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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933199/efficacy-and-tolerability-of-repository-corticotropin-injection-in-patients-with-persistently-active-sle-results-of-a-phase-4-randomised-controlled-pilot-study
#1
Richard Furie, Margaret Mitrane, Enxu Zhao, Maya Das, Daner Li, Patrice M Becker
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of a prolonged-release formulation of a porcine adrenocorticotropic hormone analogue (repository corticotropin injection (RCI)) added to standard of care in patients requiring moderate-dose corticosteroids for symptomatic SLE. METHODS: This prospective, randomised, double-blind, phase 4, pilot study (NCT01753401) enrolled 38 patients with persistently active SLE involving skin and/or joints. Enrolled patients received RCI, 40 U daily or 80 U every other day, or volume-matched placebo gel, for 8 weeks, with dose tapering to twice weekly during weeks 5-8...
2016: Lupus Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930715/apparent-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis-suppression-via-reduction-of-interleukin-6-by-glucocorticoid-therapy-in-systemic-autoimmune-diseases
#2
Natsuki Fujio, Shotaro Masuoka, Kotaro Shikano, Natsuko Kusunoki, Toshihiro Nanki, Shinichi Kawai
CONTEXT: Suppression of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is a serious complication of systemic glucocorticoid therapy. OBJECTIVE: To clarify the influence of proinflammatory cytokines on the HPA axis after onset of glucocorticoid therapy in patients with systemic autoimmune diseases. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Forty-eight glucocorticoid-naïve patients with systemic autoimmune diseases (28 women) who were starting prednisolone therapy according to our standard regimens were prospectively observed...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923665/nicotine-enhances-gabaergic-inhibition-of-oxytocin-mrna-expressing-neuron-in-the-hypothalamic-paraventricular-nucleus-in-vitro-in-rats
#3
Ke-Min Zhang, Guo-Yan Zhao, Bin-Bin Zhang, Qi Xu, Chun-Ping Chu, Hua Jin, De-Lai Qiu
We recently found that extracellular administration of nicotine indirectly excited hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) mRNA-expressing neurons. In this study, we studied the effect of nicotine on PVN oxytocin (OT) mRNA-expressing neuron in vitro in rats, by whole-cell patch-clamp recording technique, immunohistochemistry methods and single-cell reverse-transcription multiplex polymerase chain reaction (SC-RT-mPCR) methods Our results showed that 79.3% (73/92) of the 92 PVN putative magnocellular neurons co-expressed GAPDH mRNA and OT mRNA...
December 3, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921334/synacton-and-individual-activity-of-synthetic-and-natural-corticotropins
#4
T V Vyunova, L A Andreeva, K V Shevchenko, N F Myasoedov
Short endogenous peptides represent one of the most important constituents of the mammalian body's general regulatory system. Some synthesized analogs and modified natural peptides (eg, corticotropins) also show high biological activity. Nevertheless, the mechanism of action of regulatory peptides remains unclear. To explain the effects of peptides of intermolecular processes, the hypothesis that a synactonal mechanism underlies the action of regulatory peptides, exemplified by the heptapeptide Semax, has been proposed...
December 6, 2016: Journal of Molecular Recognition: JMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914245/perinatal-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis-regulation-among-women-with-eating-disorders-and-their-infants
#5
A Easter, E Taborelli, A Bye, P A Zunszain, C M Pariante, J Treasure, U Schmidt, N Micali
BACKGROUND: Psychiatric illness is associated with heightened hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity during pregnancy which may have long term effects on infant stress regulation. HPA axis regulation has not previously been investigated in women with eating disorders (ED) or their infants during the perinatal period. METHODS: Women were recruited to a prospective longitudinal study in three groups: 1) current or active ED (C-ED=31), 2) past ED (P-ED=29) and healthy control (HC=57)...
