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Corticotropin, CRH, CRF corticotropin-releasing

Li Wang, Minjie Shen, Changyou Jiang, Lan Ma, Feifei Wang
BACKGROUND: The central nucleus of amygdala (CeA) is a crucial component of the neuronal circuitry mediating aversively emotion. Its role in the negative affective states during drug withdrawal includes changes in opioidergic, GABAergic, and CRF neurotransmission, etc However, the modulation of the neurobiological interconnectivity in the CeA, and the effects in the negative reinforcement of drug dependents are poorly understood. METHOD: We performed electrophysiological recordings to assess the membrane excitability of parvalbumin (PV)(+) interneurons in the CeA during chronic morphine withdrawal, and tested the morphine withdrawal-induced negative affective states, such as the aversive (assessed were performed by CPA), anxiety (assessed by EPM), and anhedonic-like (assessed by SPT) behaviors, as well as the mRNA level of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) when optogenetic inhibiting or activating PV(+) interneurons in the CeA...
July 6, 2016: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
J H van der Kolk, N Fouché, J J Gross, V Gerber, R M Bruckmaier
In this review, we address the function of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis with special emphasis on the comparison between the bovine and equine species. The pars intermedia of the pituitary gland is particularly well developed in horses and cattle. However, its function is not well appreciated in cattle yet. The Wulzen's cone of the adenohypophysis is a special feature of ruminants. Total basal cortisol concentration is much higher in horses than that in cows with similar free cortisol fractions...
July 2016: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
Cristina Rabasa, Jordi Pastor-Ciurana, Raúl Delgado-Morales, Almudena Gómez-Román, Javier Carrasco, Humberto Gagliano, María S García-Gutiérrez, Jorge Manzanares, Antonio Armario
There is evidence that endogenous cannabinoids (eCBs) play a role in the control of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, although they appear to have dual, stimulatory and inhibitory, effects. Recent data in rats suggest that eCBs, acting through CB1 receptors (CB1R), may be involved in adaptation of the HPA axis to daily repeated stress. In the present study we analyze this issue in male mice and rats. Using a knock-out mice for the CB1 receptor (CB1-/-) we showed that mutant mice presented similar adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) response to the first IMO as wild-type mice...
August 2015: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Georgette M Gafford, Kerry J Ressler
This article is part of a Special Issue "SBN 2014". Beginning with Vale and Colleagues in 1981, corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) also called corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) has repeatedly been identified as an important contributor to fear and anxiety behavior. These findings have proven useful to further our understanding of disorders that have significant fear-dysregulation, such as post-traumatic stress, as well as other stress- and anxiety-related disorders. Unfortunately, the data are not all in agreement...
November 2015: Hormones and Behavior
Chuting Li, Yuan Liu, Shiping Yin, Cuiyan Lu, Dexiang Liu, Hong Jiang, Fang Pan
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a stress-related mental disorder caused by traumatic experiences. Studies have found that exposure to early stressful events is a risk factor for developing PTSD. However, a limited number of studies have explored the effects of traumatic stress in early adolescence on behavior, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function, central corticotropin releasing factor receptor 1 (CRFR1) expression and the relative vulnerability of PTSD in adulthood. The current study aims to explore these issues using inescapable electric foot shock to induce a PTSD model in early adolescent rats...
July 15, 2015: Behavioural Brain Research
Jun-Ming Fan, Xue-Qun Chen, Xi Wang, Ke Hao, Ji-Zeng Du
OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether CRHR1 and CRHR2 are colocalized in CRH-specific neurons in rat brain. METHODS: Double/triple immunofluorescence, and combined in situ hybridization were performed in the PVN, amygdala and hippocampus, and triple immunofluorescence was applied to the median eminence (ME), dorsal raphe (DR) and locus coeruleus (LC). RESULTS: Both CRHR1 and CRHR2 immunoreactivity were highly coexpressed in the PVN, central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) and hippocampus...
2014: Neuro Endocrinology Letters
Magdalena Kolasa, Agata Faron-Górecka, Maciej Kuśmider, Kinga Szafran-Pilch, Joanna Solich, Dariusz Żurawek, Piotr Gruca, Mariusz Papp, Marta Dziedzicka-Wasylewska
The purpose of this study was to examine molecular markers of the stress response at the pituitary and peripheral levels in animals that responded differently to chronic mild stress (CMS). Rats were subjected to 2-weeks CMS and symptoms of anhedonia was measured by the consumption of 1% sucrose solution. mRNA levels of CRH-family neuropeptides (Crh-corticotropin-releasing hormone, Ucn1-urocortin 1, Ucn2-urocortin 2, Ucn3-urocortin 3), CRH receptors (Crhr1-corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor 1, Crhr2-corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor 2) and Crhbp (corticotropin-releasing factor binding protein) in the pituitaries of rats were determined with real-time PCR...
