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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432958/membrane-fusion-between-baculovirus-budded-virus-enveloped-particles-and-giant-liposomes-generated-using-a-droplet-transfer-method-for-the-incorporation-of-recombinant-membrane-proteins
#1
Misako Nishigami, Takaaki Mori, Masahiro Tomita, Kingo Takiguchi, Kanta Tsumoto
Giant proteoliposomes are generally useful as artificial cell membranes in biochemical and biophysical studies, and various procedures for their preparation have been reported. We present here a novel preparation technique that involves the combination of i) cell-sized lipid vesicles (giant unilamellar vesicles, GUVs) that are generated using the droplet-transfer method, where lipid monolayer-coated water-in-oil microemulsion droplets interact with oil/water interfaces to form enclosed bilayer vesicles, and ii) budded viruses (BVs) of baculovirus (Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus) that express recombinant transmembrane proteins on their envelopes...
April 13, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431971/influence-of-stress-associated-with-chronic-alcohol-exposure-on-drinking
#2
REVIEW
Howard C Becker
Stress is commonly regarded as an important trigger for relapse and a significant factor that promotes increased motivation to drink in some individuals. However, the relationship between stress and alcohol is complex, likely changing in form during the transition from early moderated alcohol use to more heavy uncontrolled alcohol intake. A growing body of evidence indicates that prolonged excessive alcohol consumption serves as a potent stressor, producing persistent dysregulation of brain reward and stress systems beyond normal homeostatic limits...
April 18, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429110/inhibition-of-the-crf1-receptor-influences-the-activity-of-antidepressant-drugs-in-the-forced-swim-test-in-rats
#3
Andrzej Wróbel, Anna Serefko, Aleksandra Szopa, Karol Rojek, Ewa Poleszak, Krystyna Skalicka-Woźniak, Jarosław Dudka
Hyperactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) and impairment of the central corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) system are factors in the pathogenesis of depression. Though several antagonists of the CRF1 receptor were effective in the recognized behavioral tests for antidepressant activity, there is still little information on the potential interactions between CRF1 receptor inhibitors and conventional antidepressant therapy. The aim of our study was to assess the influence of SN003, a CRF1 receptor blocker, on the activity of imipramine and fluoxetine in the forced swim test (FST) in rats which presented some signs of depression...
April 20, 2017: Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417942/protein-discovery-combined-transcriptomic-and-proteomic-analyses-of-venom-from-the-endoparasitoid-cotesia-chilonis-hymenoptera-braconidae
#4
Zi-Wen Teng, Shi-Jiao Xiong, Gang Xu, Shi-Yu Gan, Xuan Chen, David Stanley, Zhi-Chao Yan, Gong-Yin Ye, Qi Fang
Many species of endoparasitoid wasps provide biological control services in agroecosystems. Although there is a great deal of information on the ecology and physiology of host/parasitoid interactions, relatively little is known about the protein composition of venom and how specific venom proteins influence physiological systems within host insects. This is a crucial gap in our knowledge because venom proteins act in modulating host physiology in ways that favor parasitoid development. Here, we identified 37 possible venom proteins from the polydnavirus-carrying endoparasitoid Cotesia chilonis by combining transcriptomic and proteomic analyses...
April 12, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404583/acute-hypoxia-activates-neuroendocrine-but-not-pre-sympathetic-neurons-in-the-paraventricular-nucleus-of-the-hypothalamus-differential-role-of-nitric-oxide
#5
K Max Coldren, De-Pei Li, David D Kline, Eileen M Hasser, Cheryl M Heesch
Hypoxia results in decreased arterial PO2, arterial chemoreflex activation, and compensatory increases in breathing, sympathetic outflow, and neuroendocrine secretions, including increased secretion of vasopressin (AVP), corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH), adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH), and corticosterone. In addition to a brainstem pathway including the nucleus tractus solitarius (nTS) and the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM), medullary pathways to the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) contribute to chemoreflex responses...