November 11, 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898588/the-gut-peptide-neuropeptide-y-and-post-traumatic-stress-disorder
#6
Ann M Rasmusson
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article reviews the role of neuropeptide Y (NPY) in the pathophysiology of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and gastrointestinal disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) with which PTSD is highly comorbid. NPY is low in the cerebrospinal fluid and plasma of male combat veterans with PTSD and correlates negatively with sympathetic nervous system (SNS) hyperreactivity, PTSD symptoms and time to recovery. NPY regulation has not yet been evaluated in women with PTSD...
November 24, 2016: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889892/effects-of-mental-stress-induction-on-heart-rate-variability-in-patients-with-panic-disorder
#7
Katja Petrowski, Susann Wichmann, Timo Siepmann, Stefan R Bornstein, Martin Siepmann
Reduced heart rate variability (HRV) constitutes a widely used marker of cardiac autonomic inflexibility which has been linked to disorders such as panic disorder (PD). To date, the pathophysiological mechanisms whereby panic leads to attenuated HRV are not fully elucidated. We aimed to investigate the hypothesis that PD patients show pathological reactivity both in response to interoceptive and psychosocial stress in comparison to healthy individuals. We performed a controlled study on 38 patients diagnosed with PD [20 males and 18 females aged 35...
November 26, 2016: Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888772/adrenocortical-sensitivity-moderated-by-ongoing-stress-predicts-drinking-intensity-in-alcohol-dependent-men
#8
Bryon Adinoff, David Leonard, Julianne Price, Martin A Javors, Robrina Walker, E Sherwood Brown, Hong Xiao, Uma Rao
Allostatic load from both environmental stressors and persistent glucocorticoid secretion has been associated with disease severity in alcohol dependence. Heightened relapse risk and/or drinking severity, in particular, may be a reaction to alcohol- and withdrawal-induced changes in physiological stress response systems coupled with ongoing life stress, although their shared contributions upon drinking severity have not been assessed. To investigate the combined contribution of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) reactivity and environmental stressors (e...
November 5, 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887910/assessment-of-serum-level-of-corticotropin-releasing-factor-in-primary-nocturnal-enuresis
#9
Ayat A Motawie, Amany M Abd Al-Aziz, Hanan M Hamed, Amany A A Fatouh, Mona A M Awad, Amany Abd El-Ghany
INTRODUCTION: Primary nocturnal enuresis is one of the sleep related phenomena characterized by disruption in the relationship between arousal and urination. Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) is a neurohormone released from the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus into the median eminence to elicit release of adrenocorticotrophin from the anterior pituitary. It may act to modulate autonomic function and behavior in concert with the endocrine effects. Conflicting animal studies about the role of CRF in micturition, either facilitating or inhibiting, have been raised...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873537/brain-region-specific-effects-of-immobilization-stress-on-cholinesterases-in-mice
#10
Paulina Valuskova, Vladimir Farar, Katerina Janisova, Katarina Ondicova, Boris Mravec, Richard Kvetnansky, Jaromir Myslivecek
Brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) variant AChER expression increases with acute stress, and this persists for an extended period, although the timing, strain and laterality differences, have not been explored previously. Acute stress transiently increases acetylcholine release, which in turn may increase activity of cholinesterases. Also the AChE gene contains a glucocorticoid response element (GRE), and stress-inducible AChE transcription and activity changes are linked to increased glucocorticoid levels. Corticotropin-releasing hormone knockout (CRH-KO) mice have basal glucocorticoid levels similar to wild type (WT) mice, but much lower levels during stress...
December 6, 2016: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871026/copeptin-a-potential-endocrine-surrogate-marker-of-cck-4-induced-panic-symptoms
#11
Cüneyt Demiralay, Agorastos Agorastos, Alexander Yassouridis, Holger Jahn, Klaus Wiedemann, Michael Kellner
Intravenous cholecystokinin-tetrapeptide (CCK-4) administration reliably and dose-dependently provokes panic anxiety in man, accompanied by adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol release. Preclinical findings suggest that behavioral and endocrine effects of CCK-4 are mediated via corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) release. Anxiogenic stimulation of the central CCK-receptors in man was shown to increase as well vasopressin (AVP), which acts synergistically with CRH as pituitary-adrenocortical axis stimulator during stress...
