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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444400/effects-of-insufficient-sleep-on-pituitary-adrenocortical-response-to-crh-stimulation-in-healthy-men
#1
Aurore Guyon, Lisa L Morselli, Marcella L Balbo, Esra Tasali, Rachel Leproult, Mireille L'Hermite-Baleriaux, Eve Van Cauter, Karine Spiegel
Study Objectives: Severe sleep restriction results in elevated evening cortisol levels. We examined whether this relative hypercortisolism is associated with alterations in the pituitary-adrenocortical response to evening corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) stimulation. Methods: Eleven subjects participated in 2 sessions (2 nights of 10h versus 4h in bed) in randomized order. Sleep was polygraphically recorded. After the second night of each session, blood was sampled at 20-min intervals from 09:00 to 24:00 for adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol measurements, and perceived stress was assessed hourly...
April 21, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440487/interaction-between-interleukin%C3%A2-6-and-angiotensin-ii-receptor-1-in-the-hypothalamic-paraventricular-nucleus-contributes-to-progression-of-heart-failure
#2
Tao Wang, Wen Gao, Kun Xiao, Qiang Liu, Ruyi Jia
The association between interleukin‑6 (IL‑6) and angiotensin II receptor 1 (AT1‑R) in modulating the progression of heart failure (HF) remains to be fully elucidated. The aim of the present study was to investigate the mechanism of IL‑6 and AT1‑R in a model of HF induced by surgery. Male Sprague‑Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups, including sham surgery and vehicle groups. The animals were treated for 4 weeks via paraventricular nucleus infusion with either vehicle, losartan (LOS; 200 µg/day), IL‑6 (1 µg/day) or LOS and IL‑6 together (LOS+IL‑6)...
April 21, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436309/corticotropin-releasing-hormone-binding-protein-and-stress-from-invertebrates-to-humans
#3
Kyle D Ketchesin, Gwen S Stinnett, Audrey F Seasholtz
Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) is a key regulator of the stress response. This peptide controls the hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis as well as a variety of behavioral and autonomic stress responses via the two CRH receptors, CRH-R1 and CRH-R2. The CRH system also includes an evolutionarily conserved CRH-binding protein (CRH-BP), a secreted glycoprotein that binds CRH with subnanomolar affinity to modulate CRH receptor activity. In this review, we discuss the current literature on CRH-BP and stress across multiple species, from insects to humans...
April 23, 2017: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434943/epigenetic-pathways-in-human-disease-the-impact-of-dna-methylation-on-stress-related-pathogenesis-and-current-challenges-in-biomarker-development
#4
M Austin Argentieri, Sairaman Nagarajan, Bobak Seddighzadeh, Andrea A Baccarelli, Alexandra E Shields
HPA axis genes implicated in glucocorticoid regulation play an important role in regulating the physiological impact of social and environmental stress, and have become a focal point for investigating the role of glucocorticoid regulation in the etiology of disease. We conducted a systematic review to critically assess the full range of clinical associations that have been reported in relation to DNA methylation of CRH, CRH-R1/2, CRH-BP, AVP, POMC, ACTH, ACTH-R, NR3C1, FKBP5, and HSD11β1/2 genes in adults...
April 4, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433999/circadian-plasma-cortisol-measurements-reflect-severity-of-hypercortisolemia-in-children-with-different-etiologies-of-endogenous-cushing-syndrome
#5
Amit Tirosh, Maya B Lodish, Charalampos Lyssikatos, Elena Belyavskaya, Georgios Z Papadakis, Constantine A Stratakis
BACKGROUND: The utility of circadian cortisol variation in estimating the degree of hypercortisolemia in different forms of endogenous Cushing syndrome (CS) has not been evaluated in children yet. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study, including children who underwent surgery due to CS (n = 115), was divided into children with a pituitary adenoma (Cushing disease) (n = 88), primary adrenal CS (n = 21), or ectopic adrenocorticotropin- or corticotropin-releasing hormone (ACTH-/CRH)-secreting tumors (n = 6)...