April 12, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395119/spatial-and-temporal-expression-profiles-of-urocortin-3-mrna-in-the-brain-of-the-chicken-gallus-gallus
#6
Sylvia V H Grommen, Melissa K Scott, Veerle M Darras, Bert De Groef
Urocortin 3 (UCN3) is a neuropeptide believed to regulate stress-coping responses by binding to type 2 corticotropin-releasing hormone receptors. Here we report the cloning and brain distribution of UCN3 mRNA in a sauropsid - the chicken, Gallus gallus. Mature chicken UCN3 is predicted to be a 40-amino acid peptide showing high sequence similarity to human (93%), mouse (93%), and Xenopus (88%) UCN3. During the last third of embryonic development, UCN3 mRNA levels changed differentially in the various brain parts...
April 10, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384517/biomarker-response-and-hypothalamus-pituitary-interrenal-axis-functioning-in-arctic-charr-from-bj%C3%A3-rn%C3%A3-ya-74%C3%A2-30-%C3%A2-n-norway-with-high-levels-of-organohalogenated-compounds
#7
Even H Jørgensen, Alec G Maule, Anita Evenset, Guttorm Christensen, Jenny Bytningsvik, Marianne Frantzen, Vladimir Nikiforov, Erin Faught, Mathilakath M Vijayan
The populations of Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) residing in Lake Ellasjøen at Bjørnøya Island in the Norwegian Arctic (74° 30'N, 19° 00'E) possess substantially higher levels of organohalogenated compounds (strongly dominated by polychlorinated biphenyls, PCBs) than conspecifics residing in other, proximate lakes on the island. In the present study we sampled large (<400g), immature charr from Lake Ellasjøen (high PCB levels) and Lake Laksvatn (reference lake, low PCB levels) by hook and line for an immediate blood sampling, and blood and tissue sampling after a 1h confinement stressor...
March 20, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377228/sexually-dimorphic-changes-of-hypocretin-orexin-in-depression
#8
Jing Lu, Juan Zhao, Rawien Balesar, Rolf Fronczek, Qiong-Bin Zhu, Xue-Yan Wu, Shao-Hua Hu, Ai-Min Bao, Dick F Swaab
BACKGROUND: Neurophysiological and behavioral processes regulated by hypocretin (orexin) are severely affected in depression. However, alterations in hypocretin have so far not been studied in the human brain. We explored the hypocretin system changes in the hypothalamus and cortex in depression from male and female subjects. METHODS: We quantified the differences between depression patients and well-matched controls, in terms of hypothalamic hypocretin-1 immunoreactivity (ir) and hypocretin receptors (Hcrtr-receptors)-mRNA in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex...
March 31, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363981/alcohol-dependence-disrupts-amygdalar-l-type-voltage-gated-calcium-channel-mechanisms
#9
Florence P Varodayan, Giordano de Guglielmo, Marian L Logrip, Olivier George, Marisa Roberto
L-type voltage-gated calcium channels (LTCCs) are implicated in several psychiatric disorders that are co-morbid with alcoholism and involve amygdala dysfunction. Within the amygdala, the central nucleus (CeA) is critical in acute alcohol's reinforcing actions, and its dysregulation in human alcoholics drives their negative emotional state and motivation to drink. Here we investigated the specific role of CeA LTCCs in the effects of acute alcohol at the molecular, cellular physiology and behavioral levels, and their potential neuroadaptation in alcohol-dependent rats...
March 31, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347187/second-trimester-amniotic-fluid-corticotropin-releasing-hormone-and-urocortin-in-relation-to-maternal-stress-and-fetal-growth-in-human-pregnancy
#10
Pearl La Marca-Ghaemmaghami, Sara M Dainese, Günter Stalla, Marina Haller, Roland Zimmermann, Ulrike Ehlert
This study explored the association between the acute psychobiological stress response, chronic social overload and amniotic fluid corticotropin corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and urocortin (UCN) in 34 healthy, second-trimester pregnant women undergoing amniocentesis. The study further examined the predictive value of second-trimester amniotic fluid CRH and UCN for fetal growth and neonatal birth outcome. The amniocentesis served as a naturalistic stressor, during which maternal state anxiety and salivary cortisol was measured repeatedly and an aliquot of amniotic fluid was collected...