November 8, 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870396/impact-of-gender-on-corticotropin-releasing-factor-and-noradrenergic-sensitivity-in-cocaine-use-disorder
#12
REVIEW
Aimee L McRae-Clark, Angie M Cason, Amy S Kohtz, Megan Moran Santa-Maria, Gary Aston-Jones, Kathleen T Brady
Responses to stress may be important in understanding gender differences in substance use disorders and may also be a target for development of treatment interventions. A growing body of both preclinical and clinical research supports important underlying gender differences in the corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and noradrenergic systems, which may contribute to drug use. Preclinical models have demonstrated increased sensitivity of females to CRF and noradrenergic-induced drug reinstatement compared with males, and, consistent with these findings, human laboratory studies have demonstrated greater sensitivity to corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and noradrenergic stimulation in cocaine-dependent women compared with men...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849648/amygdala-mediated-mechanisms-regulate-visceral-hypersensitivity-in-adult-females-following-early-life-stress-importance-of-the-glucocorticoid-receptor-and-corticotropin-releasing-factor
#13
Dawn K Prusator, Beverley Greenwood-Van Meerveld
Alterations in amygdala activity are apparent in women who report a history of early life stress (ELS) as well as those diagnosed with chronic pain disorders. Chronic stress in adulthood induces visceral hypersensitivity via alterations in glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) expression within the central amygdala (CeA). Here we hypothesized that unpredictable ELS, previously shown to induce visceral hypersensitivity in adult female rats, alters GR and CRF expression in the CeA...
November 14, 2016: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845775/defining-the-role-of-corticotropin-releasing-factor-binding-protein-in-alcohol-consumption
#14
C L Haass-Koffler, A T Henry, G Melkus, J A Simms, M Naemmuddin, C K Nielsen, A W Lasek, M Magill, M L Schwandt, R Momenan, C A Hodgkinson, S E Bartlett, R M Swift, A Bonci, L Leggio
The corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) exerts its effects by acting on its receptors and on the binding protein (CRFBP), and has been implicated in alcohol use disorder (AUD). Therefore, identification of the exact contribution of each protein that mediates CRF effects is necessary to design effective therapeutic strategies for AUD. A series of in vitro/in vivo experiments across different species were performed to define the biological discrete role of CRFBP in AUD. First, to establish the CRFBP role in receptor signaling, we developed a novel chimeric cell-based assay and showed that CFRBP full length can stably be expressed on the plasma membrane...
November 15, 2016: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27844053/involvement-of-crfr1-in-the-basolateral-amygdala-in-the-immediate-fear-extinction-deficit
#15
Fiona Hollis, Yannick Sevelinges, Jocelyn Grosse, Olivia Zanoletti, Carmen Sandi
Several animal and clinical studies have highlighted the ineffectiveness of fear extinction sessions delivered shortly after trauma exposure. This phenomenon, termed the immediate extinction deficit, refers to situations in which extinction programs applied shortly after fear conditioning may result in the reduction of fear behaviors (in rodents, frequently measured as freezing responses to the conditioned cue) during extinction training, but failure to consolidate this reduction in the long term. The molecular mechanisms driving this immediate extinction resistance remain unclear...
September 2016: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843437/paraventricular-hypothalamic-mechanisms-of-chronic-stress-adaptation
#16
REVIEW
James P Herman, Jeffrey G Tasker
The hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) is the primary driver of hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) responses. At least part of the role of the PVN is managing the demands of chronic stress exposure. With repeated exposure to stress, hypophysiotrophic corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) neurons of the PVN display a remarkable cellular, synaptic, and connectional plasticity that serves to maximize the ability of the HPA axis to maintain response vigor and flexibility. At the cellular level, chronic stress enhances the production of CRH and its co-secretagogue arginine vasopressin and rearranges neurotransmitter receptor expression so as to maximize cellular excitability...
