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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440131/diagnostic-accuracy-and-comparison-of-bipss-in-response-to-lysine-vasopressin-and-hcrh
#1
Kush Dev Singh Jarial, Anil Bhansali, Vivek Gupta, Paramjeet Singh, Kanchan K Mukherjee, Akhilesh Sharma, Rakesh Vasishta, Suja P Sukumar, Naresh Sachdeva, Rama Walia
CONTEXT: Bilateral inferior petrosal sinus sampling (BIPSS) using hCRH is currently considered the 'gold standard' test for the differential diagnosis of ACTH-dependent Cushing's syndrome (CS). Vasopressin is more potent than CRH to stimulate ACTH secretion as shown in animal studies, however; no comparative data of its use is available during BIPSS. OBJECTIVE: To study the diagnostic accuracy and comparison of hCRH and lysine vasopressin (LVP) stimulation during BIPSS...
February 12, 2018: Endocrine Connections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438489/transient-anosmia-induces-depressive-like-and-anxiolytic-like-behavior-and-reduces-amygdalar-corticotropin-releasing-hormone-in-a-znso4-induced-mouse-model
#2
Sangzin Ahn, Mooseok Choi, Hyunju Kim, Eunjeong Yang, Usman Mahmood, Seong-Il Kang, Hyun-Woo Shin, Dae Woo Kim, Hye-Sun Kim
Olfactory loss is known to affect both mood and quality of life. Transient anosmia was induced in mice to study the resulting changes in mood, behavior, and on a molecular level. Transient anosmia was induced by a single intranasal instillation of ZnSO4 in BALB/c mice. Hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining, and potato chip finding test were performed to confirm olfactory loss. Tail suspension, forced swim, and splash tests were performed to evaluate depression-related behavior; while the open field, and elevated plus maze tests were used to evaluate anxiety-related behavior...
February 9, 2018: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436637/nicotinamide-phosphoribosyltransferase-and-the-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis-of-the-rat
#3
Piotr Celichowski, Karol Jopek, Paulina Milecka, Marta Szyszka, Marianna Tyczewska, Ludwik K Malendowicz, Marcin Ruciński
Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (Nampt), also termed visfatin, catalyses the rate‑limiting step in the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) salvage pathway. In addition to its intracellular function (iNampt), extracellular Nampt (eNampt) also affects numerous intracellular signalling pathways. The current study investigated the role of Nampt in the regulation of the hypothalamic‑pituitary‑adrenal (HPA) axis in rats. At 1 h after intraperitoneal administration of eNampt (4 µg/100 g) in adult male rats, serum adrenocorticotropic hormone(ACTH) and aldosterone levels remained unchanged, while corticosterone levels were notably elevated compared with the control group, as determined by ELISA...
February 7, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424419/neurotransmitter-diversity-in-pre-synaptic-terminals-located-in-the-parvicellular-neuroendocrine-paraventricular-nucleus-of-the-rat-and-mouse-hypothalamus
#4
Caroline S Johnson, Jaideep S Bains, Alan G Watts
Virtually all rodent neuroendocrine corticotropin-releasing-hormone (CRH) neurons are in the dorsal medial parvicellular (mpd) part of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVH). They form the final common pathway for adrenocortical stress responses. Their activity is controlled by sets of GABA-, glutamate-, and catecholamine-containing inputs arranged in an interactive pre-motor network. Defining the nature and arrangement of these inputs can help clarify how stressor type and intensity information is conveyed to neuroendocrine neurons...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29419884/balancing-tonic-and-phasic-inhibition-in-hypothalamic-corticotropin-releasing-hormone-neurons
#5
Phillip L W Colmers, Jaideep S Bains
Corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) neurons in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) are integratory hubs that regulate the endocrine response to stress. GABA inputs provide a basal inhibitory tone that constrains this system and circulating glucocorticoids (CORT) are important feedback controllers of CRH output. Surprisingly little is known about the direct effects of CORT on GABA synapses in PVN. Here we used whole-cell patch clamp recordings from CRH neurons in mouse hypothalamic brain slices to examine the effects of CORT on synaptic and extrasynaptic GABA signalling...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29411913/a-novel-role-of-the-corticotropin-releasing-hormone-crh-regulating-peptide-teneurin-1-c-terminal-associated-peptide-tcap-1-on-glucose-uptake-into-the-brain
#6
David W Hogg, Yani Chen, Andrea L D'Aquila, Mei Xu, Mia Husic, Laura A Tan, Chris Bull, David A Lovejoy
