the behavioral profile in a Pavlovian fear conditioning paradigm together with tissue/efflux levels of dopamine (DA) and norepinephrine (NE) and their reuptake abilities across the fear circuit areas in rats that experienced single prolonged stress (SPS, a rodent model of PTSD), we demonstrated that SPS-impaired extinction retrieval was concomitant with the changes of central DA/NE in a dissociable manner...
September 2016: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27484105/exaggerated-phosphorylation-of-brain-tau-protein-in-crh-ko-mice-exposed-to-repeated-immobilization-stress
#12
Richard Kvetnansky, Petr Novak, Peter Vargovic, Katarina Lejavova, Lubica Horvathova, Katarina Ondicova, George Manz, Peter Filipcik, Michal Novak, Boris Mravec
Neuroendocrine and behavioral stress responses are orchestrated by corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and norepinephrine (NE) synthesizing neurons. Recent findings indicate that stress may promote development of neurofibrillary pathology in Alzheimer's disease. Therefore, we investigated relationships among stress, tau protein phosphorylation, and brain NE using wild-type (WT) and CRH-knockout (CRH KO) mice. We assessed expression of phosphorylated tau (p-tau) at the PHF-1 epitope and NE concentrations in the locus coeruleus (LC), A1/C1 and A2/C2 catecholaminergic cell groups, hippocampus, amygdala, nucleus basalis magnocellularis, and frontal cortex of unstressed, singly stressed or repeatedly stressed mice...
July 2016: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27456832/toxoplasma-gondii-infection-in-mice-impairs-long-term-fear-memory-consolidation-through-dysfunction-of-the-cortex-and-amygdala
#13
Fumiaki Ihara, Maki Nishimura, Yoshikage Muroi, Motamed Elsayed Mahmoud, Naoaki Yokoyama, Kisaburo Nagamune, Yoshifumi Nishikawa
Chronic infection with Toxoplasma gondii becomes established in tissues of the central nervous system, where parasites may directly or indirectly modulate neuronal function. Epidemiological studies have revealed that chronic infection in humans is a risk factor for developing mental diseases. However, the mechanisms underlying parasite-induced neuronal dysfunction in the brain remain unclear. Here, we examined memory associated with conditioned fear in mice and found that T. gondii infection impairs consolidation of conditioned fear memory...
October 2016: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27448273/differential-activation-in-amygdala-and-plasma-noradrenaline-during-colorectal-distention-by-administration-of-corticotropin-releasing-hormone-between-healthy-individuals-and-patients-with-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#14
Yukari Tanaka, Motoyori Kanazawa, Michiko Kano, Joe Morishita, Toyohiro Hamaguchi, Lukas Van Oudenhove, Huynh Giao Ly, Patrick Dupont, Jan Tack, Takuhiro Yamaguchi, Kazuhiko Yanai, Manabu Tashiro, Shin Fukudo
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) often comorbids mood and anxiety disorders. Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) is a major mediator of the stress response in the brain-gut axis, but it is not clear how CRH agonists change human brain responses to interoceptive stimuli. We tested the hypothesis that brain activation in response to colorectal distention is enhanced after CRH injection in IBS patients compared to healthy controls. Brain H215O- positron emission tomography (PET) was performed in 16 male IBS patients and 16 age-matched male controls during baseline, no distention, mild and intense distention of the colorectum using barostat bag inflation...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27424103/activation-and-blockade-of-prelimbic-5-ht6-receptors-produce-different-effects-on-depressive-like-behaviors-in-unilateral-6-hydroxydopamine-induced-parkinson-s-rats
#15
Yu-Ming Zhang, Li Zhang, Yong Wang, Yi-Na Sun, Yuan Guo, Cheng-Xue Du, Jin Zhang, Lu Yao, Shu-Qi Yu, Jian Liu
The role of prelimbic (PrL) 5-HT6 receptors in depression is poorly understood, particularly in Parkinson's disease-related depression. Here we reported that 6-hydroxydopamine lesions in rats decreased sucrose preference and increased immobility time as measured by the sucrose preference and forced swim tests when compared to sham-operated rats, indicating the induction of depressive-like behaviors. Intra-PrL injection of 5-HT6 receptor agonist WAY208466 induced depressive-like responses in sham-operated rats, and produced antidepressant-like effects in the lesioned rats...
