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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925895/cardiovascular-drug-therapy-for-human-newborn-review-of-pharmacodynamic-data
#1
Ebru Ergenekon, Héctor Rojas-Anaya, María Carmen Bravo, Charalampos Kotidis, Liam Mahoney, Heike Rabe
BACKGROUND: Circulatory failure in preterm and term newborn infants is commonly treated with inotropes or vasoactive medications. In this structured literature review, the available data on pharmacodynamic effects of the inotropes adrenaline, dobutamine, dopamine, levosimendan, milrinone, noradrenaline, and the vasoactive drugs vasopressin and hydrocortisone are presented. METHODS: Structured searches were conducted to identify relevant articles according to pre-defined inclusion criteria which were human clinical trials published after 2000...
September 18, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924736/vasoactive-agents-for-hepatorenal-syndrome-a-mixed-treatment-comparison-network-meta-analysis-and-trial-sequential-analysis-of-randomized-clinical-trials
#2
Kannan Sridharan, Gowri Sivaramakrishnan
BACKGROUND: Hepatorenal syndrome (HRS) is a common complication among patients with cirrhosis, primarily attributable to vasodilation of renal vessels. Vasoactive agents are commonly used to treat HRS. The present network meta-analysis compares the vasoactive agents used in HRS. METHODS: We searched electronic databases for appropriate randomized controlled clinical trials in patients with HRS, comparing active interventions with either placebo or standard of care...
September 18, 2017: Journal of General Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921744/cholinergic-basal-forebrain-structures-are-not-essential-for-mediation-of-the-arousing-action-of-glutamate
#3
Zoltán Lelkes, Shamsiiat Abdurakhmanova, Tarja Porkka-Heiskanen
The cholinergic basal forebrain contributes to cortical activation and receives rich innervations from the ascending activating system. It is involved in the mediation of the arousing actions of noradrenaline and histamine. Glutamatergic stimulation in the basal forebrain results in cortical acetylcholine release and suppression of sleep. However, it is not known to what extent the cholinergic versus non-cholinergic basal forebrain projection neurones contribute to the arousing action of glutamate. To clarify this question, we administered N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), a glutamate agonist, into the basal forebrain in intact rats and after destruction of the cholinergic cells in the basal forebrain with 192 immunoglobulin (Ig)G-saporin...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Sleep Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920933/modular-organization-of-the-brainstem-noradrenaline-system-coordinates-opposing-learning-states
#4
Akira Uematsu, Bao Zhen Tan, Edgar A Ycu, Jessica Sulkes Cuevas, Jenny Koivumaa, Felix Junyent, Eric J Kremer, Ilana B Witten, Karl Deisseroth, Joshua P Johansen
Noradrenaline modulates global brain states and diverse behaviors through what is traditionally believed to be a homogeneous cell population in the brainstem locus coeruleus (LC). However, it is unclear how LC coordinates disparate behavioral functions. We report a modular LC organization in rats, endowed with distinct neural projection patterns and coding properties for flexible specification of opposing behavioral learning states. LC projection mapping revealed functionally distinct cell modules with specific anatomical connectivity...
September 18, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916441/monoamine-involvement-in-the-antidepressant-like-effect-induced-by-p2-blockade
#5
Cassiano Raf Diniz, Murilo Rodrigues, Plínio C Casarotto, Vítor S Pereira, Carlos C Crestani, Sâmia Rl Joca
Depression is a common mental disorder that affects millions of individuals worldwide. Available monoaminergic antidepressants are far from ideal since they show delayed onset of action and are ineffective in approximately 40% of patients, thus indicating the need of new and more effective drugs. ATP signaling through P2 receptors seems to play an important role in neurophatological mechanisms involved in depression, since their pharmacological or genetic inactivation induce antidepressant-like effects in the forced swimming test (FST)...
September 12, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916252/decreased-monoamine-oxidase-a-expression-and-activity-in-the-bladders-of-rats-with-partial-outlet-obstruction
#6
Mai Michishita, Kazuo Yano, Ken-Ichi Tomita, Satoru Yoshikawa, Osamu Matsuzaki, Ken-Ichi Kasahara
OBJECTIVE To investigate changes in expression and activity of monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) in rats with partial bladder outlet obstruction (pBOO). Previous studies suggested that monoamines, such as serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) and noradrenaline (NA), are involved in bladder hyperactivity secondary to pBOO. However, little is known about the role of MAO-A, an enzyme oxidizing 5-HT and NA, in the pathogenesis. METHODS Female Sprague Dawley rats were subjected to sham or pBOO operations for 7 days, then their bladders were isolated...
