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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777689/forever-young-endocrinology-of-paedomorphosis-in-the-mexican-axolotl-ambystoma-mexicanum
#1
REVIEW
Bert De Groef, Sylvia V H Grommen, Veerle M Darras
The Mexican axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) is a salamander species that does not undergo metamorphosis, resulting in the retention of juvenile characteristics in the mature breeding stage (paedomorphosis). Here we review the endocrinological studies investigating the proximate cause of axolotl paedomorphosis with a focus on the hypothalamo-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis. It is well established that axolotl paedomorphosis is a consequence of low activity of the HPT axis. The pituitary hormone thyrotropin (TSH) is capable of inducing metamorphosis in the axolotl, which indicates that all processes and interactions in the HPT axis below the pituitary level are functional, but that TSH release is impaired...
May 16, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776484/corticotropin-releasing-factor-in-the-brain-and-blocking-spinal-descending-signals-induce-hyperalgesia-in-the-latent-sensitization-model-of-chronic-pain
#2
Wenling Chen, Yvette Taché, Juan Carlos Marvizón
Latent sensitization is a model of chronic pain in which an injury triggers a period of hyperalgesia followed by an apparent recovery, but in which pain sensitization persists but is suppressed by opioid and adrenergic receptors. One important characteristic of latent sensitization is that hyperalgesia can be triggered by acute stress. To determine whether the effect of stress is mimicked by the activation of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) signaling in the brain, rats with latent sensitization induced by injecting complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA, 50 μl) in one hind paw were given an intracerebroventricular (i...
June 15, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775703/ultrastructural-characterization-of-corticotropin-releasing-factor-and-neuropeptide-y-in-the-rat-locus-coeruleus-anatomical-evidence-for-putative-interactions
#3
Catherine C Theisen, Beverly A S Reyes, E L Sabban, Elisabeth J Van Bockstaele
As a neurochemical mediator of stress resilience, NPY has been shown to oppose excitatory effects of the pro-stress neuropeptide corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF). Previous studies have described the anatomical organization of NPY and CRF in the central nucleus of the amygdala, which sends CRF projections to the locus coeruleus (LC), activating LC norepinephrine release. However, the cellular substrates for interactions between NPY and CRF in the LC remain unknown. In this study, we investigated these anatomical substrates in the male rat LC, using immunocytochemistry, confocal microscopy, and immunoelectron microscopy to detect NPY and CRF, as well as CRF and Y1 or Y2 receptors (Y1R or Y2R)...
May 15, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773855/the-anxiolytic-like-effects-of-ginsenoside-rg3-on-chronic-unpredictable-stress-in-rats
#4
Jia-Ning Xu, Li-Fang Chen, Jun Su, Zhi-Li Liu, Jie Chen, Qing-Fen Lin, Wei-Dong Mao, Dong Shen
The present study is to evaluate the anxiolytic-like activities underlying ginsenoside Rg3 (GRg3). The anxiolytic-like activities were induced by GRg3 (20 and 40 mg/kg, i.g), evidenced by blocking the decreased time and entries in the open arms in elevated plus maze test and by reversing the increased latency to feed in novelty-suppressed feeding test. In addition, the decreased levels on progesterone, allopregnanolone, serotonin (5-HT) in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus of chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) were blocked by GRg3 (20 and 40 mg/kg, i...
May 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772620/-development-of-ectopic-adrenocorticotropic-hormone-syndrome-in-a-patient-with-prostate-cancer-during-combined-androgen-blockade-therapy
#5
Yosuke Sekii, Mitsuhiro Yoshinaga, Masahiro Nakagawa, Hidefumi Kishikawa, Kazumasa Oka, Kenji Nishimura
A 74-year old man presented to us with difficulty urinating. The laboratory examinations revealed an elevated prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level. A prostate biopsy revealed prostate adenocarcinoma. The computed tomography scan showed metastasis to lymph nodes in the pelvic cavity and both adrenal glands. Combined androgen blockade therapy was started, and PSA levels began to decrease gradually. However, 2 months later, he was hospitalized for treatment of cellulitis and was found to have hypertension, hyperglycemia, and hypokalemia...