April 21, 2017: Hormone Research in Pædiatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433802/role-of-environmental-stressors-in-determining-the-developmental-outcome-of-neonatal-anesthesia
#6
Ling-Sha Ju, Jiao-Jiao Yang, Nikolaus Gravenstein, Christoph N Seubert, Timothy E Morey, Colin Sumners, Terrie Vasilopoulos, Jian-Jun Yang, Anatoly E Martynyuk
BACKGROUND: The majority of studies evaluating neurocognition in humans who had procedures under anesthesia early in life found long-term deficits even though the typical anesthesia duration normalized to the human life span is much shorter than that shown to induce developmental abnormalities in rodents. Therefore, we studied whether subsequent environmental stressors contribute to deficiencies programmed by a brief neonatal etomidate exposure. METHODS: Postnatal days (P) 4, 5, or 6, Sprague-Dawley rats, pretreated with vehicle or the Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) (NKCC1) inhibitor, bumetanide, received two injections of etomidate resulting in anesthesia for 2h...
April 7, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423630/insufficient-hypothalamic-angiotensin-converting-enzyme-2-is-associated-with-hypertension-in-shr-rats
#7
Kun Wang, Yuanyuan Xu, Weiwei Yang, Yuanshu Zhang
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 (ACE2) is a key enzyme in the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), which is implicated in the pathogenesis of hypertension and other cardiovascular diseases. In this study we investigated the expression of ACE2 in the hypothalamus and pituitary tissues and its relationship to hypertension by comparing them in male WKY and SHR rats. We observed that the plasma levels of corticotrophin releasing hormone (CRH), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and aldosterone (ALD) were all lower in SHR than WKY rats (P<0...
March 21, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404587/cic-dux4-induces-small-round-cell-sarcomas-distinct-from-ewing-sarcoma
#8
Toyoki Yoshimoto, Miwa Tanaka, Mizuki Homme, Yukari Yamazaki, Yutaka Takazawa, Cristina R Antonescu, Takuro Nakamura
CIC-DUX4 sarcoma (CDS) or CIC-rearranged sarcoma is a  subcategory of small round cell sarcoma resembling the morphological phenotypes of Ewing sarcoma (ES). Hoever, recent clinicopathologic and molecular genetic analyses indicate that CDS is an independent disease entity from ES. Few ancillary markers have been used in the differential diagnosis of CDS, and additional CDS-specific biomarkers are needed for more definitive classification. Here we report the generation of an ex vivo mouse model for CDS by transducing embryonic mesenchymal cells (eMC) with human CIC-DUX4 cDNA...
April 12, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404583/acute-hypoxia-activates-neuroendocrine-but-not-pre-sympathetic-neurons-in-the-paraventricular-nucleus-of-the-hypothalamus-differential-role-of-nitric-oxide
#9
K Max Coldren, De-Pei Li, David D Kline, Eileen M Hasser, Cheryl M Heesch
Hypoxia results in decreased arterial PO2, arterial chemoreflex activation, and compensatory increases in breathing, sympathetic outflow, and neuroendocrine secretions, including increased secretion of vasopressin (AVP), corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH), adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH), and corticosterone. In addition to a brainstem pathway including the nucleus tractus solitarius (nTS) and the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM), medullary pathways to the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) contribute to chemoreflex responses...
April 12, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401046/functional-neuroanatomy-in-panic-disorder-status-quo-of-the-research
#10
Thomas Sobanski, Gerd Wagner
AIM: To provide an overview of the current research in the functional neuroanatomy of panic disorder. METHODS: Panic disorder (PD) is a frequent psychiatric disease. Gorman et al (1989; 2000) proposed a comprehensive neuroanatomical model of PD, which suggested that fear- and anxiety-related responses are mediated by a so-called "fear network" which is centered in the amygdala and includes the hippocampus, thalamus, hypothalamus, periaqueductal gray region, locus coeruleus and other brainstem sites...
