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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804807/plasma-cortisol-response-cannot-be-classically-conditioned-in-a-taste-endocrine-paradigm-in-humans
#1
Liubov Petrakova, Karoline Boy, Marisa Kügler, Sven Benson, Harald Engler, Lars Möller, Manfred Schedlowski
RATIONALE: Peripheral immune responses can be modified by associative learning procedures. Less is known, however, whether and to what extent neuroendocrine parameters can be classically conditioned. OBJECTIVES: In this randomized double-blind study, we modified an established paradigm to behaviorally condition endocrine responses in humans. METHODS: Thirty-one healthy male participants received a distinctively flavored green drink as the conditioned stimulus (CS) and intravenous injections of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) (CRH group, N = 17) or NaCl (placebo group, N = 14) as the unconditioned stimulus (US) during two subsequent acquisition trials...
August 13, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799040/automated-microfluidic-devices-integrating-solid-phase-extraction-fluorescent-labeling-and-microchip-electrophoresis-for-preterm-birth-biomarker-analysis
#2
Vishal Sahore, Mukul Sonker, Anna V Nielsen, Radim Knob, Suresh Kumar, Adam T Woolley
We have developed multichannel integrated microfluidic devices for automated preconcentration, labeling, purification, and separation of preterm birth (PTB) biomarkers. We fabricated multilayer poly(dimethylsiloxane)-cyclic olefin copolymer (PDMS-COC) devices that perform solid-phase extraction (SPE) and microchip electrophoresis (μCE) for automated PTB biomarker analysis. The PDMS control layer had a peristaltic pump and pneumatic valves for flow control, while the PDMS fluidic layer had five input reservoirs connected to microchannels and a μCE system...
August 10, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797603/chronic-traumatic-stress-impairs-memory-in-mice-potential-roles-of-acetylcholine-neuroinflammation-and-corticotropin-releasing-factor-expression-in-the-hippocampus
#3
Ami Bhakta, Kartheek Gavini, Euitaek Yang, Lani Lyman-Henley, Kodeeswaran Parameshwaran
Chronic stress in humans can result in multiple adverse psychiatric and neurobiological outcomes, including memory deficits. These adverse outcomes can be more severe if each episode of stress is very traumatic. When compared to acute or short term stress relatively little is known about the effects of chronic traumatic stress on memory and molecular changes in hippocampus, a brain area involved in memory processing. Here we studied the effects of chronic traumatic stress in mice by exposing them to adult Long Evan rats for 28 consecutive days and subsequently analyzing behavioral outcomes and the changes in the hippocampus...
August 8, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793974/corticotropin-releasing-factor-receptor-1-antagonism-is-ineffective-for-women-with-posttraumatic-stress-disorder
#4
Boadie W Dunlop, Elisabeth B Binder, Dan Iosifescu, Sanjay J Mathew, Thomas C Neylan, Julius C Pape, Tania Carrillo-Roa, Charles Green, Becky Kinkead, Dimitri Grigoriadis, Barbara O Rothbaum, Charles B Nemeroff, Helen S Mayberg
BACKGROUND: Medication and psychotherapy treatments for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) provide insufficient benefit for many patients. Substantial preclinical and clinical data indicate abnormalities in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, including signaling by corticotropin-releasing factor, in the pathophysiology of PTSD. METHODS: We conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, fixed-dose clinical trial evaluating the efficacy of GSK561679, a corticotropin-releasing factor receptor 1 (CRF1 receptor) antagonist in adult women with PTSD...
