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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340519/barrington-s-nucleus-neuroanatomic-landscape-of-the-mouse-pontine-micturition-center
#1
Anne M J Verstegen, Veronique Vanderhorst, Paul A Gray, Mark L Zeidel, Joel C Geerling
Barrington's nucleus (Bar) is thought to contain neurons that trigger voiding and thereby function as the "pontine micturition center." Lacking detailed information on this region in mice, we examined gene and protein markers to characterize Bar and the neurons surrounding it. Like rats and cats, mice have an ovoid core of medium-sized Bar neurons located medial to the locus coeruleus (LC). Bar neurons express a GFP reporter for Vglut2, develop from a Math1/Atoh1 lineage, and exhibit immunoreactivity for NeuN...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337596/prolactin-regulation-of-the-hpa-axis-is-not-mediated-by-a-direct-action-upon-crh-neurons-evidence-from-the-rat-and-mouse
#2
Papillon Gustafson, Ilona Kokay, Tony Sapsford, Stephen Bunn, David Grattan
Centrally acting prolactin has been shown to have anti-stress effects by modulating the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. We tested the hypothesis that prolactin directly targets hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) neurons. In situ hybridisation confirmed expression of mRNA encoding the long, but not the short, isoform of the prolactin receptor (PRLR) within the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the virgin rat; however, only 6% of CRH neurons expressed long-form Prlr mRNA. Examination of the functional response of CRH neurons to intracerebroventricular prolactin (500 ng) showed that these neurons did not respond with activation of phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (pSTAT5), a marker of long-form PRLR activation...
March 23, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336550/the-effect-of-intravenous-corticotropin-releasing-hormone-administration-on-esophageal-sensitivity-and-motility-in-health
#3
Charlotte Broers, Chloé Melchior, Lukas Van Oudenhove, Tim Vanuytsel, Brecht Van Houtte, Charlotte Scheerens, Nathalie Rommel, Jan F Tack, Ans Pauwels
BACKGROUND: Esophageal hypersensitivity is important in gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) patients refractory to acid-suppressive therapy. Stress affects visceral sensitivity and exacerbates heartburn in GERD. Peripheral CRH is a key mediator of the gut stress response. We hypothesize that CRH increases esophageal sensitivity and alters esophageal motility in health. METHODS: Esophageal sensitivity to thermal, mechanical, electrical and chemical stimuli was assessed in 14 healthy subjects after placebo or CRH (100μg IV)...
March 23, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334933/disrupted-in-schizophrenia-1is-essential-for-normal-hypothalamic-pituitary-interrenal-hpi-axis-function
#4
Helen Eachus, Charlotte Bright, Vincent T Cunliffe, Marysia Placzek, Jonathan D Wood, Penelope J Watt
Psychiatric disorders arise due to an interplay of genetic and environmental factors, including stress. Studies in rodents have shown that mutants for Disrupted-In-Schizophrenia-1 (DISC1), a well-accepted genetic risk factor for mental illness, display abnormal behaviours in response to stress, but the mechanisms through which DISC1 affects stress responses remain poorly understood. Using two lines of zebrafish homozygous mutant for disc1, we investigated behaviour and functioning of the hypothalamic-pituitary-interrenal (HPI) axis, the fish equivalent of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis...