April 2018: Hinyokika Kiyo. Acta Urologica Japonica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767278/the-hypothalamus-and-neuropsychiatric-disorders-psychiatry-meets-microscopy
#6
REVIEW
Hans-Gert Bernstein, Henrik Dobrowolny, Bernhard Bogerts, Gerburg Keilhoff, Johann Steiner
The past decades have witnessed an explosion of knowledge on brain structural abnormalities in schizophrenia and depression. Focusing on the hypothalamus, we try to show how postmortem brain microscopy has contributed to our understanding of mental disease-related pathologic alterations of this brain region. Gross anatomical abnormalities (volume changes of the third ventricle, the hypothalamus, and its nuclei) and alterations at the cellular level (loss of neurons, increased or decreased expression of hypothalamic peptides such as oxytocin, vasopressin, corticotropin-releasing hormone, and other regulatory factors as well as of enzymes involved in neurotransmitter and neuropeptide metabolism) have been reported in schizophrenia and/or depression...
May 16, 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763783/sex-differences-in-the-acth-and-cortisol-response-to-pharmacological-probes-are-stressor-specific-and-occur-regardless-of-alcohol-dependence-history
#7
Robert M Anthenelli, Jaimee L Heffner, Thomas J Blom, Belinda E Daniel, Benjamin S McKenna, Gary S Wand
Women and men differ in their risk for developing stress-related conditions such as alcohol use and anxiety disorders and there are gender differences in the typical sequence in which these disorders co-occur. However, the neural systems underlying these gender-biased psychopathologies and clinical course modifiers in humans are poorly understood and may involve both central and peripheral mechanisms regulating the limbic-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. In the present randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled, triple-dummy crossover study, we juxtaposed a centrally-acting, citalopram (2 mg/unit BMI) neuroendocrine stimulation test with a peripherally-acting, dexamethasone (Dex) (1...
May 4, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755375/influence-of-crhr1-polymorphisms-and-childhood-abuse-on-suicide-attempts-in-affective-disorders-a-gxe-approach
#8
Birgit Ludwig, Klemens Kienesberger, Laura Carlberg, Patrick Swoboda, Alexandra Bernegger, Romina Koller, Qingzhong Wang, Michelle Inaner, Melanie Zotter, Nestor D Kapusta, Helmuth Haslacher, Martin Aigner, Siegfried Kasper, Alexandra Schosser
Background: Previous studies have shown that the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal-axis (HPA-axis) is closely involved in the development of affective disorders. Given that early life events are also linked to dysregulation of the same system, there might be an association between childhood adversities and suicidal behavior in affective disorders, moderated by HPA-axis genes. We aimed to investigate a potential association between childhood trauma and previous suicide attempts in affective disorder patients, moderated by variants of the corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor 1 (CRHR1) gene...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753863/sex-differences-in-the-subcellular-distribution-of-corticotropin-releasing-factor-receptor-1-in-the-rat-hippocampus-following-chronic-immobilization-stress
#9
Helena R McAlinn, Batsheva Reich, Natalina H Contoreggi, Renata Poulton Kamakura, Andreina G Dyer, Bruce S McEwen, Elizabeth M Waters, Teresa A Milner
Corticotropin releasing factor receptors (CRFR1) contribute to stress-induced adaptations in hippocampal structure and function that can affect learning and memory processes. Our prior studies showed that female rats with elevated estrogens compared to males have more plasmalemmal CRFR1 in CA1 pyramidal cells, suggesting a greater sensitivity to stress. Here, we examined the distribution of hippocampal CRFR1 following chronic immobilization stress (CIS) in female and male rats using immuno-electron microscopy...
May 10, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719288/the-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis-a-brief-history
#10
Walter L Miller
The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is central to homeostasis, stress responses, energy metabolism, and neuropsychiatric function. The history of this complex system involves discovery of the relevant glands (adrenal, pituitary, hypothalamus), hormones (cortisol, corticotropin, corticotropin-releasing hormone), and the receptors for these hormones. The adrenal and pituitary were identified by classical anatomists, but most of this history has taken place rather recently, and has involved complex chemistry, biochemistry, genetics, and clinical investigation...