September 12, 2017: Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916026/a-diagnostic-and-therapeutic-approach-to-primary-burning-mouth-syndrome
#7
Siamak Moghadam-Kia, Nasim Fazel
Primary burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is an oral mucosal disorder that is characterized by a chronic and often debilitating intraoral burning sensation for which no localized or systemic cause can be found. BMS most commonly affects postmenopausal women. The pathophysiology of primary BMS is not well understood. Diagnosing BMS can prove to be challenging. BMS patients can also pose a therapeutic challenge to clinicians who are consulted to evaluate these patients. Most commonly used therapies include tricyclic antidepressants, α-lipoic acid, clonazepam, and cognitive-behavioral therapy...
September 2017: Clinics in Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913486/the-switch-from-buprenorphine-to-tapentadol-is-it-worth
#8
REVIEW
Adriana Miclescu
Opioid analgesia continues to be the primary pharmacologic intervention for managing acute pain and malignant pain in both hospitalized and ambulatory patients. The increasing use of opioids in chronic nonmalignant pain is more problematic. Opioid treatment is complicated with the risks raised by adverse effects, especially cognitive disturbance, respiratory depression but also the risk of tolerance, opioid abuse and drug-disease interactions. Despite the growing number of available opioids within the last years, adequate trials of opioid rotation are lacking and most of the information is anecdotal...
October 2016: Rom J Anaesth Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912693/octopamine-underlies-the-counter-regulatory-response-to-a-glucose-deficit-in-honeybees-apis-mellifera
#9
Christina Buckemüller, Oliver Siehler, Josefine Göbel, Richard Zeumer, Anja Ölschläger, Dorothea Eisenhardt
An animal's internal state is a critical parameter required for adaptation to a given environment. An important aspect of an animal's internal state is the energy state that is adjusted to the needs of an animal by energy homeostasis. Glucose is one essential source of energy, especially for the brain. A shortage of glucose therefore triggers a complex response to restore the animal's glucose supply. This counter-regulatory response to a glucose deficit includes metabolic responses like the mobilization of glucose from internal glucose stores and behavioral responses like increased foraging and a rapid intake of food...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888989/noradrenaline-oxymetazoline-and-phorbol-myristate-acetate-induce-distinct-functional-actions-and-phosphorylation-patterns-of-%C3%AE-1a-adrenergic-receptors
#10
Rocío Alcántara-Hernández, Aurelio Hernández-Méndez, M Teresa Romero-Ávila, Marco A Alfonzo-Méndez, André S Pupo, J Adolfo García-Sáinz
In LNCaP cells that stably express α1A-adrenergic receptors, oxymetazoline increased intracellular calcium and receptor phosphorylation, however, this agonist was a weak partial agonist, as compared to noradrenaline, for calcium signaling. Interestingly, oxymetazoline-induced receptor internalization and desensitization displayed greater effects than those induced by noradrenaline. Phorbol myristate acetate induced modest receptor internalization and minimal desensitization. α1A-Adrenergic receptor interaction with β-arrestins (colocalization/coimmunoprecipitation) was induced by noradrenaline and oxymetazoline and, to a lesser extent, by phorbol myristate acetate...
September 6, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888155/pupil-response-and-attention-skills-in-down-syndrome
#11
Armando Quetzalcóatl Angulo-Chavira, Octavio García, Natalia Arias-Trejo
Down syndrome (DS) is characterized by attentional problems. Little is known about the neural correlates of attention problems in DS due to difficulties in evaluation. Pupil dilation, associated with an increase in cognitive load and locus coeruleus-noradrenaline system activity in humans, is a neurophysiological measurement that may help to characterize such problems. The aim of this research was to investigate the link between a phasic pupil dilation response and target detection in people with DS, as compared with a control group with typical development (TD) matched by mental age...
September 6, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887130/gender-specific-impairment-of-in-vitro-sinoatrial-node-chronotropic-responses-and-of-myocardial-ischemia-tolerance-in-rats-exposed-prenatally-to-betamethasone
#12
L R A Kiguti, C S Borges, A Mueller, K P Silva, C M Polo, J L Rosa, P V Silva, G Missassi, L Valencise, W G Kempinas, A S Pupo
Excessive fetal glucocorticoid exposure has been linked to increased susceptibility to hypertension and cardiac diseases in the adult life, a process called fetal programming. The cardiac contribution to the hypertensive phenotype of glucocorticoid-programmed progeny is less known, therefore, we investigated in vitro cardiac functional parameters from rats exposed in utero to betamethasone. Pregnant Wistar rats received vehicle (VEH) or betamethasone (BET, 0.1mg/kg, i.m.) at gestational days 12, 13, 18 and 19...