July 4, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790896/a-quantitative-analysis-of-the-distribution-of-crh-neurons-in-whole-mouse-brain
#5
Jie Peng, Ben Long, Jing Yuan, Xue Peng, Hong Ni, Xiangning Li, Hui Gong, Qingming Luo, Anan Li
Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), with widespread expression in the brain, plays a key role in modulating a series of behaviors, including anxiety, arousal, motor function, learning and memory. Previous studies have focused on some brain regions with densely distributed CRH neurons such as paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus (PVH) and bed nuclei of the stria terminalis (BST) and revealed some basic structural and functional knowledge of CRH neurons. However, there is no systematic analysis of brain-wide distribution of CRH neurons...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790894/anatomical-organization-of-urocortin-3-synthesizing-neurons-and-immunoreactive-terminals-in-the-central-nervous-system-of-non-human-primates-sapajus-spp
#6
Daniella S Battagello, Giovanne B Diniz, Paulo L Candido, Joelcimar M da Silva, Amanda R de Oliveira, Kelly R Torres da Silva, Claudimara F P Lotfi, José A de Oliveira, Luciane V Sita, Cláudio A Casatti, David A Lovejoy, Jackson C Bittencourt
Urocortin 3 (UCN3) is a neuropeptide member of the corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) peptide family that acts as a selective endogenous ligand for the CRF, subtype 2 (CRF2) receptor. Immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization data from rodents revealed UCN3-containing neurons in discrete regions of the central nervous system (CNS), such as the medial preoptic nucleus, the rostral perifornical area (PFA), the medial nucleus of the amygdala and the superior paraolivary nucleus. UCN3-immunoreactive (UCN3-ir) terminals are distributed throughout regions that mostly overlap with regions of CRF2 messenger RNA (mRNA) expression...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790893/brain-and-peripheral-atypical-inflammatory-mediators-potentiate-neuroinflammation-and-neurodegeneration
#7
REVIEW
Duraisamy Kempuraj, Ramasamy Thangavel, Govindhasamy P Selvakumar, Smita Zaheer, Mohammad E Ahmed, Sudhanshu P Raikwar, Haris Zahoor, Daniyal Saeed, Prashant A Natteru, Shankar Iyer, Asgar Zaheer
Neuroinflammatory response is primarily a protective mechanism in the brain. However, excessive and chronic inflammatory responses can lead to deleterious effects involving immune cells, brain cells and signaling molecules. Neuroinflammation induces and accelerates pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD), Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Multiple sclerosis (MS). Neuroinflammatory pathways are indicated as novel therapeutic targets for these diseases. Mast cells are immune cells of hematopoietic origin that regulate inflammation and upon activation release many proinflammatory mediators in systemic and central nervous system (CNS) inflammatory conditions...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790870/repository-corticotropin-injection-as-adjunctive-therapy-in-patients-with-rheumatoid-arthritis-who-have-failed-previous-therapies-with-at-least-three-different-modes-of-action
#8
Theresa Gillis, Megan Crane, Carly Hinkle, Nathan Wei
OBJECTIVE: Many types of treatment are available for patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), however, some patients fail to achieve remission. This report aims to determine the safety and efficacy of using repository corticotropin injection (RCI) as an adjunctive therapy in patients with RA refractory to at least three therapeutics with different mechanisms of action. METHOD: In this open-label, interventional, single-group study, patients received 80 U RCI twice weekly via subcutaneous injection over 12 weeks...
2017: Open Access Rheumatology: Research and Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782622/banxia-houpu-decoction-restores-glucose-intolerance-in-cums-rats-through-improvement-of-insulin-signaling-and-suppression-of-nlrp3-inflammasome-activation-in-liver-and-brain
#9
Ke-Ke Jia, Yan-Jing Zheng, Yan-Xiu Zhang, Jia-Hui Liu, Rui-Qing Jiao, Ying Pan, Ling-Dong Kong
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Banxia-houpu decoction is a famous formula in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) with the powerful anti-depressant activity. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study aimed to investigate the effect of Banxia-houpu decoction on glucose intolerance associated with anhedonia in chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) rats, then to explore its underlying pharmacological mechanisms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: After 6-week CUMS procedure, male Wistar rats were given Banxia-houpu decoction (3...