May 2, 2018: Hormone Research in Pædiatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713130/mucosa-repair-mechanisms-of-tong-xie-yao-fang-mediated-by-crh-r2-in-murine-dextran-sulfate-sodium-induced-colitis
#11
Shan-Shan Gong, Yi-Hong Fan, Shi-Yi Wang, Qing-Qing Han, Bin Lv, Yi Xu, Xi Chen, Yao-Er He
AIM: To explore the significance of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH)-receptor (R)2 in mucosal healing of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis and the effect of Tong-Xie-Yao-Fang (TXYF) on CRH-R2 expression and regulation. METHODS: Ulcerative colitis was induced in mice by administration of 3% (w/v) DSS for 7 d. Once the model was established, mice were administered urocortin-2 (30 μg/kg), a peptide which binds exclusively to CRH-R2, or various doses of aqueous TXYF extracts (2...
April 28, 2018: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704516/the-neuroanatomic-complexity-of-the-crf-and-da-systems-and-their-interface-what-we-still-don-t-know
#12
REVIEW
E A Kelly, J L Fudge
Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) is a neuropeptide that mediates the stress response. Long known to contribute to regulation of the adrenal stress response initiated in the hypothalamic-pituitary axis (HPA), a complex pattern of extrahypothalamic CRF expression is also described in rodents and primates. Cross-talk between the CRF and midbrain dopamine (DA) systems links the stress response to DA regulation. Classically CRF+ cells in the extended amygdala and paraventricular nucleus (PVN) are considered the main source of this input, principally targeting the ventral tegmental area (VTA)...
April 25, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704202/role-of-hpa-and-the-hpg-axis-interaction-in-testosterone-mediated-learned-helpless-behavior
#13
Birgit Ludwig, Bhaskar Roy, Yogesh Dwivedi
Affective disorders show sex-specific differences in prevalence, symptoms, and complications. One hypothesis for this discrepancy is the interaction between the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. The present study investigates the influence of androgen on the behavioral phenotype and explores how it interacts with HPA axis genes. Gonadectomized (GDX) and GDX rats treated with testosterone propionate (T) were tested for learned helplessness (LH) behavior and compared with tested controls (TC)...
April 28, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29701827/differential-responses-of-the-hpa-axis-to-mild-blast-traumatic-brain-injury-in-male-and-female-mice
#14
Ashley L Russell, M Riley Richardson, Bradly M Bauman, Ian M Hernandez, Samantha Saperstein, Robert J Handa, T John Wu
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) affects 10 million people world-wide, annually. TBI is linked to increased risk of psychiatric disorders. TBI induced by explosive devices has a unique phenotype. Over 1/3 of people exposed to blast-induced (b)TBI have prolonged neuroendocrine deficits, shown by anterior pituitary dysfunction. Dysregulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is linked to increased risk for psychiatric disorders. Not only is there limited information on how the HPA axis responds to mild (m)bTBI, sex differences are understudied...
April 25, 2018: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29700576/targeted-overexpression-of-crh-receptor-subtype-1-in-central-amygdala-neurons-effect-on-alcohol-seeking-behavior
#15
L Broccoli, S Uhrig, G von Jonquieres, K Schönig, D Bartsch, N J Justice, R Spanagel, W H Sommer, M Klugmann, A C Hansson
RATIONALE: The corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) system is a key mediator of stress-induced responses in alcohol-seeking behavior. Recent research has identified the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA), a brain region involved in the regulation of fear and stress-induced responses that is especially rich in CRH-positive neurons, as a key player in mediating excessive alcohol seeking. However, detailed characterization of the specific influences that local neuronal populations exert in mediating alcohol responses is hampered by current limitations in pharmacological and immunohistochemical tools for targeting CRH receptor subtype 1 (CRHR1)...
