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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690521/the-gaba-a-receptor-%C3%AE-2-subunit-activates-a-neuronal-tlr4-signal-in-the-ventral-tegmental-area-that-regulates-alcohol-and-nicotine-abuse
#1
Irina Balan, Kaitlin T Warnock, Adam Puche, Marjorie C Gondre-Lewis, Harry June, Laure Aurelian
Alcoholism initiates with episodes of excessive alcohol drinking, known as binge drinking, which is one form of excessive drinking (NIAAA Newsletter, 2004) that is related to impulsivity and anxiety (Ducci et al., 2007; Edenberg et al., 2004) and is also predictive of smoking status. The predisposition of non-alcohol exposed subjects to initiate binge drinking is controlled by neuroimmune signaling that includes an innately activated neuronal Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signal. This signal also regulates cognitive impulsivity, a heritable trait that defines drug abuse initiation...
April 21, 2018: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687037/open-source-cost-effective-system-for-low-light-in-vivo-fiber-photometry
#2
Kathryn Simone, Tamás Füzesi, David Rosenegger, Jaideep Bains, Kartikeya Murari
Fiber photometry uses genetically encoded optical reporters to link specific cellular activity in stereotaxically targeted brain structures to specific behaviors. There are still a number of barriers that have hindered the widespread adoption of this approach. This includes cost, but also the high-levels of light required to excite the fluorophore, limiting commercial systems to the investigation of short-term transients in neuronal activity to avoid damage of tissue by light. Here, we present a cost-effective optoelectronic system for in vivo fiber photometry that achieves high-sensitivity to changes in fluorescence intensity, enabling detection of optical transients of a popular calcium reporter with excitation powers as low as 100 nW...
April 2018: Neurophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674171/a-combinatorial-modulation-of-synaptic-plasticity-in-the-rat-medial-amygdala-by-oxytocin-urocortin3-and-estrogen
#3
Linoy Mia Frankiensztajn, Rotem Gur-Pollack, Shlomo Wagner
The medial nucleus of the amygdala (MeA) plays a pivotal role in a variety of mammalian social behaviors. Specifically, activity of the hypothalamic pro-social neuropeptide oxytocin in the MeA was shown to be crucial for social recognition memory. The MeA is also a hub of neuroendocrine activity and expresses a large number of receptors of neuropeptides and hormones. These include oxytocin receptor, estrogen receptor alpha and corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) receptor type 2 (CRFR2). In a previous study we found that intracerebroventricular (ICV) oxytocin application to anesthetized rats promotes long-term depression (LTD) of the MeA response to electrical stimulation of its main sensory input, the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB)...
April 11, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663559/sex-differences-in-hippocampal-mineralocorticoid-and-glucocorticoid-receptor-mrna-expression-in-response-to-acute-mate-pair-separation-in-zebra-finches-taeniopygia-guttata
#4
Farrah N Madison, Andrew J Kesner, Beau A Alward, Gregory F Ball
Mate separation has been shown to mediate changes in physiological and behavioral processes via activation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in both mammalian and avian species. In order to elucidate the neural mechanisms associated with changes in the HPA axis in response to social stress, we investigated the effects of mate pair separation on circulating corticosterone concentrations as well as gene expression levels of mineralocorticoid receptor (MR), glucocorticoid receptor (GR), and corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) in the hypothalamus and hippocampus of both male and female zebra finches, a species that forms strong pair bonds...
