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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449045/how-to-measure-glucocorticoid-receptor-s-sensitivity-in-patients-with-stress-related-psychiatric-disorders
#1
REVIEW
Carolin Leistner, Andreas Menke
Stress is a state of derailed homeostasis and a main environmental risk factor for psychiatric diseases. Chronic or uncontrollable stress may lead to a dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which is a common feature of stress-related psychiatric disorders. One of the key mechanisms underlying a disturbed HPA axis is an impaired function of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) with an enhanced or reduced feedback sensitivity for glucocorticoids and subsequently altered concentrations of peripheral cortisol...
February 2, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445764/quantified-coexpression-analysis-of-central-amygdala-subpopulations
#2
Kenneth M McCullough, Filomene G Morrison, Jakob Hartmann, William A Carlezon, Kerry J Ressler
Molecular identification and characterization of fear controlling circuitries is a promising path towards developing targeted treatments of fear-related disorders. Three-color in situ hybridization analysis was used to determine whether somatostatin (SOM, Sst ), neurotensin (NTS, Nts ), corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF, Crf ), tachykinin 2 (TAC2, Tac2 ), protein kinase c-δ (PKC-δ, Prkcd ), and dopamine receptor 2 (DRD2, Drd2 ) mRNA colocalize in male mouse amygdala neurons. Expression and colocalization was examined across capsular (CeC), lateral (CeL), and medial (CeM) compartments of the central amygdala...
January 2018: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438489/transient-anosmia-induces-depressive-like-and-anxiolytic-like-behavior-and-reduces-amygdalar-corticotropin-releasing-hormone-in-a-znso4-induced-mouse-model
#3
Sangzin Ahn, Mooseok Choi, Hyunju Kim, Eunjeong Yang, Usman Mahmood, Seong-Il Kang, Hyun-Woo Shin, Dae Woo Kim, Hye-Sun Kim
Olfactory loss is known to affect both mood and quality of life. Transient anosmia was induced in mice to study the resulting changes in mood, behavior, and on a molecular level. Transient anosmia was induced by a single intranasal instillation of ZnSO4 in BALB/c mice. Hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining, and potato chip finding test were performed to confirm olfactory loss. Tail suspension, forced swim, and splash tests were performed to evaluate depression-related behavior; while the open field, and elevated plus maze tests were used to evaluate anxiety-related behavior...
February 9, 2018: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436637/nicotinamide-phosphoribosyltransferase-and-the-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis-of-the-rat
#4
Piotr Celichowski, Karol Jopek, Paulina Milecka, Marta Szyszka, Marianna Tyczewska, Ludwik K Malendowicz, Marcin Ruciński
Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (Nampt), also termed visfatin, catalyses the rate‑limiting step in the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) salvage pathway. In addition to its intracellular function (iNampt), extracellular Nampt (eNampt) also affects numerous intracellular signalling pathways. The current study investigated the role of Nampt in the regulation of the hypothalamic‑pituitary‑adrenal (HPA) axis in rats. At 1 h after intraperitoneal administration of eNampt (4 µg/100 g) in adult male rats, serum adrenocorticotropic hormone(ACTH) and aldosterone levels remained unchanged, while corticosterone levels were notably elevated compared with the control group, as determined by ELISA...
February 7, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424419/neurotransmitter-diversity-in-pre-synaptic-terminals-located-in-the-parvicellular-neuroendocrine-paraventricular-nucleus-of-the-rat-and-mouse-hypothalamus
#5
Caroline S Johnson, Jaideep S Bains, Alan G Watts
Virtually all rodent neuroendocrine corticotropin-releasing-hormone (CRH) neurons are in the dorsal medial parvicellular (mpd) part of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVH). They form the final common pathway for adrenocortical stress responses. Their activity is controlled by sets of GABA-, glutamate-, and catecholamine-containing inputs arranged in an interactive pre-motor network. Defining the nature and arrangement of these inputs can help clarify how stressor type and intensity information is conveyed to neuroendocrine neurons...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424043/sex-differences-in-binge-like-etoh-drinking-corticotropin-releasing-hormone-and-corticosterone-effects-of-%C3%AE-endorphin
#6
Todd B Nentwig, Diane E Wilson, Erin M Rhinehart, Judith E Grisel
Binge drinking is an increasingly common pattern of risky use associated with numerous health problems, including alcohol use disorders. Because low basal plasma levels of β-endorphin (β-E) and an increased β-E response to alcohol are evident in genetically at-risk human populations, this peptide is thought to contribute to the susceptibility for disordered drinking. Animal models suggest that the effect of β-E on consumption may be sex-dependent. Here, we studied binge-like EtOH consumption in transgenic mice possessing varying levels of β-E: wild-type controls with 100% of the peptide (β-E +/+), heterozygous mice constitutively modified to possess 50% of wild-type levels (β-E +/-) and mice entirely lacking the capacity to synthesize β-E (-/-)...