March 1, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328948/vascular-endothelial-overexpression-of-human-cyp2j2-tie2-cyp2j2-tr-modulates-cardiac-oxylipin-profiles-and-enhances-coronary-reactive-hyperemia-in-mice
#5
Ahmad Hanif, Matthew L Edin, Darryl C Zeldin, Christophe Morisseau, John R Falck, Mohammed A Nayeem
Arachidonic acid is metabolized to epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) by cytochrome (CYP) P450 epoxygenases, and to ω-terminal hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids (HETEs) by ω-hydroxylases. EETs and HETEs often have opposite biologic effects; EETs are vasodilatory and protect against ischemia/reperfusion injury, while ω-terminal HETEs are vasoconstrictive and cause vascular dysfunction. Other oxylipins, such as epoxyoctadecaenoic acids (EpOMEs), hydroxyoctadecadienoic acids (HODEs), and prostanoids also have varied vascular effects...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323961/normalized-early-post-operative-cortisol-and-acth-values-predict-nonremission-after-surgery-for-cushing-s-disease
#6
David Asuzu, Grégoire P Chatain, Christina Hayes, Sarah Benzo, Raven McGlotten, Meg Keil, Andrea Beri, Susmeeta T Sharma, Lynnette Nieman, Maya Lodish, Constantine Stratakis, Russell R Lonser, Edward H Oldfield, Prashant Chittiboina
Context: Perioperative increases in adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol mimic corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) stimulation testing. This phenomenon may help identify patients with residual adenoma after transsphenoidal surgery (TSS) for Cushing's disease (CD). Objective: To predict non-remission after TSS for CD. Design: Retrospective case control study of patients treated at a single center from December 2003 till July 2016...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323954/heterogeneity-of-calcium-responses-to-secretagogues-in-corticotrophs-from-male-rats
#7
Nicola Romanò, Heather McClafferty, Jamie J Walker, Paul Le Tissier, Michael J Shipston
Heterogeneity in homotypic cellular responses is an important feature of many biological systems, and has been shown to be prominent in most anterior pituitary hormonal cell types. Here we analyse heterogeneity in the responses to hypothalamic secretagogues in the corticotroph cell population of adult male rats. Using the genetically-encoded calcium indicator GCaMP6s, we determined the intracellular calcium responses of these cells to CRH and AVP. Our experiments revealed marked population heterogeneity in the response to these peptides, in terms of amplitude and dynamics of the responses, as well as the sensitivity to different concentrations and duration of stimuli...
March 16, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319850/methylation-of-hpa-axis-related-genes-in-men-with-hypersexual-disorder
#8
Jussi Jokinen, Adrian E Boström, Andreas Chatzittofis, Diana M Ciuculete, Katarina Görts Öberg, John N Flanagan, Stefan Arver, Helgi B Schiöth
Hypersexual Disorder (HD) defined as non-paraphilic sexual desire disorder with components of compulsivity, impulsivity and behavioral addiction, and proposed as a diagnosis in the DSM 5, shares some overlapping features with substance use disorder including common neurotransmitter systems and dysregulated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function. In this study, comprising 67 HD male patients and 39 male healthy volunteers, we aimed to identify HPA-axis coupled CpG-sites, in which modifications of the epigenetic profile are associated with hypersexuality...
March 10, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314951/relaxin-3-rxfp3-signalling-in-mouse-hypothalamus-no-effect-of-rxfp3-activation-on-corticosterone-despite-reduced-presynaptic-excitatory-input-onto-paraventricular-crh-neurons-in-vitro
#9
C Zhang, D V Baimoukhametova, C M Smith, J S Bains, Andrew L Gundlach
Relaxin-3/RXFP3 signalling is proposed to be involved in the neuromodulatory control of arousal- and stress-related neural circuits. Furthermore, previous studies in rats have led to the proposal that relaxin-3/RXFP3 signalling is associated with activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, but direct evidence for RXFP3-related actions on the activity of hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) neurons is lacking. In this study, we investigated characteristics of the relaxin-3/RXFP3 system in mouse hypothalamus...
March 17, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293470/hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis-and-depression-symptom-effects-of-an-arginine-vasopressin-type-1b-receptor-antagonist-in-a-one-week-randomized-phase-1b-trial
#10
David A Katz, Charles Locke, Nicholas Greco, Wei Liu, Katherine A Tracy
BACKGROUND: Arginine vasopressin 1B receptor (V1B) antagonists may have utility for the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD). METHODS: The V1B antagonist ABT-436 (N = 31) or matching placebo (N = 20) was administered to MDD subjects for 7 days. The main study objectives were to assess the safety and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) effects of ABT-436 in MDD subjects. MDD symptoms were assessed using the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D-17) and the subject-rated Mood and Anxiety Symptom Questionnaire (MASQ)...