April 16, 2018: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29645316/neuropeptide-and-steroid-hormone-mediators-of-neuroendocrine-regulation
#5
REVIEW
Ashley L Heck, Carlos C Crestani, Alonso Fernández-Guasti, Darwin O Larco, Artur Mayerhofer, Charles E Roselli
In order to maintain the health and wellbeing of all mammals, numerous aspects of physiology are controlled by neuroendocrine mechanisms. These mechanisms ultimately enable communication between neurons and glands throughout the body and are centrally mediated by neuropeptides and/or steroid hormones. A recent session at the International Workshop in Neuroendocrinology highlighted essential roles for some of these neuropeptide and steroid hormone mediators in the neuroendocrine regulation of stress-, reproduction-, and behavior- related processes...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623778/involvement-of-dopamine-system-in-the-regulation-of-the-brain-corticotropin-releasing-hormone-in-paraventricular-nucleus-in-a-rat-model-of-chronic-visceral-pain
#6
Ning-Ning Ji, Jie Kang, Rong Hua, Yong-Mei Zhang
Objective We aimed to investigate the mechanism of paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and ventral tegmental area (VTA) circuit in the pathogenesis of visceral pain-depression with a rat model induced by neonatal and adult colorectal distension (CRD). Methods Neonate male Sprague-Dayley (SD) rats underwent CRD on postnatal days 8, 10, and 12, and when matured, were tested for adult abdominal withdrawal reflex (AWR) scores to assess visceral hypersensitivity. The forced swimming test was employed to evaluate depression-like behaviors...
April 6, 2018: Neurological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618970/corticotropin-releasing-factor-receptors-modulate-oxytocin-release-in-the-dorsolateral-bed-nucleus-of-the-stria-terminalis-bnst-in-male-rats
#7
Daisy Martinon, Joanna Dabrowska
The neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) plays an important role in the regulation of social and anxiety-like behavior. Our previous studies have shown that OT neurons send projections from the hypothalamus to the dorsolateral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNSTdl ), a forebrain region critically involved in the modulation of anxiety-like behavior. Importantly, these OT terminals in the BNSTdl express presynaptic corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) receptor type 2 (CRFR2). This suggests that CRFR2 might be involved in the modulation of OT release...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615881/age-dependent-hypothalamic-and-pituitary-responses-to-novel-environment-stress-or-lipopolysaccharide-in-rats
#8
Sandy Koenig, Janne Bredehöft, Alexander Perniss, Franziska Fuchs, Joachim Roth, Christoph Rummel
Previously, we have shown that the transcription factor nuclear factor interleukin (NF-IL)6 can be used as an activation marker for inflammatory lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced and psychological novel environment stress (NES) in the rat brain. Here, we aimed to investigate age dependent changes of hypothalamic and pituitary responses to NES (cage switch) or LPS (100 μg/kg) in 2 and 24 months old rats. Animals were sacrificed at specific time points, blood and brains withdrawn and analyzed using immunohistochemistry, RT-PCR and bioassays...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29609111/regulation-of-anxiety-like-behavior-and-crhr1-expression-in-the-basolateral-amygdala-by-lmo3
#9
Antonia Savarese, Amy W Lasek
The LIM domain only protein LMO3 is a transcriptional regulator that has been shown to regulate several behavioral responses to alcohol. Specifically, Lmo3 null (Lmo3Z ) mice consume more ethanol in a binge-drinking test and show enhanced ethanol-induced sedation. Due to the high comorbidity of alcohol use and anxiety, we investigated anxiety-like behavior in Lmo3Z mice. Lmo3Z mice spent more time in the open arms of the elevated plus maze compared with their wild-type littermates, but the effect was confounded by reduced locomotor activity...
March 27, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604138/glucocorticoid-withdrawal-affects-stress-induced-changes-of-urocortin-2-gene-expression-in-rat-adrenal-medulla-and-brain
#10
Andrej Tillinger, Ľubica Horváthová, Regina Nostramo, Lidia I Serova, Richard Kvetňanský, Esther L Sabban, Boris Mravec
Corticotropin-releasing factor is well known activator of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis, that represents crucial system participating on stress response of the organism. Urocortins are members of the corticotropin-releasing factor family of peptides with proposed effects on neuroendocrine and behavioral stress response mechanisms. Urocortin 2, one of three known urocortins, is present in central and peripheral stress response system and its expression can be augmented by glucocorticoids. In the present study we have examined how glucocorticoid withdrawal affects urocortin 2 gene expression after acute immobilization in the adrenal medulla and selected brain areas in rats...