Teneurin C-terminal associated peptide (TCAP) is an ancient paracrine signaling agent that evolved via lateral gene transfer from prokaryotes into an early metazoan ancestor. Although it bears structural similarity to corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), it inhibits the in vivo actions of CRH. The TCAPs are highly expressed in neurons where they induce rapid cytoskeletal rearrangement and are neuroprotective. Because these processes are highly energy dependent, this suggests that TCAP has the potential to regulate glucose uptake as glucose is the primary energy substrate in brain, and neurons require a steady supply to meet the high metabolic demands of neuronal communication...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29391399/stress-hormone-response-to-the-dex-crh-test-and-its-relation-to-psychotherapy-outcome-in-panic-disorder-patients-with-and-without-agoraphobia
#7
Susann Wichmann, Stefan R Bornstein, Thomas Lorenz, Katja Petrowski
This study tested whether the hormonal stress response to the DEX-CRH test may be predictive of the psychotherapy success for panic disorder (PD). Thirty-four patients diagnosed either with agoraphobia with PD or PD without agoraphobia were subjected to cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT). Patients (pre-therapy) and healthy volunteers were exposed to the DEX-CRH test. Blood samples were taken for cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) assessment. Established panic-specific questionnaires were handed out for the pre-therapy and post-therapy evaluation of disease severity (with reference to panic beliefs and agoraphobic cognitions, fear of bodily sensations, agoraphobic avoidance behaviour)...
February 2, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29390057/enhanced-hypothalamic-nmda-receptor-activity-contributes-to-hyperactivity-of-hpa-axis-in-chronic-stress-in-male-rats
#8
Jing-Jing Zhou, Yonggang Gao, Xiangjian Zhang, Therese A Kosten, De-Pei Li
Chronic stress stimulates corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH)-expressing neurons in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus and leads to hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis hyperactivity, but the mechanisms underlying this action are unknown. Because chronic stress enhances N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) activity in various brain regions, we hypothesized that augmented NMDAR activity contributes to the hyperactivity of PVN-CRH neurons and the HPA axis in chronic stress. We performed whole-cell patch-clamp recordings on PVN-CRH neurons expressing CRH promoter-driven enhanced green fluorescent protein in brain slices from rats exposed to chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) and unstressed rats...
January 30, 2018: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29387897/-endocrine-paraneoplastic-syndromes
#9
REVIEW
N Reisch, M Reincke
Endocrine paraneoplastic syndromes result from the production of bioactive substances from neoplastic cells, of endocrine or neuroendocrine origin. Typically these are located in the lungs, the gastrointestinal tract, pancreas, thyroid gland, adrenal medulla, skin, prostate or breast. In endocrine paraneoplastic syndromes the secretion of peptides, amines or other bioactive substances is always ectopic and not related to the anatomical source. The clinical presentation, however, is indistinguishable from a suspected eutopic endocrine tumor posing a diagnostic challenge...
January 31, 2018: Der Internist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29384699/catecholaminergic-projections-into-an-interconnected-forebrain-network-control-the-sensitivity-of-male-rats-to-diet-induced-obesity
#10
Shin J Lee, Anne J Jokiaho, Graciela Sanchez-Watts, Alan G Watts
Hindbrain catecholamine neurons convey gut-derived metabolic signals to an interconnected neuronal network in the hypothalamus and adjacent forebrain. They are critical for short-term glycemic control, glucocorticoid and glucoprivic feeding responses, and GLP-1 signaling. Here we investigate whether these pathways also contribute to long-term energy homeostasis by controlling obesogenic sensitivity to a high-fat, high sucrose choice diet (HFSC). We ablated hindbrain-originating catecholaminergic projections by injecting anti-dopamine-β-hydroxylase-conjugated saporin (DSAP) into the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVH) of male rats fed a chow diet for up to 12 weeks or a HFSC for 8 weeks...
January 31, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29379100/social-rank-associated-stress-vulnerability-predisposes-individuals-to-cocaine-attraction
#11
Chen Yanovich, Michael L Kirby, Izhak Michaelevski, Gal Yadid, Albert Pinhasov
Studies of personality have suggested that dissimilarities in ability to cope with stressful situations results in differing tendency to develop addictive behaviors. The present study used selectively bred stress-resilient, socially-dominant (Dom) and stress-vulnerable, socially-submissive (Sub) mice to investigate the interaction between environmental stress and inbred predisposition to develop addictive behavior to cocaine. In a Conditioned Place Preference (CPP) paradigm using cocaine, Sub mice displayed an aversion to drug, whereas Dom mice displayed drug attraction...