March 22, 2017: World Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368521/regulation-of-pulsatile-and-entropic-acth-secretion-under-fixed-exogenous-secretagogue-clamps
#11
Ferdinand Roelfsema, Paul Aoun, Paul Y Takahashi, Dana Erickson, Rebecca Yang, Johannes D Veldhuis
Background: Studies of ACTH secretion are hampered by unobservable hypothalamic CRH and AVP pulses. Clamping one of the secretagogues could allow indirect quantification of the impact of the endogenous heterotypic hormone. Methods: Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over study in 28 healthy adults (16 men), mean age 55 yr. Volunteers received leuprolide, followed by placebo or sex-steroid addback. Eucortisolemia was accomplished by oral ketoconazole and continuous iv cortisol administration with 10 h of 10-min sampling...
March 28, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360946/associations-of-lep-crh-icam-1-and-line-1-methylation-measured-in-saliva-with-waist-circumference-body-mass-index-and-percent-body-fat-in-mid-childhood
#12
Jocelyn Dunstan, Joseph P Bressler, Timothy H Moran, Jonathan S Pollak, Annemarie G Hirsch, Lisa Bailey-Davis, Thomas A Glass, Brian S Schwartz
BACKGROUND: Genetics explains a small proportion of variance in body mass index at the population level. Epigenetics, commonly measured by gene methylation, holds promise for understanding obesity risk factors and mechanisms. METHODS: Participants were 431 adolescents aged 10-15 years. BMI z-score, waist circumference z-score, and percent body fat were measured. Saliva samples were collected and methylation of promoter regions of four candidate genes or sequences (LEP, ICAM-1, CRH, and LINE-1) were measured in 3-4 CpG sites each...
2017: Clinical Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28355115/complete-hematologic-and-molecular-response-in-adult-patients-with-relapsed-refractory-philadelphia-chromosome-positive-b-precursor-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia-following-treatment-with-blinatumomab-results-from-a-phase-ii-single-arm-multicenter-study
#13
Giovanni Martinelli, Nicolas Boissel, Patrice Chevallier, Oliver Ottmann, Nicola Gökbuget, Max S Topp, Adele K Fielding, Alessandro Rambaldi, Ellen K Ritchie, Cristina Papayannidis, Lulu Ren Sterling, Jonathan Benjamin, Anthony Stein
Purpose Few therapeutic options are available for patients with Philadelphia chromosome-positive (Ph(+)) B-precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) who progress after failure of tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) -based therapy. Here, we evaluated the efficacy and tolerability of blinatumomab in patients with relapsed or refractory Ph(+) ALL. Patients and Methods This open-label phase II study enrolled adults with Ph(+) ALL who had relapsed after or were refractory to at least one second-generation or later TKI or were intolerant to second-generation or later TKIs and intolerant or refractory to imatinib...
March 29, 2017: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351560/chronic-salt-loading-reduces-basal-excitatory-input-to-crh-neurons-in-the-paraventricular-nucleus-and-accelerates-recovery-from-restraint-stress-in-male-mice
#14
Eric G Krause, Dipanwita Pati, Charles J Frazier
Neurons synthesizing corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) are activated during acute stress and act via the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis to increase systemic levels of corticosterone (CORT). Recent data indicates that CRH neurons in the PVN are inhibited by acute salt-loading, and that this inhibition blunts the response to restraint stress as measured by increases in plasma CORT. The current study evaluates the effects of chronic rather than acute salt-loading on stress-induced activation of the HPA axis...
March 27, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347187/second-trimester-amniotic-fluid-corticotropin-releasing-hormone-and-urocortin-in-relation-to-maternal-stress-and-fetal-growth-in-human-pregnancy
#15
Pearl La Marca-Ghaemmaghami, Sara M Dainese, Günter Stalla, Marina Haller, Roland Zimmermann, Ulrike Ehlert
This study explored the association between the acute psychobiological stress response, chronic social overload and amniotic fluid corticotropin corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and urocortin (UCN) in 34 healthy, second-trimester pregnant women undergoing amniocentesis. The study further examined the predictive value of second-trimester amniotic fluid CRH and UCN for fetal growth and neonatal birth outcome. The amniocentesis served as a naturalistic stressor, during which maternal state anxiety and salivary cortisol was measured repeatedly and an aliquot of amniotic fluid was collected...