March 31, 2018: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29601583/chronic-restraint-stress-induces-excessive-activation-of-primordial-follicles-in-mice-ovaries
#11
Minhua Xu, Junyan Sun, Qian Wang, Qiuwan Zhang, Chunsheng Wei, Dongmei Lai
Chronic stress is an important factor influencing people's health. It usually causes endocrinal disorders and a decline in reproduction in females. Although studies of both human and animals suggest a detrimental effect of stress on reproduction, the influence of chronic stress on the ovarian reservation and follicular development is still not clear. In this study, a chronic restraint stress (CRS) mouse model was used to investigate the effect of stress on ovarian reservation and follicular development and explore the underlying mechanism...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593501/chronic-stress-reduces-nectin-1-mrna-levels-and-disrupts-dendritic-spine-plasticity-in-the-adult-mouse-perirhinal-cortex
#12
Qian Gong, Yun-Ai Su, Chen Wu, Tian-Mei Si, Jan M Deussing, Mathias V Schmidt, Xiao-Dong Wang
In adulthood, chronic exposure to stressful experiences disrupts synaptic plasticity and cognitive function. Previous studies have shown that perirhinal cortex-dependent object recognition memory is impaired by chronic stress. However, the stress effects on molecular expression and structural plasticity in the perirhinal cortex remain unclear. In this study, we applied the chronic social defeat stress (CSDS) paradigm and measured the mRNA levels of nectin-1, nectin-3 and neurexin-1, three synaptic cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) implicated in the adverse stress effects, in the perirhinal cortex of wild-type (WT) and conditional forebrain corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor 1 conditional knockout (CRHR1-CKO) mice...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29587720/spontaneous-adrenocorticotropic-hormone-acth-normalisation-due-to-tumour-regression-induced-by-metyrapone-in-a-patient-with-ectopic-acth-syndrome-case-report-and-literature-review
#13
Hideyuki Iwayama, Sho Hirase, Yuka Nomura, Tatsuo Ito, Hiroyuki Morita, Kazuo Otake, Akihisa Okumura, Junko Takagi
BACKGROUND: Ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) syndrome (EAS) is caused by tumours releasing ACTH. Ectopic ACTH-producing tumour regression is rarely induced using steroidogenesis inhibitors. We presented a case of EAS in which ACTH production by a lung tumour was reduced by metyrapone (MTP) and also reviewed previous cases of ectopic ACTH production suppressed via steroidogenesis inhibition. CASE PRESENTATION: A 71-year-old female with general fatigue, central obesity and impaired glucose tolerance was diagnosed with Cushing's syndrome due to elevated ACTH (192...
March 27, 2018: BMC Endocrine Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29580842/marcksl1-regulates-spine-formation-in-the-amygdala-and-controls-the-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis-and-anxiety-like-behaviors
#14
Takashi Tanaka, Shoko Shimizu, Masaki Ueno, Yoshitaka Fujihara, Masahito Ikawa, Shingo Miyata
Abnormalities in limbic neural circuits have been implicated in the onset of anxiety disorders. However, the molecular pathogenesis underlying anxiety disorders remains poorly elucidated. Here, we demonstrate that myristoylated alanine-rich C-kinase substrate like 1 (MARCKSL1) regulates amygdala circuitry to control the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, as well as induces anxiety-like behaviors in mice. MARCKSL1 expression was predominantly localized in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), hypothalamus, hippocampus, and amygdala of the adult mouse brain...
March 19, 2018: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29578315/genes-involved-in-stress-response-influence-lithium-efficacy-in-bipolar-patients
#15
Aleksandra Szczepankiewicz, Beata Narozna, Janusz K Rybakowski, Sebastian Kliwicki, Piotr Czerski, Monika Dmitrzak-Węglarz, Maria Skibińska, Joanna Twarowska-Hauser, Joanna Pawlak
OBJECTIVES: In mood disorders, chronic stimulation with stress results in aberrant regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Lithium was shown to influence HPA axis function. The underlying genetic background as well as environmental context may influence the stress response, and therefore lithium efficacy. The aim of the present study was to analyze if genetic variants located in genes involved in HPA axis regulation affect the response to long-term lithium treatment in bipolar patients...