February 8, 2018: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423959/low-resilience-to-stress-is-associated-with-candidate-gene-expression-alterations-in-the-dopaminergic-signalling-pathway
#7
Esfandiar Azadmarzabadi, Arvin Haghighatfard, Alireza Mohammadi
BACKGROUND: In stressful situations, a person's ability to appropriately complete tasks with minimal anxiety is known as stress resilience. Genetic variants in neuropeptide Y, Corticotropin releasing hormone receptor 1 (CRHR1), and serotonin transporter have been previously reported to be associated with low resilience, but the relationship between low resilience and the dopaminergic signalling pathway is not well understood. Here, we aimed to describe the association between comprehensive psychological characteristics and messenger RNA levels of dopamine receptor D1 (DRD1), dopamine receptor D2 (DRD2), dopamine receptor D3 (DRD3), dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4), dopamine receptor D5 (DRD5), COMT, Dopamine Beta-Hydroxylase (DBH), Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), monoamine oxidase A (MAOM), dopa decarboxylase (DDC), dopamine transporter (DAT), serotonin transporter (5-HTT), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) genes based on peripheral blood samples from 400 subjects who react differently to major life event stressors...
February 8, 2018: Psychogeriatrics: the Official Journal of the Japanese Psychogeriatric Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420068/vip-is-involved-in-peripheral-crf-induced-stimulation-of-propulsive-colonic-motor-function-and-diarrhea-in-male-rats
#8
Seiichi Yakabi, Lixin Wang, Hiroshi Karasawa, Pu-Qing Yuan, K Koike, Koji Yakabi, Yvette F Tache
We investigated whether vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and/or prostaglandins contribute to peripheral corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF)-induced CRF1 receptor mediated stimulation of colonic motor function and diarrhea in rats. The VIP antagonist, [4Cl-D-Phe 6 , Leu 17 ]VIP injected intraperitoneally (ip) completely prevented CRF (10 µg/kg, ip)-induced fecal output and diarrhea occurring within the first hour post injection whereas pretreatment with the prostaglandin synthesis inhibitor, indomethacin had no effect...
February 8, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29419884/balancing-tonic-and-phasic-inhibition-in-hypothalamic-corticotropin-releasing-hormone-neurons
#9
Phillip L W Colmers, Jaideep S Bains
Corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) neurons in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) are integratory hubs that regulate the endocrine response to stress. GABA inputs provide a basal inhibitory tone that constrains this system and circulating glucocorticoids (CORT) are important feedback controllers of CRH output. Surprisingly little is known about the direct effects of CORT on GABA synapses in PVN. Here we used whole-cell patch clamp recordings from CRH neurons in mouse hypothalamic brain slices to examine the effects of CORT on synaptic and extrasynaptic GABA signalling...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417477/microrna-34-contributes-to-the-stress-related-behavior-and-affects-5-ht-prefrontal-gaba-amygdalar-system-through-regulation-of-corticotropin-releasing-factor-receptor-1
#10
Diego Andolina, Matteo Di Segni, Alessandra Accoto, Luisa Lo Iacono, Antonella Borreca, Donald Ielpo, Nicola Berretta, Emerald Perlas, Stefano Puglisi-Allegra, Rossella Ventura
Recent studies show that microRNA-34 (miR-34) family is critical in the regulation of stress response also suggesting that it may contribute to the individual responsiveness to stress. We have recently demonstrated that mice carrying a genetic deletion of all miR-34 isoforms (triple knockout, TKO) lack the stress-induced serotonin (5-HT) and GABA release in the medial prefrontal cortex (mpFC) and basolateral amygdala (BLA), respectively. Here, we evaluated if the absence of miR-34 was also able to modify the stress-coping strategy in the forced swimming test...