November 2014: Peptides
Nicola A Chen, Bianca Jupp, Yehezkel Sztainberg, Maya Lebow, Robyn M Brown, Jee Hyun Kim, Alon Chen, Andrew J Lawrence
Corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF) modulates the influence of stress on cocaine reward and reward seeking acting at multiple sites, including the ventral tegmental area (VTA). There is controversy, however, concerning the contribution of CRF receptor type 1 (CRFR1) to this effect and whether CRF within the VTA is involved in other aspects of reward seeking independent of acute stress. Here we examine the role of CRFR1 within the VTA in relation to cocaine and natural reward using viral delivery of short hairpin RNAs (lenti-shCRFR1) and investigate the effect on operant self-administration and motivation to self-administer, as well as stress- and cue-induced reward seeking in mice...
August 27, 2014: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Courtney L Williams, William C Buchta, Arthur C Riegel
Stress can reinstate cocaine seeking through an interaction between the stress hormone corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) and glutamate release onto dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA). To better understand the underlying causes, synaptic mechanisms were investigated in brain slices from rats. In control tissue, EPSCs displayed concentration-dependent, bimodal responses to CRF potentiation at low concentrations (3-100 nm) and attenuation at higher concentrations (300 nm). EPSC potentiation and attenuation were mediated by CRF-R1 and CRF-R2 receptor subtypes, respectively, localized to presynaptic terminals...
July 30, 2014: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Stefanie M Klampfl, Paula J Brunton, Doris S Bayerl, Oliver J Bosch
Maternal behavior ensures the proper development of the offspring. In lactating mammals, maternal behavior is impaired by stress, the physiological consequence of central corticotropin-releasing factor receptor (CRF-R) activation. However, which CRF-R subtype in which specific brain area(s) mediates this effect is unknown. Here we confirmed that an intracerebroventricularly injected nonselective CRF-R antagonist enhances, whereas an agonist impairs, maternal care. The agonist also prolonged the stress-induced decrease in nursing, reduced maternal aggression and increased anxiety-related behavior...
July 16, 2014: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Henry A Dunn, Cornelia Walther, George Y Yuan, Fabiana A Caetano, Christina M Godin, Stephen S G Ferguson
Serotonin (5-HT) interacts with a wide variety of 5-HT receptors (5-HTR) of which 5-HT2AR plays an important target for antidepressant and atypical antipsychotic drugs. The carboxyl-terminal tail of 5-HT2AR encodes a motif that mediates interactions with PSD-95/disc large/zona occludens (PDZ) domain-containing proteins. In the present study, we found that 5-HT2AR interacts with synapse-associated protein 97 (SAP97; also known as DLG1) by coimmunoprecipitation in human embryonic 293 (HEK 293) cells and cortical brain lysates...
September 2014: Molecular Pharmacology
L Navarro-Martín, C Lanctôt, P Jackman, B J Park, K Doe, B D Pauli, V L Trudeau
The purpose of this study was to determine if chronic exposure to the glyphosate-based herbicide VisionMax(®) affects the survival, development, growth, sex ratios and expression of specific genes involved in metamorphosis of wood frog tadpoles (Lithobates sylvaticus). We hypothesized that exposure to this herbicide will affect developmental rates by disrupting hormone pathways, sex ratios and/or gonadal morphology. Tadpoles were chronically exposed in the laboratory from Gosner developmental stage 25 to 42 to four different concentrations of VisionMax(®) (ranging from 0...
September 2014: Aquatic Toxicology
Katerina Spyridaki, Minos-Timotheos Matsoukas, Arnau Cordomi, Kostas Gkountelias, Maria Papadokostaki, Thomas Mavromoustakos, Diomedes E Logothetis, Andrew N Margioris, Leonardo Pardo, George Liapakis
The corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) type 1 receptor (CRF1R) for the 41-amino acid peptide CRF is a class B G protein-coupled receptor, which plays a key role in the response of our body to stressful stimuli and the maintenance of homeostasis by regulating neural and endocrine functions. CRF and related peptides, such as sauvagine, bind to the extracellular regions of CRF1R and activate the receptor. In contrast, small nonpeptide antagonists, which are effective against stress-related disorders, such as depression and anxiety, have been proposed to interact with the helical transmembrane domains (TMs) of CRF1R and allosterically antagonize peptide binding and receptor activation...