November 2016: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27376372/localization-of-the-delta-opioid-receptor-and-corticotropin-releasing-factor-in-the-amygdalar-complex-role-in-anxiety
#16
Beverly A S Reyes, J L Kravets, K L Connelly, E M Unterwald, E J Van Bockstaele
It is well established that central nervous system norepinephrine (NE) and corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) systems are important mediators of behavioral responses to stressors. More recent studies have defined a role for delta opioid receptors (DOPR) in maintaining emotional valence including anxiety. The amygdala plays an important role in processing emotional stimuli, and has been implicated in the development of anxiety disorders. Activation of DOPR or inhibition of CRF in the amygdala reduces baseline and stress-induced anxiety-like responses...
July 4, 2016: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27366726/the-neuroendocrinology-of-love
#17
Krishna G Seshadri
Romantic love could be considered as a collection of activities associated with the acquisition and retention of emotions needed to survive and reproduce. These emotions change the individual's behavioural strategies in a way that will increase the likelihood of achieving these goals. Love may be defined as an emergent property of an ancient cocktail of neuropeptides and neurotransmitters. It appears that lust, attachment and attraction appear to be distinct but intertwined processes in the brain each mediated by its own neurotransmitters and circuits...
July 2016: Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27314528/brain-serotonergic-and-noradrenergic-deficiencies-in-behavioral-variant-frontotemporal-dementia-compared-to-early-onset-alzheimer-s-disease
#18
Yannick Vermeiren, Jana Janssens, Tony Aerts, Jean-Jacques Martin, Anne Sieben, Debby Van Dam, Peter P De Deyn
Routinely prescribed psychoactive drugs in behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (FTD) for improvement of (non)cognitive symptoms are primarily based on monoamine replacement or augmentation strategies. These were, however, initially intended to symptomatically treat other degenerative, behavioral, or personality disorders, and thus lack disease specificity. Moreover, current knowledge on brain monoaminergic neurotransmitter deficiencies in this presenile disorder is scarce, particularly with reference to changes in Alzheimer's disease (AD)...
June 15, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27273539/the-antihypertensive-drug-pindolol-attenuates-long-term-but-not-short-term-binge-like-ethanol-consumption-in-mice
#19
Omkar L Patkar, Arnauld Belmer, Joan Y Holgate, Josephine R Tarren, Masroor R Shariff, Michael Morgan, Matthew J Fogarty, Mark C Bellingham, Selena E Bartlett, Paul M Klenowski
Alcohol dependence is a debilitating disorder with current therapies displaying limited efficacy and/or compliance. Consequently, there is a critical need for improved pharmacotherapeutic strategies to manage alcohol use disorders (AUDs). Previous studies have shown that the development of alcohol dependence involves repeated cycles of binge-like ethanol intake and abstinence. Therefore, we used a model of binge-ethanol consumption (drinking-in-the-dark) in mice to test the effects of compounds known to modify the activity of neurotransmitters implicated in alcohol addiction...
January 11, 2016: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27255267/epilepsy-antiepileptic-drugs-and-aggression-an-evidence-based-review
#20
REVIEW
Martin J Brodie, Frank Besag, Alan B Ettinger, Marco Mula, Gabriella Gobbi, Stefano Comai, Albert P Aldenkamp, Bernhard J Steinhoff
Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) have many benefits but also many side effects, including aggression, agitation, and irritability, in some patients with epilepsy. This article offers a comprehensive summary of current understanding of aggressive behaviors in patients with epilepsy, including an evidence-based review of aggression during AED treatment. Aggression is seen in a minority of people with epilepsy. It is rarely seizure related but is interictal, sometimes occurring as part of complex psychiatric and behavioral comorbidities, and it is sometimes associated with AED treatment...
July 2016: Pharmacological Reviews
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