February 7, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414029/control-of-cardiovascular-responses-to-stress-by-crf-in-the-bed-nucleus-of-stria-terminalis-is-mediated-by-local-nmda-nnos-sgc-pkg-signaling
#11
Leandro A Oliveira, Lucas Gomes-de-Souza, Ricardo Benini, Carlos C Crestani
The aims of the present study were to assess an interaction of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) neurotransmission within the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) with local nitrergic signaling, as well as to investigate an involvement of activation of local NMDA glutamate receptor and nitric oxide (NO) signaling in control of cardiovascular responses to acute restraint stress by BNST CRF neurotransmission in rats. We observed that CRF microinjection into the BNST increased local NO release during restraint stress...
January 12, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29411913/a-novel-role-of-the-corticotropin-releasing-hormone-crh-regulating-peptide-teneurin-1-c-terminal-associated-peptide-tcap-1-on-glucose-uptake-into-the-brain
#12
David W Hogg, Yani Chen, Andrea L D'Aquila, Mei Xu, Mia Husic, Laura A Tan, Chris Bull, David A Lovejoy
Teneurin C-terminal associated peptide (TCAP) is an ancient paracrine signaling agent that evolved via lateral gene transfer from prokaryotes into an early metazoan ancestor. Although it bears structural similarity to corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), it inhibits the in vivo actions of CRH. The TCAPs are highly expressed in neurons where they induce rapid cytoskeletal rearrangement and are neuroprotective. Because these processes are highly energy dependent, this suggests that TCAP has the potential to regulate glucose uptake as glucose is the primary energy substrate in brain, and neurons require a steady supply to meet the high metabolic demands of neuronal communication...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29406581/crf2-receptor-deficiency-eliminates-social-behaviour-deficits-and-vulnerability-induced-by-cocaine
#13
Nadège Morisot, Romain Monier, Catherine Le Moine, Mark J Millan, Angelo Contarino
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Poor social behaviour and vulnerability to stress are major clinical features of stimulant use disorders. The corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) system mediates stress responses and might underlie substance use disorders; however, its implication in social impairment induced by stimulant substances remains unknown. CRF signalling is mediated by two receptor types, CRF1 and CRF2 . The present study investigated the role for the CRF2 receptor in social behaviour deficits, vulnerability to stress and related brain alterations induced by cocaine administration and withdrawal...
February 6, 2018: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29405799/female-psychopharmacology-matters-towards-a-sex-specific-psychopharmacology
#14
Blanca Bolea-Alamanac, Sarah J Bailey, Thelma A Lovick, Dirk Scheele, Rita Valentino
There is increasing recognition that women have a higher prevalence of certain psychiatric illnesses, and a differential treatment response and course of illness compared to men. Additionally, clinicians deal with a number of disorders like premenstrual syndrome, premenstrual dysphoric disorder, and postpartum depression, which affect women specifically and for which treatment and biological pathways are still unclear. In this article we highlight recent research which suggests that different biological mechanisms may underlie sex differences in responsiveness to stress...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29405001/mapping-of-protein-interfaces-in-live-cells-using-genetically-encoded-crosslinkers
#15
Lisa Seidel, Irene Coin
Understanding the topology of protein-protein interactions is a matter of fundamental importance in the biomedical field. Biophysical approaches such as X-ray crystallography and nuclear magnetic resonance can investigate in detail only isolated protein complexes that are reconstituted in an artificial environment. Alternative methods are needed to investigate protein interactions in a physiological context, as well as to characterize protein complexes that elude the direct structural characterization. We describe here a general strategy to investigate protein interactions at the molecular level directly in the live mammalian cell, which is based on the genetic incorporation of photo- and chemical crosslinking noncanonical amino acids...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29404882/the-peripheral-corticotropin-releasing-factor-crf-induced-analgesic-effect-on-somatic-pain-sensitivity-in-conscious-rats-involving-crf-opioid-and-glucocorticoid-receptors
#16
REVIEW
Natalia I Yarushkina, Ludmila P Filaretova
The corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) is involved in somatic pain regulation and may produce an analgesic effect in humans and animals, although the mechanisms of the CRF-induced analgesia remain unclear. CRF action is mediated by the CRF receptors of subtypes 1 and 2 (CRF-R1 and CRF-R2, respectively). Activation of the hypothalamic -pituitary -adrenocortical axis (HPA) is provided by CRF-R1; but CRF-R2 are also involved in the regulation of the HPA axis, and, respectively, glucocorticoids, the end hormones of the HPA axis, also participate in somatic pain regulation...