March 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284881/susceptibility-or-resilience-prenatal-stress-predisposes-male-rats-to-social-subordination-but-facilitates-adaptation-to-subordinate-status
#11
Karen A Scott, Annette D de Kloet, Michael D Smeltzer, Eric G Krause, Jonathan N Flak, Susan J Melhorn, Michelle T Foster, Kellie L K Tamashiro, Randall R Sakai
Mood disorders such as major depressive disorder (MDD) affect a significant proportion of the population. Although progress has been made in the development of therapeutics, a large number of individuals do not attain full remission of symptoms and adverse side effects affect treatment compliance for some. In order to develop new therapies, there is a push for new models that better reflect the multiple risk factors that likely contribute to the development of depressive illness. We hypothesized that early life stress would exacerbate the depressive-like phenotype that we have previously observed in socially subordinate (SUB), adult male rats in the visible burrow system (VBS), a semi-natural, ethologically relevant environment in which males in a colony form a dominance hierarchy...
March 8, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283578/molecular-identification-and-functional-analysis-of-ctrp9-in-epinephelus-coioides
#12
Guokun Yang, Chaobin Qin, Bin Wang, Jirong Jia, Xi Yuan, Caiyun Sun, Wensheng Li
CTRP9 is a member of the C1q/TNF-related protein (CTRP) superfamily and has been studied in mammals, while the comparative studies of CTRP9 in non-mammalian species are still absent. In this study, CTRP9 was isolated and characterized from the orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides). The full length cDNA of CTRP9 was 1378 bp in size with ORF (open reading frame) of 1020 bp which encods a 339 amino acids preprohormone. The mRNA expression of CTRP9 showed a rather high level in the kidney and brain, but low level in other tissues...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279754/estrogen-receptors-er%C3%AE-and-er%C3%AE-participation-in-hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal-axis-activation-by-hemorrhagic-stress
#13
Luana Maria Silva Alves, Procópio Cleber Gama de Barcellos Filho, Celso Rodrigues Franci
The sympato-adrenal-system and hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis are anatomically and functionally connected with participation of several brain areas that express estrogen receptors (ERα and ERβ). We assessed the neuronal activity of these areas for FOS expression and the action of PPT (ERα agonist) or DPN (ERβ agonist) in HPA axis activity during hemorrhagic stress. Ovariectomized Wistar rats treated with vehicle (DMSO) or ER agonists were catheterized for blood collection. Animals received (control) or not (hemorrhagic) immediate reposition with the same volume of saline...
March 6, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263830/repeated-corticosterone-injections-in-adult-mice-alter-stress-hormonal-receptor-expression-in-the-cerebellum-and-motor-coordination-without-affecting-spatial-learning
#14
Guillaume Harlé, Robert Lalonde, Coralie Fonte, Armelle Ropars, Jean-Pol Frippiat, Catherine Strazielle
Receptors for glucocorticoid (GR) and corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) are largely found in brain sensorimotor structures, particularly in cerebellum, underlining a potential role of stress hormones in the regulation of motor function. Since CRH is involved in neuroplasticity, known for its trophic effect on synapses, we investigated how manipulations in corticosterone serum levels can modulate the CRH system in the cerebellum and affect motor coordination. Corticosterone at doses of either 15 or 30mg/kg was injected in mice and the status of hormonal expression evaluated in cerebellum, hippocampus, and hypothalamus in undisturbed housing conditions or after different behavioral tests...