January 29, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29374256/screening-a-small-molecule-library-to-identify-inhibitors-of-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-inducing-kinase-and-pro-labor-genes-in-human-placenta
#12
Bingbing Wang, Nataliya Parobchak, Adriana Martin, Max Rosen, Lumeng Jenny Yu, Mary Nguyen, Kseniya Gololobova, Todd Rosen
The non-canonical NF-κB signaling (RelB/p52) pathway drives pro-labor genes in the human placenta, including corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), making this a potential therapeutic target to delay onset of labor. Here we sought to identify small molecule compounds from a pre-existing chemical library of orally active drugs that can inhibit this NF-κB signaling, and in turn, human placental CRH and COX-2 production. We used a cell-based assay coupled with a dual-luciferase reporter system to perform an in vitro screening of a small molecule library of 1,120 compounds for inhibition of the non-canonical NF-κB pathway...
January 26, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29372145/effects-of-corticotropin-releasing-hormone-on-the-expression-of-adenosine-triphosphate-sensitive-potassium-channels-kir6-1-sur2b-in-human-term-pregnant-myometrium
#13
Joo Young Kim, Wen Hao Wu, Jin Hyun Jun, Jeenah Sohn, Yong Soo Seo
Objective: Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) is a crucial regulator of human pregnancy and parturition. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels are important for regulating myometrial quiescence during pregnancy. We investigated regulatory effects of different concentrations of CRH on KATP channel expression in human myometrial smooth muscle cells (HSMCs) in in vitro conditions. Methods: After treating HSMCs with different concentrations of CRH (1, 10, 102, 103, 104 pmol/L), mRNA and protein expression of KATP channel subunits (Kir6...
January 2018: Obstetrics & Gynecology Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29360543/coupling-corticotropin-releasing-hormone-and-angiotensin-converting-enzyme-2-dampens-stress-responsiveness-in-male-mice
#14
Lei A Wang, Annette D de Kloet, Michael D Smeltzer, Karlena M Cahill, Helmut Hiller, Erin B Bruce, David J Pioquinto, Jacob A Ludin, Michael J Katovich, Mohan K Raizada, Eric G Krause
This study used mice to evaluate whether coupling expression of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) creates central interactions that blunt endocrine and behavioral responses to psychogenic stress. Central administration of diminazene aceturate, an ACE2 activator, had no effect on restraint-induced activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis; however, mice that ubiquitously overexpress ACE2 had reduced plasma corticosterone (CORT) and pituitary expression of POMC mRNA...
January 19, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355947/corticotropin-releasing-hormone-binding-protein-is-upregulated-by-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-and-is-secreted-in-an-activity-dependent-manner-in-rat-cerebral-cortical-neurons
#15
Naoki Adachi, Shingo Suzuki, Hidetada Matsuoka, Satoko Fushimi, Junichiro Ono, Ken-Ichi Ohta, Yohei Hirai, Takanori Miki, Hisatsugu Koshimizu
A recent study revealed that corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) in the cerebral cortex (CTX) plays a regulatory role in emotional behaviors in rodents. Given the functional interaction between brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and the CRH-signaling pathway in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, we hypothesized that BDNF may regulate gene expression of CRH and its related molecules in the CTX. Findings of real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) indicated that stimulation of cultured rat cortical neurons with BDNF led to marked elevations in the mRNA levels of CRH and CRH-binding protein (CRH-BP)...
January 22, 2018: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29354998/-effects-of-heat-sensitive-moxibustion-on-hpa-axis-in-rats-with-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#16
Haifeng Zhang, Fangshen Xie, Hongbin Gong, Hui Huang, Shutao Chen, Mingfei Kang, Yong Fu
OBJECTIVE: To observe the effects of heat-sensitive moxibustion on corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH), adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone (CORT) in rats with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and to explore the possible mechanism of heat-sensitive moxibustion on IBS. METHODS: According to random number table, 56 SD male rats were randomly divided into a blank group (n=8), a model group (n=8), a moxibustion group (n=32), and a mifepristone group (RU-486 group, n=8)...