April 26, 2018: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690521/the-gaba-a-receptor-%C3%AE-2-subunit-activates-a-neuronal-tlr4-signal-in-the-ventral-tegmental-area-that-regulates-alcohol-and-nicotine-abuse
#16
Irina Balan, Kaitlin T Warnock, Adam Puche, Marjorie C Gondre-Lewis, Harry June, Laure Aurelian
Alcoholism initiates with episodes of excessive alcohol drinking, known as binge drinking, which is one form of excessive drinking (NIAAA Newsletter, 2004) that is related to impulsivity and anxiety (Ducci et al., 2007; Edenberg et al., 2004) and is also predictive of smoking status. The predisposition of non-alcohol exposed subjects to initiate binge drinking is controlled by neuroimmune signaling that includes an innately activated neuronal Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signal. This signal also regulates cognitive impulsivity, a heritable trait that defines drug abuse initiation...
April 21, 2018: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687037/open-source-cost-effective-system-for-low-light-in-vivo-fiber-photometry
#17
Kathryn Simone, Tamás Füzesi, David Rosenegger, Jaideep Bains, Kartikeya Murari
Fiber photometry uses genetically encoded optical reporters to link specific cellular activity in stereotaxically targeted brain structures to specific behaviors. There are still a number of barriers that have hindered the widespread adoption of this approach. This includes cost, but also the high-levels of light required to excite the fluorophore, limiting commercial systems to the investigation of short-term transients in neuronal activity to avoid damage of tissue by light. Here, we present a cost-effective optoelectronic system for in vivo fiber photometry that achieves high-sensitivity to changes in fluorescence intensity, enabling detection of optical transients of a popular calcium reporter with excitation powers as low as 100 nW...
April 2018: Neurophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674171/a-combinatorial-modulation-of-synaptic-plasticity-in-the-rat-medial-amygdala-by-oxytocin-urocortin3-and-estrogen
#18
Linoy Mia Frankiensztajn, Rotem Gur-Pollack, Shlomo Wagner
The medial nucleus of the amygdala (MeA) plays a pivotal role in a variety of mammalian social behaviors. Specifically, activity of the hypothalamic pro-social neuropeptide oxytocin in the MeA was shown to be crucial for social recognition memory. The MeA is also a hub of neuroendocrine activity and expresses a large number of receptors of neuropeptides and hormones. These include oxytocin receptor, estrogen receptor alpha and corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) receptor type 2 (CRFR2). In a previous study we found that intracerebroventricular (ICV) oxytocin application to anesthetized rats promotes long-term depression (LTD) of the MeA response to electrical stimulation of its main sensory input, the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB)...
April 11, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663559/sex-differences-in-hippocampal-mineralocorticoid-and-glucocorticoid-receptor-mrna-expression-in-response-to-acute-mate-pair-separation-in-zebra-finches-taeniopygia-guttata
#19
Farrah N Madison, Andrew J Kesner, Beau A Alward, Gregory F Ball
Mate separation has been shown to mediate changes in physiological and behavioral processes via activation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in both mammalian and avian species. In order to elucidate the neural mechanisms associated with changes in the HPA axis in response to social stress, we investigated the effects of mate pair separation on circulating corticosterone concentrations as well as gene expression levels of mineralocorticoid receptor (MR), glucocorticoid receptor (GR), and corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) in the hypothalamus and hippocampus of both male and female zebra finches, a species that forms strong pair bonds...
April 16, 2018: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29645316/neuropeptide-and-steroid-hormone-mediators-of-neuroendocrine-regulation
#20
REVIEW
Ashley L Heck, Carlos C Crestani, Alonso Fernández-Guasti, Darwin O Larco, Artur Mayerhofer, Charles E Roselli
In order to maintain the health and wellbeing of all mammals, numerous aspects of physiology are controlled by neuroendocrine mechanisms. These mechanisms ultimately enable communication between neurons and glands throughout the body and are centrally mediated by neuropeptides and/or steroid hormones. A recent session at the International Workshop in Neuroendocrinology highlighted essential roles for some of these neuropeptide and steroid hormone mediators in the neuroendocrine regulation of stress-, reproduction-, and behavior- related processes...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
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