March 2, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261058/late-onset-cognitive-impairments-after-early-life-stress-are-shaped-by-inherited-differences-in-stress-reactivity
#15
Silja McIlwrick, Tobias Pohl, Alon Chen, Chadi Touma
Early-life stress (ELS) has been associated with lasting cognitive impairments and with an increased risk for affective disorders. A dysregulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, the body's main stress response system, is critically involved in mediating these long-term consequences of adverse early-life experience. It remains unclear to what extent an inherited predisposition for HPA axis sensitivity or resilience influences the relationship between ELS and cognitive impairments, and which neuroendocrine and molecular mechanisms may be involved...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260504/the-crf-family-of-neuropeptides-and-their-receptors-mediators-of-the-central-stress-response
#16
Nina Dedic, Alon Chen, Jan M Deussing
Dysregulated stress neurocircuits, caused by genetic and/or environmental changes, underlie the development of many neuropsychiatric disorders. Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) is the major physiological activator of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and consequently a primary regulator of the mammalian stress response. Together with its three family members, urocortins (UCNs) 1, 2, and 3, CRF integrates the neuroendocrine, autonomic, metabolic and behavioral responses to stress by activating its cognate receptors CRFR1 and CRFR2...
March 1, 2017: Current Molecular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259042/probiotic-treatment-reduces-depressive-like-behaviour-in-rats-independently-of-diet
#17
Anders Abildgaard, Betina Elfving, Marianne Hokland, Gregers Wegener, Sten Lund
The gut microbiota has recently emerged as an important regulator of brain physiology and behaviour in animals, and ingestion of certain bacteria (probiotics) therefore appear to be a potential treatment for major depressive disorder (MDD). However, some conceptual and mechanistical aspects need further elucidation. We therefore aimed at investigating whether the habitual diet may interact with the effect of probiotics on depression-related behaviour and further examined some potentially involved mechanisms underlying the microbe-mediated behavioural effects...
February 16, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257759/blockade-of-trkb-receptors-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-prior-to-heterotypic-stress-alters-corticotropin-releasing-hormone-crh-vesicular-glutamate-transporter-2-vglut2-and-glucocorticoid-receptor-gr-within-the-mesolimbic-pathway
#18
Idu Azogu, Helene Plamondon
Inhibition of stress-induced elevations in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) or its primary receptor tyrosine-related kinase B (TrkB) within the reward pathway may modulate vulnerability to anxiety and mood disorders. The current study examined the role of BDNF/TrkB signaling on biochemistry and behavior under basal conditions and following exposure to a 10-day heterotypic stress paradigm in male rats. Effects of intra-accumbal administration of TrkB antagonist ANA-12 (0.25μg/0.5μl/min) on anxiety, and expression of Trk-B, corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (vGluT2) and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) within the mesolimbic pathway were determined...
March 14, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251369/hpa-axis-reactivity-to-pharmacologic-and-psychological-stressors-in-euthymic-women-with-histories-of-postpartum-versus-major-depression
#19
Elizabeth H Ferguson, Arianna Di Florio, Brenda Pearson, Karen T Putnam, Susan Girdler, David R Rubinow, Samantha Meltzer-Brody
It is unclear whether women with a history of postpartum depression (PPD) have residual, abnormal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis reactivity, as has been reported in major depression (MDD). Further unclear is whether the abnormalities in HPA axis reactivity associated with MDD represent a stable, underlying predisposition or a state-dependent phenomenon. This study sought the following: (1) to determine if euthymic postpartum women with a history of depression have an abnormal HPA axis reactivity to pharmacologic and psychological challenges and (2) to compare HPA reactivity in women with histories of PPD versus MDD...
March 1, 2017: Archives of Women's Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249734/role-of-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-and-nerve-growth-factor-in-the-regulation-of-neuropeptide-w-in%C3%A2-vitro-and-in%C3%A2-vivo
#20
Rikang Wang, Fengxia Yan, Rifang Liao, Pei Wan, Peter J Little, Wenhua Zheng
Nerve growth factor (NGF) and Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) are neurotrophic factors involved in the growth, survival and functioning of neurons. In addition, a possible role of neurotrophins, particularly BDNF, in HPA axis hyperactivation has recently been proposed. Neuropeptide W (NPW) is an endogenous peptide ligand for the GPR7 and GPR8 and a stress mediator in the hypothalamus. It activates the HPA axis by working on hypothalamic corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH). No information is available about the interrelationships between neurotrophines like NGF/BDNF and NPW...
February 27, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
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