December 12, 2017: Zhongguo Zhen Jiu, Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346768/activation-of-ampk-regulated-crh-neurons-in-the-pvh-is-sufficient-and-necessary-to-induce-dietary-preference-for-carbohydrate-over-fat
#17
Shiki Okamoto, Tatsuya Sato, Michihiro Tateyama, Haruaki Kageyama, Yuko Maejima, Masanori Nakata, Satoshi Hirako, Takashi Matsuo, Sanda Kyaw, Tetsuya Shiuchi, Chitoku Toda, Udval Sedbazar, Kumiko Saito, Nur Farehan Asgar, Boyang Zhang, Shigefumi Yokota, Kenta Kobayashi, Fabienne Foufelle, Pascal Ferré, Masamitsu Nakazato, Hiroaki Masuzaki, Seiji Shioda, Toshihiko Yada, Barbara B Kahn, Yasuhiko Minokoshi
Food selection is essential for metabolic homeostasis and is influenced by nutritional state, food palatability, and social factors such as stress. However, the mechanism responsible for selection between a high-carbohydrate diet (HCD) and a high-fat diet (HFD) remains unknown. Here, we show that activation of a subset of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH)-positive neurons in the rostral region of the paraventricular hypothalamus (PVH) induces selection of an HCD over an HFD in mice during refeeding after fasting, resulting in a rapid recovery from the change in ketone metabolism...
January 16, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346425/hippocampal-corticotropin-releasing-hormone-neurons-support-recognition-memory-and-modulate-hippocampal-excitability
#18
Andrew Hooper, Patrick M Fuller, Jamie Maguire
Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) signaling in the hippocampus has been established to be important for mediating the effects of stress on learning and memory. Given our laboratory's recent characterization of a subset of hippocampal CRH neurons as a novel class of GABAergic interneurons, we hypothesized that these local GABAergic hippocampal CRH neurons may influence hippocampal function. Here we applied an array of molecular tools to selectively label and manipulate hippocampal CRH neurons in mice, in order to assess this interneuron population's impact on hippocampus-dependent behaviors and hippocampal network excitability...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339520/targeted-knockout-of-a-chemokine-like-gene-increases-anxiety-and-fear-responses
#19
Jung-Hwa Choi, Yun-Mi Jeong, Sujin Kim, Boyoung Lee, Krishan Ariyasiri, Hyun-Taek Kim, Seung-Hyun Jung, Kyu-Seok Hwang, Tae-Ik Choi, Chul O Park, Won-Ki Huh, Matthias Carl, Jill A Rosenfeld, Salmo Raskin, Alan Ma, Jozef Gecz, Hyung-Goo Kim, Jin-Soo Kim, Ho-Chul Shin, Doo-Sang Park, Robert Gerlai, Bradley B Jamieson, Joon S Kim, Karl J Iremonger, Sang H Lee, Hee-Sup Shin, Cheol-Hee Kim
Emotional responses, such as fear and anxiety, are fundamentally important behavioral phenomena with strong fitness components in most animal species. Anxiety-related disorders continue to represent a major unmet medical need in our society, mostly because we still do not fully understand the mechanisms of these diseases. Animal models may speed up discovery of these mechanisms. The zebrafish is a highly promising model organism in this field. Here, we report the identification of a chemokine-like gene family, samdori (sam), and present functional characterization of one of its members, sam2 We show exclusive mRNA expression of sam2 in the CNS, predominantly in the dorsal habenula, telencephalon, and hypothalamus...
January 16, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338944/histological-and-morphofunctional-parameters-of-the-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-system-are-sensitive-to-daidzein-treatment-in-the-adult-rat
#20
Svetlana Trifunović, Milica Manojlović-Stojanoski, Nataša Nestorović, Nataša Ristić, Branka Šošić-Jurjević, Lazo Pendovski, Verica Milošević
The isoflavone, daidzein is a biologically active, plant-derived compound that interacts with estrogen receptors. Data from previous studies have suggested that daidzein exerts beneficial effects in many diseases; however, as an endocrine disrupter, it may also alter the functioning of the endocrine system. Data regarding the effect of daidzein on the morphofunctional and histological parameters of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) system is still lacking. Therefore, using the newCAST stereological software, we investigated the effects of chronic (21 days) daidzein treatment on corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) neurons within the hypothalamus and corticotropes (ACTH cells) in the pituitary, while image analysis was employed to-examine the intensity of fluorescence of CRH in the median eminence (ME) and adrenocorticotropin hormone in the pituitary in adult orchidectomized (Ovx) rats...
January 12, 2018: Acta Histochemica
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