March 27, 2017: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339047/hypothalamo%C3%A2-hypophysial-system-in-rats-with-autotransplantation-of-the-adrenal-cortex
#11
Nae Takizawa, Susumu Tanaka, Souichi Oe, Taro Koike, Tadashi Matsuda, Hisao Yamada
Patients with bilateral pheochromocytoma often require an adrenalectomy. Autotransplantation of the adrenal cortex is an alternative therapy that could potentially be performed instead of receiving glucocorticoid replacement following adrenalectomy. Adrenal cortex autotransplantation aims to avoid the side effects of long‑term steroid treatment and adrenal insufficiency. Although the function of the hypothalamo‑hypophysial system is critical for patients who have undergone adrenal cortex autotransplantation, the details of that system, with the exception of adrenocorticotropic hormone in the subjects with adrenal autotransplantation, have been overlooked for a long time...
March 24, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337631/upregulation-of-mineralocorticoid-receptor-in-the-hypothalamus-associated-with-a-high-anxiety-like-level-in-apolipoprotein-e4-transgenic-mice
#12
Fan-Tao Meng, Jun Zhao, Hui Fang, Li-Feng Zhang, Hui-Mei Wu, Ya-Jing Liu
Anxiety symptoms occur in a large portion of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. ApolipoproteinE-4 (ApoE ε4 allele), a risk factor for AD, has been recognized as an important contributor to psychiatric disorders. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the corticosterone level in relation to anxiety-like behavior changes in transgenic male mice with different glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-ApoE isoforms. GFAP-ApoE4 transgenic mice aged 3 months showed higher anxiety-like behavior in open field, light-dark box and elevated plus maze tasks compared with that of age-matched GFAP-ApoE3 mice...
March 24, 2017: Behavior Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337596/prolactin-regulation-of-the-hpa-axis-is-not-mediated-by-a-direct-action-upon-crh-neurons-evidence-from-the-rat-and-mouse
#13
Papillon Gustafson, Ilona Kokay, Tony Sapsford, Stephen Bunn, David Grattan
Centrally acting prolactin has been shown to have anti-stress effects by modulating the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. We tested the hypothesis that prolactin directly targets hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) neurons. In situ hybridisation confirmed expression of mRNA encoding the long, but not the short, isoform of the prolactin receptor (PRLR) within the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the virgin rat; however, only 6% of CRH neurons expressed long-form Prlr mRNA. Examination of the functional response of CRH neurons to intracerebroventricular prolactin (500 ng) showed that these neurons did not respond with activation of phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (pSTAT5), a marker of long-form PRLR activation...
March 23, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336550/the-effect-of-intravenous-corticotropin-releasing-hormone-administration-on-esophageal-sensitivity-and-motility-in-health
#14
Charlotte Broers, Chloé Melchior, Lukas Van Oudenhove, Tim Vanuytsel, Brecht Van Houtte, Charlotte Scheerens, Nathalie Rommel, Jan F Tack, Ans Pauwels
BACKGROUND: Esophageal hypersensitivity is important in gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) patients refractory to acid-suppressive therapy. Stress affects visceral sensitivity and exacerbates heartburn in GERD. Peripheral CRH is a key mediator of the gut stress response. We hypothesize that CRH increases esophageal sensitivity and alters esophageal motility in health. METHODS: Esophageal sensitivity to thermal, mechanical, electrical and chemical stimuli was assessed in 14 healthy subjects after placebo or CRH (100μg IV)...