March 26, 2018: Bipolar Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29576798/jinkui-shenqi-pills-ameliorate-asthma-with-kidney-yang-deficiency-by-enhancing-the-function-of-the-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis-to-regulate-t-helper-1-2-imbalance
#16
Bing Ji, Yuan-Yuan Li, Wei-Ji Yang, Li-Zong Zhang, Ming-Sun Fang, Hui-Ying Fu, Qi-Yang Shou
The aim of the study was to investigate the effects and underlying mechanism of JKSQP in a rat model of asthma with kidney-yang deficiency (KYD). Materials and Methods . Hydrocortisone (HYD) was used to establish the rat model of KYD; rats were then sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin (OVA). JKSQP was administered to OVA-challenged rats, and the changes in signs and symptoms of KYD were observed. The leukocyte number and subpopulations in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were counted and the cells were stained with Wright-Giemsa dye...
2018: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29576599/new-diagnostic-criteria-of-adrenal-subclinical-cushing-s-syndrome-opinion-from-the-japan-endocrine-society
#17
Toshihiko Yanase, Yutaka Oki, Takuyuki Katabami, Michio Otsuki, Kazunori Kageyama, Tomoaki Tanaka, Hisaya Kawate, Makito Tanabe, Masaru Doi, Yuko Akehi, Takamasa Ichijo
New diagnostic criteria and the treatment policy for adrenal subclinical Cushing's syndrome (SCS) are proposed on behalf of the Japan Endocrine Society. The Japanese version has been published, and the essential contents are presented in this English-language version. The current diagnostic criteria for SCS have elicited two main problems: (i) the relatively low reliability of a low range of serum cortisol essential for the diagnosis by an overnight 1-mg dexamethasone suppression test (DST); (ii) different cutoff values for serum cortisol after a 1-mg DST compared with those of other countries...
March 23, 2018: Endocrine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29574216/activity-based-anorexia-activates-crf-immunoreactive-neurons-in-female-rats
#18
Sophie Scharner, Tiemo Friedrich, Miriam Goebel-Stengel, Peter Kobelt, Matthias Rose, Andreas Stengel
Activity-based anorexia (ABA) is a well-established animal model mimicking the eating disorder anorexia nervosa (AN). Since the pathophysiology of AN is yet poorly understood and specific drug treatments are lacking so far, animal models might be useful to further understand this disease. ABA consists of time-restricted access to food for 1.5 h/day and the possibility to exercise in a running wheel for 24 h/day. This combination leads to robust body weight loss as observed in AN. Here, we investigated the activation of brain corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) neurons, a transmitter involved in the response to stress, emotional processes and also food intake...
March 21, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29572434/convergence-and-divergence-of-crh-amacrine-cells-in-mouse-retinal-circuitry
#19
Silvia J H Park, Joseph Pottackal, Jiang-Bin Ke, Na Young Jun, Pouyan Rahmani, In-Jung Kim, Joshua H Singer, Jonathan B Demb
Inhibitory interneurons sculpt the outputs of excitatory circuits to expand the dynamic range of information processing. In mammalian retina, more than 30 types of amacrine cells provide lateral inhibition to vertical, excitatory bipolar cell circuits, but functional roles for only a few amacrine cells are well established. Here, we elucidate the function of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH)-expressing amacrine cells labeled in Cre transgenic mice of either sex. CRH cells co-stratify with the ON Alpha ganglion cell, a neuron highly sensitive to positive contrast...
March 23, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29569009/paraventricular-hypothalamic-and-amygdalar-crf-neurons-synapse-in-the-external-globus-pallidus
#20
Albert J Hunt, Rajan Dasgupta, Shivakumar Rajamanickam, Zhiying Jiang, Michael Beierlein, C Savio Chan, Nicholas J Justice
Stress evokes directed movement to escape or hide from potential danger. Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) neurons are highly activated by stress; however, it remains unclear how this activity participates in stress-evoked movement. The external globus pallidus (GPe) expresses high levels of the primary receptor for CRF, CRFR1, suggesting the GPe may serve as an entry point for stress-relevant information to reach basal ganglia circuits, which ultimately gate motor output. Indeed, projections from CRF neurons are present within the GPe, making direct contact with CRFR1-positive neurons...
March 23, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
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