February 5, 2018: Inflammopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29391155/antagonism-of-corticotropin-releasing-factor-crf1-receptors-blocks-the-enhanced-response-to-cocaine-after-social-stress
#17
Carmen Ferrer-Pérez, Marina D Reguilón, Carmen Manzanedo, M Asunción Aguilar, José Miñarro, Marta Rodríguez-Arias
Numerous studies have shown that social defeat stress induces an increase in the rewarding effects of cocaine. In this study we have investigated the role played by the main hypothalamic stress hormone, corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), in the effects that repeated social defeat (RSD) induces in the conditioned rewarding effects and locomotor sensitization induced by cocaine. A total of 220 OF1 mice were divided into experimental groups according to the treatment received before each social defeat: saline, 5 or 10mg/kg of the nonpeptidic corticotropin-releasing factor CRF1 receptor antagonist CP-154,526, or 15 or 30µg/kg of the peptidic corticotropin-releasing factor CRF2 receptor antagonist Astressin2-B...
January 29, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29390437/chronic-primary-adrenal-insufficiency-after-unilateral-adrenonephrectomy-a-case-report
#18
Satoshi Yoshiji, Kimitaka Shibue, Toshihito Fujii, Takeshi Usui, Keisho Hirota, Daisuke Taura, Mayumi Inoue, Masakatsu Sone, Akihiro Yasoda, Nobuya Inagaki
RATIONALE: Unilateral adrenalectomy as part of surgical resection of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is not thought to increase the risk of chronic adrenal insufficiency, as the contralateral adrenal gland is assumed to be capable of compensating for the lost function of the resected gland. However, recent studies have indicated that adrenalectomy might cause irreversible impairment of the adrenocortical reserve. We describe a case of chronic primary adrenal insufficiency in a 68-year-old man who previously underwent unilateral adrenonephrectomy, which was complicated by severe postoperative adrenal stress that involved cardiopulmonary disturbance and systemic infection...
December 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29387897/-endocrine-paraneoplastic-syndromes
#19
REVIEW
N Reisch, M Reincke
Endocrine paraneoplastic syndromes result from the production of bioactive substances from neoplastic cells, of endocrine or neuroendocrine origin. Typically these are located in the lungs, the gastrointestinal tract, pancreas, thyroid gland, adrenal medulla, skin, prostate or breast. In endocrine paraneoplastic syndromes the secretion of peptides, amines or other bioactive substances is always ectopic and not related to the anatomical source. The clinical presentation, however, is indistinguishable from a suspected eutopic endocrine tumor posing a diagnostic challenge...
January 31, 2018: Der Internist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29386227/role-of-11%C3%AE-hsd-type-1-in-abnormal-hpa-axis-activity-during-immune-mediated-arthritis
#20
Janko Sattler, Jinwen Tu, Shihani Stoner, Jingbao Li, Frank Buttgereit, Markus Seibel, Hong Zhou, Mark S Cooper
Patients with chronic immune-mediated arthritis exhibit abnormal hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity. The basis for this abnormality is not known. Immune-mediated arthritis is associated with increased extra-adrenal synthesis of active glucocorticoids by the 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) enzyme. 11β-HSD1 is expressed in the central nervous system, including regions involved in HPA axis regulation. We examined whether altered 11β-HSD1 expression within these regions contributes to HPA axis dysregulation during arthritis...
January 31, 2018: Endocrine Connections
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