August 4, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780891/vitamin-d-and-corticotropin-releasing-hormone-in-term-and-preterm-birth-potential-contributions-to-preterm-labor-and-birth-outcome
#10
Sara A Mohamed, Abdeljabar El Andaloussi, Ayman Al-Hendy, Ramkumar Menon, Faranak Behnia, Jay Schulkin, Michael L Power
BACKGROUND: Poor maternal vitamin D status and elevated circulating corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) are associated with preterm birth. It is not known if these risk factors are independent or interrelated. Both are associated with inflammation. METHODS: We measured maternal circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OH-D) and CRH from 97 samples collected from 15 early-preterm, 31 late-preterm, 21 early-term, and 30 term births. The potential involvement of vitamin D in the regulation of inflammation was evaluated by Q-PCR in human uterine smooth muscle (UTSM) cell line...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28779842/strategy-for-the-thermostabilization-of-an-agonist-bound-gpcr-coupled-to-a-g-protein
#11
Annette Strege, Byron Carpenter, Patricia C Edwards, Christopher G Tate
Structure determination of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) in the inactive state bound to high-affinity antagonists has been very successful through the implementation of a number of protein engineering and crystallization strategies. However, the structure determination of GPCRs in their fully active state coupled to a G protein is still very challenging. Recently, mini-G proteins were developed, which recapitulate the coupling of a full heterotrimeric G protein to a GPCR despite being less than one-third of the size...
2017: Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776199/contribution-of-vesicular-glutamate-transporters-to-stress-response-and-related-psychopathologies-studies-in-vglut3-knockout-mice
#12
REVIEW
Hanga Réka Horváth, Csilla Lea Fazekas, Diána Balázsfi, Subodh Kumar Jain, József Haller, Dóra Zelena
Maintenance of the homeostasis in a constantly changing environment is a fundamental process of life. Disturbances of the homeostatic balance is defined as stress response and is induced by wide variety of challenges called stressors. Being the main excitatory neurotransmitter of the central nervous system glutamate is important in the adaptation process of stress regulating both the catecholaminergic system and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis. Data are accumulating about the role of different glutamatergic receptors at all levels of these axes, but little is known about the contribution of different vesicular glutamate transporters (VGluT1-3) characterizing the glutamatergic neurons...
August 3, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774292/rosetta-broker-for-membrane-protein-structure-prediction-concentrative-nucleoside-transporter-3-and-corticotropin-releasing-factor-receptor-1-test-cases
#13
Dorota Latek
BACKGROUND: Membrane proteins are difficult targets for structure prediction due to the limited structural data deposited in Protein Data Bank. Most computational methods for membrane protein structure prediction are based on the comparative modeling. There are only few de novo methods targeting that distinct protein family. In this work an example of such de novo method was used to structurally and functionally characterize two representatives of distinct membrane proteins families of solute carrier transporters and G protein-coupled receptors...
August 3, 2017: BMC Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771403/structural-insight-into-the-activation-of-a-class-b-g-protein-coupled-receptor-by-peptide-hormones-in-live-human-cells
#14
Lisa Seidel, Barbara Zarzycka, Saheem A Zaidi, Vsevolod Katritch, Irene Coin
The activation mechanism of class B G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) remains largely unknown. To characterize conformational changes induced by peptide hormones, we investigated interactions of the class B corticotropin-releasing factor receptor type 1 (CRF1R) with two peptide agonists and three peptide antagonists obtained by N-truncation of the agonists. Surface mapping with genetically encoded photo-crosslinkers and pair-wise crosslinking revealed distinct footprints of agonists and antagonists on the transmembrane domain (TMD) of CRF1R and identified numerous ligand-receptor contact sites, directly from the intact receptor in live human cells...
August 3, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765614/hierarchy-in-the-home-cage-affects-behaviour-and-gene-expression-in-group-housed-c57bl-6-male-mice
#15
Yasuyuki Horii, Tatsuhiro Nagasawa, Hiroyuki Sakakibara, Aki Takahashi, Akira Tanave, Yuki Matsumoto, Hiromichi Nagayama, Kazuto Yoshimi, Michiko T Yasuda, Kayoko Shimoi, Tsuyoshi Koide
Group-housed male mice exhibit aggressive behaviour towards their cage mates and form a social hierarchy. Here, we describe how social hierarchy in standard group-housed conditions affects behaviour and gene expression in male mice. Four male C57BL/6 mice were kept in each cage used in the study, and the social hierarchy was determined from observation of video recordings of aggressive behaviour. After formation of a social hierarchy, the behaviour and hippocampal gene expression were analysed in the mice. Higher anxiety- and depression-like behaviours and elevated gene expression of hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing hormone and hippocampal serotonin receptor subtypes were observed in subordinate mice compared with those of dominant mice...