2016: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837404/the-biology-of-addiction
#17
Brent MacNicol
In this narrative review, the neurobiological mechanisms underlying substance abuse and addiction are discussed with a particular emphasis on the mechanisms that promote ongoing use and relapse. Addiction is estimated to affect 10-15% or more of the adult population, including physicians. Genetic predisposition, psychological and environmental risk factors, the timing of exposure to the substance, the type of substance used, and the frequency of use influence the individual's susceptibility to addiction. Abused substances act on the brain's reward system, a neural circuit that produces pleasurable feelings in response to stimuli that promote survival, thereby modifying future behavior to seek out similar stimuli...
November 11, 2016: Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia, Journal Canadien D'anesthésie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837170/differential-contributions-of-vasopressin-v1a-and-oxytocin-receptors-in-the-amygdala-to-pain-related-behaviors-in-rats
#18
Bryce Cragg, Guangchen Ji, Volker Neugebauer
Neuroplastic changes in the amygdala account for emotional-affective aspects of pain and involve neuropeptides such as calcitonin gene-related peptide and corticotropin-releasing factor. Another neuropeptide system, central arginine vasopressin, has been implicated in neuropsychiatric disorders, but its role in pain-related emotional expression and neuroplasticity remains to be determined. Here, we tested the hypothesis that arginine vasopressin in the amygdala contributes to pain-related emotional-affective responses, using stereotaxic applications of arginine vasopressin and antagonists for G-protein coupled vasopressin V1A and oxytocin receptors in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats...
2016: Molecular Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826021/effects-of-exposure-to-microcystin-lr-at-environmentally-relevant-concentrations-on-the-metabolism-of-thyroid-hormones-in-adult-zebrafish-danio-rerio
#19
Zidong Liu, Dapeng Li, Qing Hu, Rong Tang, Li Li
Microcystin-LR (MC-LR) has the potential to disturb thyroid hormone homeostasis. However, the effects of MC-LR at environmentally relevant concentrations on the thyroid system in adult fish are still unclear. In this study, adult zebrafish were exposed to 0, 1, 5, and 25 μg/L MC-LR for 7, 14, 21, and 28 days. Whole-body thyroid hormones (THs) levels and thyroid follicle histology were used to assess thyroid function. The transcription of corticotropin-releasing hormone (crh), thyroid-stimulating hormone (tsh), transthyretin (ttr), thyroid hormone receptors (trs) genes, and the activities of iodothyronine deiodinases (IDs) were investigated to study the process of TH metabolism disruption...
December 15, 2016: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825409/clinical-features-of-pituitary-stalk-interruption-syndrome-in-114-cases
#20
Bai-Yu Han, Qian Zhang, Le-Le Li, Qing-Hua Guo, Cheng-Zhi Wang, Li Cang, Nan Jin, Fang Chen, Ling Zhao, Jia Cui, Xiu-Lian Gu, Fang-Ling Ma, Sai-Chun Zhang, Yi-Ming Mu, Jing-Tao Dou
Objective To analyze the clinical characteristics of pituitary stalk interruption syndrome(PSIS). Methods The clinical data including clinical manifestations,laboratory tests,and imaging findings of 114 PSIS patients in our hospital were retrospectively analyzed. Results Of these 114 PSIS patients,102 cases (89.4%) were male. The average age was 21.1?6.1 years. A history of breech delivery was documented in 91 cases (91.9%). Short stature was found in 89 cases (71.8%) and bone age delayed (6.1?5.1) years. Secondary sex characteristics were poor or undeveloped in most patients...
October 10, 2016: Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao. Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae
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