March 27, 2017: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340519/barrington-s-nucleus-neuroanatomic-landscape-of-the-mouse-pontine-micturition-center
#16
Anne M J Verstegen, Veronique Vanderhorst, Paul A Gray, Mark L Zeidel, Joel C Geerling
Barrington's nucleus (Bar) is thought to contain neurons that trigger voiding and thereby function as the "pontine micturition center." Lacking detailed information on this region in mice, we examined gene and protein markers to characterize Bar and the neurons surrounding it. Like rats and cats, mice have an ovoid core of medium-sized Bar neurons located medial to the locus coeruleus (LC). Bar neurons express a GFP reporter for Vglut2, develop from a Math1/Atoh1 lineage, and exhibit immunoreactivity for NeuN...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337596/prolactin-regulation-of-the-hpa-axis-is-not-mediated-by-a-direct-action-upon-crh-neurons-evidence-from-the-rat-and-mouse
#17
Papillon Gustafson, Ilona Kokay, Tony Sapsford, Stephen Bunn, David Grattan
Centrally acting prolactin has been shown to have anti-stress effects by modulating the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. We tested the hypothesis that prolactin directly targets hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) neurons. In situ hybridisation confirmed expression of mRNA encoding the long, but not the short, isoform of the prolactin receptor (PRLR) within the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the virgin rat; however, only 6% of CRH neurons expressed long-form Prlr mRNA. Examination of the functional response of CRH neurons to intracerebroventricular prolactin (500 ng) showed that these neurons did not respond with activation of phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (pSTAT5), a marker of long-form PRLR activation...
March 23, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336550/the-effect-of-intravenous-corticotropin-releasing-hormone-administration-on-esophageal-sensitivity-and-motility-in-health
#18
Charlotte Broers, Chloé Melchior, Lukas Van Oudenhove, Tim Vanuytsel, Brecht Van Houtte, Charlotte Scheerens, Nathalie Rommel, Jan F Tack, Ans Pauwels
BACKGROUND: Esophageal hypersensitivity is important in gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) patients refractory to acid-suppressive therapy. Stress affects visceral sensitivity and exacerbates heartburn in GERD. Peripheral CRH is a key mediator of the gut stress response. We hypothesize that CRH increases esophageal sensitivity and alters esophageal motility in health. METHODS: Esophageal sensitivity to thermal, mechanical, electrical and chemical stimuli was assessed in 14 healthy subjects after placebo or CRH (100μg IV)...
March 23, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334933/disrupted-in-schizophrenia-1is-essential-for-normal-hypothalamic-pituitary-interrenal-hpi-axis-function
#19
Helen Eachus, Charlotte Bright, Vincent T Cunliffe, Marysia Placzek, Jonathan D Wood, Penelope J Watt
Psychiatric disorders arise due to an interplay of genetic and environmental factors, including stress. Studies in rodents have shown that mutants for Disrupted-In-Schizophrenia-1 (DISC1), a well-accepted genetic risk factor for mental illness, display abnormal behaviours in response to stress, but the mechanisms through which DISC1 affects stress responses remain poorly understood. Using two lines of zebrafish homozygous mutant for disc1, we investigated behaviour and functioning of the hypothalamic-pituitary-interrenal (HPI) axis, the fish equivalent of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis...
March 1, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328948/vascular-endothelial-overexpression-of-human-cyp2j2-tie2-cyp2j2-tr-modulates-cardiac-oxylipin-profiles-and-enhances-coronary-reactive-hyperemia-in-mice
#20
Ahmad Hanif, Matthew L Edin, Darryl C Zeldin, Christophe Morisseau, John R Falck, Mohammed A Nayeem
Arachidonic acid is metabolized to epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) by cytochrome (CYP) P450 epoxygenases, and to ω-terminal hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids (HETEs) by ω-hydroxylases. EETs and HETEs often have opposite biologic effects; EETs are vasodilatory and protect against ischemia/reperfusion injury, while ω-terminal HETEs are vasoconstrictive and cause vascular dysfunction. Other oxylipins, such as epoxyoctadecaenoic acids (EpOMEs), hydroxyoctadecadienoic acids (HODEs), and prostanoids also have varied vascular effects...
2017: PloS One
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