August 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762178/the-influence-of-duloxetine-on-detrusor-overactivity-in-rats-with-depression-induced-by-13-cis-retinoic-acid
#16
Andrzej Wróbel, Ewa Rechberger, Tomasz Rechberger
INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of duloxetine in an animal model of detrusor overactivity induced by depression. METHODS: After 6 weeks of 13-cis-retinoic acid administration at a dose of 1 mg/kg/day, rats were given duloxetine at a dose of 1 mg/kg. This was followed by conscious cystometry, a forced swim test, and locomotor activity measurement. The levels of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) in the hypothalamus, amygdala and plasma were also determined...
July 31, 2017: International Urogynecology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760047/demographics-treatment-patterns-and-healthcare-utilization-and-cost-of-repository-corticotropin-injection-in-patients-with-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-or-rheumatoid-arthritis
#17
Bingcao Wu, Gaurav Deshpande, Tao Gu, Breanna Popelar, Michael Philbin, George J Wan
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate healthcare resource utilization (HRU) and costs among patients who initiated repository corticotropin injection (RCI; H.P. Acthar® Gel) treatment for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) or systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). METHODS: Patients aged ≥18 years with ≥2 diagnoses for either RA or SLE between 07/01/2006 and 04/30/2015 were identified in the HealthCore Integrated Research Database. Index RCI date was earliest date of a medical or pharmacy claim for RCI after diagnosis...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Medical Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759390/cholestasis-and-hepatic-iron-deposition-in-an-infant-with-complex-glycerol-kinase-deficiency
#18
Diana Montoya-Williams, Meredith Mowitz
We present a 6-week-old male infant with persistent hyperbilirubinemia, hypertriglyceridemia, elevated creatine kinase levels, and transaminitis since the second week of life. When he developed hyperkalemia, clinical suspicion was raised for adrenal insufficiency despite hemodynamic stability. A full endocrine workup revealed nearly absent adrenocorticotropic hormone. Coupled with his persistent hypertriglyceridemia (peak of 811 mg/dL) and elevated creatine kinase levels (>20 000 U/L), his corticotropin level lead to a clinical diagnosis of complex glycerol kinase deficiency (GKD), also known as Xp21 deletion syndrome...
July 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758220/distribution-and-chemical-composition-of-estrogen-receptor-%C3%AE-neurons-in-the-paraventricular-nucleus-of-the-female-and-male-mouse-hypothalamus
#19
Mario G Oyola, Maranda K Thompson, Aaron Z Handa, Robert J Handa
Activation of estrogen receptor beta (ERβ)-expressing neurons regulates the mammalian stress response via the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. These neurons densely populate the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN). Recent research has revealed striking differences between rat and mouse PVN cytochemistry, but careful exploration of PVN ERβ neurons in mice has been hindered by a lack of specific ERβ antisera. Therefore, we used male and female transgenic mice expressing EGFP under the control of the mouse ERβ promoter (ERβ-EGFP) to examine the chemical architecture of PVN ERβ cells...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755509/the-changes-in-and-relationship-between-plasma-nitric-oxide-and-corticotropin-releasing-hormone-in-patients-with-major-depressive-disorder
#20
Yun-Rong Lu, Yan Zhang, Ying-Bo Rao, Xi Chen, Han-Fen Lou, Yu Zhang, Hai-Yan Xie, Ping Fang, Li-Wei Hu
Because there is strong evidence of roles of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis and nitric oxide (NO) synthase-NO system in depression, but the relationship between them is unknown, the aim of this study was to elucidate whether there is any correlation between NO and corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) in major depressive disorder (MDD) patients. In 16 outpatients with MDD and 18 healthy controls, the plasma amino acids citrulline (Cit) and arginine (Arg) were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography, and CRH levels was measured by radioimmunoassay...
July 29, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
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