July 4, 2014: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Christopher O Boyson, Elizabeth N Holly, Akiko Shimamoto, Lucas Albrechet-Souza, Lindsay A Weiner, Joseph F DeBold, Klaus A Miczek
The nature of neuroadaptations in the genesis of escalated cocaine taking remains a topic of considerable interest. Intermittent social defeat stress induces both locomotor and dopaminergic cross-sensitization to cocaine, as well as escalated cocaine self-administration. The current study examines the role of corticotropin releasing factor receptor subtypes 1 and 2 (CRFR1, CRFR2) within the ventral tegmental area (VTA) during social defeat stress. This study investigated whether injecting either a CRFR1 or CRFR2 antagonist directly into the VTA before each social defeat would prevent the development of later (1) locomotor sensitization, (2) dopaminergic sensitization, and (3) escalated cocaine self-administration in rats...
May 7, 2014: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
D A C Botte, I L Noronha, D M A C Malheiros, T V Peixoto, S B V de Mello
Alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) is a neuropeptide exhibiting anti-inflammatory activity in experimental models of autoimmune diseases. However, no studies thus far have examined the effects of α-MSH on systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). This study aimed to determine the effects of an α-MSH agonist in induced murine lupus. Here we employed female Balb/cAn mice in which lupus was induced by pristane. Groups of lupus animals were treated daily with the α-MSH analogue [Nle4, DPhe7]-α-MSH (NDP-MSH) (1·25 mg/kg) injected intraperitoneally or saline for 180 days...
August 2014: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
Shan-Shan Wang, Ya-Guang Wang, Hai-Ying Chen, Zhi-Ping Wu, Heng-Ge Xie
OBJECTIVES: To establish a rat model of post-stroke depression (PSD), and examine expression of genes encoding corticotropin releasing factor (CRF), interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) in the hypothalamus of PSD rats. METHODS: Rats were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and chronic mild unpredictable stress (CUMS). Open field test and sucrose preference were used to examine depressive-like behaviors. Observed changes in gene expression levels in the hypothalamus of PSD rats were evaluated...
2013: Neuro Endocrinology Letters
Lalitha Kurada, Chuanxiu Yang, Saobo Lei
Whereas corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) has been considered as the most potent epileptogenic neuropeptide in the brain, its action site and underlying mechanisms in epilepsy have not been determined. Here, we found that the entorhinal cortex (EC) expresses high level of CRF and CRF2 receptors without expression of CRF1 receptors. Bath application of CRF concentration-dependently increased the frequency of picrotoxin (PTX)-induced epileptiform activity recorded from layer III of the EC in entorhinal slices although CRF alone did not elicit epileptiform activity...
2014: PloS One
Elena Martínez-Laorden, Juan-Antonio García-Carmona, Alberto Baroja-Mazo, Paola Romecín, Noemí M Atucha, María-Victoria Milanés, María-Luisa Laorden
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The negative affective states of withdrawal involve the recruitment of brain and peripheral stress circuitry [noradrenergic activity, induction of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis and activation of heat shock proteins (Hsps)]. Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) pathways are important mediators in the negative symptoms of opioid withdrawal. We performed a series of experiments to characterize the role of the CRF₁ receptor in the response of stress systems to morphine withdrawal and its effect in the heart using genetically engineered mice lacking functional CRF₁ receptors...
February 2014: British Journal of Pharmacology
Julia A Golier, Kimberly Caramanica, Iouri Makotkine, Leo Sher, Rachel Yehuda
Studies have demonstrated altered sensitivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis to its direct regulators in veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but little is known about the adrenal response to hormonal stimulation in PTSD. An increased cortisol response to synthetic corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) was recently found to be associated with war-zone deployment and not PTSD specifically. To more accurately assess whether there is altered adrenocortical responsivity to hormonal stimulation in relation to war-zone deployment or PTSD, we performed the low-dose cosyntropin stimulation test in a sample of 45 male veterans: 13 war-zone exposed veterans with chronic PTSD (PTSD+), 22 war-zone exposed veterans without chronic PTSD (PTSD-), and 10 veterans not exposed to a war-zone and without chronic PTSD (non-exposed)...
February 2014: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Todd E Anthony, Nick Dee, Amy Bernard, Walter Lerchner, Nathaniel Heintz, David J Anderson
The extended amygdala has dominated research on the neural circuitry of fear and anxiety, but the septohippocampal axis also plays an important role. The lateral septum (LS) is thought to suppress fear and anxiety through its outputs to the hypothalamus. However, this structure has not yet been dissected using modern tools. The type 2 CRF receptor (Crfr2) marks a subset of LS neurons whose functional connectivity we have investigated using optogenetics. Crfr2(+) cells include GABAergic projection neurons that connect with the anterior hypothalamus...
January 30, 2014: Cell
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