March 23, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334791/isolated-acth-deficiency-probably-induced-by-autoimmune-related-mechanism-evoked-with-nivolumab
#15
Keiko Kitajima, Kenji Ashida, Naoko Wada, Ryoko Suetsugu, Yukina Takeichi, Shohei Sakamoto, Hiroshi Uchi, Takamitsu Matsushima, Motoaki Shiratsuchi, Keizo Ohnaka, Masutaka Furue, Masatoshi Nomura
Nivolumab, an anti-programmed death-1 antibody, is a breakthrough treatment for several malignancies. Its specific adverse effects caused by autoimmunity are termed immune-related adverse events, which involve several endocrine dysfunctions. Herein, we report two cases of isolated adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) deficiency induced by nivolumab for the treatment of metastatic malignant melanoma. Case 1 was a 39-year-old man and Case 2 was a 50-year-old woman, both of whom presented with progressive melanoma...
February 18, 2017: Japanese Journal of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332004/social-setting-social-rank-and-hpa-axis-response-in-cynomolgus-monkeys
#16
Vanessa A Jimenez, Daicia C Allen, Megan N McClintick, Kathleen A Grant
RATIONALE: Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity under different social settings in non-human primates is understudied. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to evaluate the response of pituitary-adrenal hormones (adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol) to pharmacological challenges of the HPA axis in male cynomolgus macaques under different social settings. METHODS: Male cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis, n = 11) were individually (A) and socially housed (B) in alternation, over consecutive months, in an ABA design...
March 22, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330718/adult-glucocorticoid-receptor-mrna-expression-volatility-in-response-to-an-acute-stressor-and-juvenile-csf-corticotropin-releasing-factor-a-pilot-neurodevelopmental-study
#17
Shariful A Syed, Eric L P Smith, Olcay Batuman, Leonard A Rosenblum, Michael J Owens, Charles B Nemeroff, Jeremy D Coplan
INTRODUCTION: Early life stress (ELS) has been shown to play a role in establishing persistent maladaptive HPA axis modifications that may contribute to the pathogenesis of mood and anxiety disorders. Central glucocorticoid receptor (GR) messenger RNA (mRNA) expression may facilitate (mal)adaptive responsivity to ELS. The role of adult monocytic GR mRNA expression, a putative CNS proxy, during acute stress exposure was explored as well as the ELS marker, juvenile cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) corticotropin-releasing factor...
March 19, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323961/normalized-early-post-operative-cortisol-and-acth-values-predict-nonremission-after-surgery-for-cushing-s-disease
#18
David Asuzu, Grégoire P Chatain, Christina Hayes, Sarah Benzo, Raven McGlotten, Meg Keil, Andrea Beri, Susmeeta T Sharma, Lynnette Nieman, Maya Lodish, Constantine Stratakis, Russell R Lonser, Edward H Oldfield, Prashant Chittiboina
Context: Perioperative increases in adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol mimic corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) stimulation testing. This phenomenon may help identify patients with residual adenoma after transsphenoidal surgery (TSS) for Cushing's disease (CD). Objective: To predict non-remission after TSS for CD. Design: Retrospective case control study of patients treated at a single center from December 2003 till July 2016...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319850/methylation-of-hpa-axis-related-genes-in-men-with-hypersexual-disorder
#19
Jussi Jokinen, Adrian E Boström, Andreas Chatzittofis, Diana M Ciuculete, Katarina Görts Öberg, John N Flanagan, Stefan Arver, Helgi B Schiöth
Hypersexual Disorder (HD) defined as non-paraphilic sexual desire disorder with components of compulsivity, impulsivity and behavioral addiction, and proposed as a diagnosis in the DSM 5, shares some overlapping features with substance use disorder including common neurotransmitter systems and dysregulated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function. In this study, comprising 67 HD male patients and 39 male healthy volunteers, we aimed to identify HPA-axis coupled CpG-sites, in which modifications of the epigenetic profile are associated with hypersexuality...
March 10, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315631/network-analysis-of-urocortins
#20
Shao-Jun Chen
OBJECTIVES: Urocortins (Ucns), members of corticotropin releasing factor family, play critical roles in a number of pathological and physiological conditions. Many proteins have been reported to participate in Ucns signaling pathways, which formed complex interaction networks. METHODS: STITCH ('search tool for interactions of chemicals') is an interaction network database that provides exploration of the known and predicted interactions among large sets of chemicals and proteins...
November 2016: Neuro Endocrinology Letters
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