September 5, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886456/broccoli-shaped-biosensor-hierarchy-for-electrochemical-screening-of-noradrenaline-in-living-cells
#13
Mohammed Y Emran, Moataz Mekawy, Naeem Akhtar, Mohamed A Shenashen, Islam M El-Sewify, Ahmed Faheem, Sherif A El-Safty
Monitoring and determination of ultra-trace concentrations of monoamine neurotransmitter such as noradrenaline (NA) in living cells with simple, sensitive and selective assays are significantly interesting. We design NA-electrode sensing system based on C-, N-doped NiO broccoli-like hierarchy (CNNB). The spherical broccoli-head umbrella architectures associated with nano-tubular arrangements enabled to tailor NA biosensor design. The homogenous doping and anisotropic dispersion of CN nanospheres along the entire NB head nanotubes lead to creating of abundant electroactive sites in the interior tubular vessels and outer surfaces for ultrasensitive detection of NA in living cells such as PC12...
August 31, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886249/chronic-5-ht-sub-2-sub-receptor-blockade-unmasks-the-role-of-5-ht-sub-1f-sub-receptors-in-the-inhibition-of-the-rat-cardioaccelerator-sympathetic-outflow
#14
José Ángel García-Pedraza, Oswaldo Hernández-Abreu, Mónica García, Asunción Morán, Carlos M Villalón
Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) inhibits the rat cardioaccelerator sympathetic outflow by 5-HT<sub>1B/1D/5</sub> receptors. Since chronic blockade of sympatho-excitatory 5-HT<sub>2</sub> receptors is beneficial in several cardiovascular pathologies, this study investigated whether sarpogrelate (a 5-HT<sub>2</sub> receptor antagonist) alters the pharmacological profile of the above sympatho-inhibition. Rats were pretreated during 2 weeks with sarpogrelate in drinking water (30 mg/kg...
September 8, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870455/pharmacological-evaluation-of-metformin-and-n-benzylbiguanide-a-novel-analogue-of-metformin-on-the-vasopressor-responses-to-adrenergic-system-stimulation-in-pithed-rats-with-fructose-induced-insulin-resistance
#15
Erika J Gutiérrez-Lara, Gabriel Navarrete-Vázquez, Araceli Sánchez-López, David Centurión
Metformin has been associated with cardioprotection, vasorelaxation and normalization of endothelial function during type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. However, few studies have analysed its effects on vascular adrenergic system. Our study has evaluated the vasopressor responses induced by sympathetic stimulation or by i.v. bolus injections of the agonists noradrenaline (α1/2), methoxamine (α1) and UK 14,304 (α2) in rats with fructose-induced insulin resistance chronically pretreated with either metformin or EGL-6M (N-benzylbiguanide), a novel analogue of metformin...
September 6, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865224/direct-effect-of-hypothalamic-neuropeptides-on-the-release-of-catecholamines-by-adrenal-medulla-in-sheep-study-ex-vivo
#16
D Wrońska, B F Kania, M Błachuta
Stress causes the activation of both the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis and sympatho-adrenal system, thus leading to the release from the adrenal medulla of catecholamines: adrenaline and, to a lesser degree, noradrenaline. It has been established that in addition to catecholamines, the adrenomedullary cells produce a variety of neuropeptides, including corticoliberine (CRH), vasopressin (AVP), oxytocin (OXY) and proopiomelanocortine (POMC) - a precursor of the adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)...
March 1, 2017: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863033/increased-blood-pressure-and-aortic-stiffness-among-abusers-of-anabolic-androgenic-steroids-potential-effect-of-suppressed-natriuretic-peptides-in-plasma
#17
Jon J Rasmussen, Morten Schou, Per L Madsen, Christian Selmer, Marie L Johansen, Peter Hovind, Peter S Ulriksen, Jens Faber, Finn Gustafsson, Caroline Kistorp
BACKGROUND: Abuse of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) is prevalent among recreational athletes and adverse effects on blood pressure (BP) and arterial stiffness could be substantial. Testosterone decreases natriuretic peptides which are key components in BP-regulation and may impair BP-homeostasis in AAS abusers. OBJECTIVE: To investigate BP and aortic stiffness in relation to natriuretic peptides among current AAS abusers, former AAS abusers and controls. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 37 current AAS abusers, 33 former AAS abusers and 30 controls were included...
August 31, 2017: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859148/stellate-ganglion-block-attenuates-chronic-stress-induced-depression-in-rats
#18
Weiwei Wang, Weidong Shi, Hua Qian, Xijin Deng, Tong Wang, Wenzhi Li
BACKGROUND: Stress is a significant factor in the etiology of depression. Stellate ganglion block (SGB) has been shown to maintain the stability of the autonomic system and to affect the neuroendocrine system, including the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. The objective of this study was to determine the antidepressant-like effects of SGB on the autonomic system and the HPA axis, apoptosis-related proteins, related spatial learning and memory impairment, and sensorimotor dysfunction...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855875/therapeutic-potential-of-selectively-targeting-the-%C3%AE-2c-adrenoceptor-in-cognition-depression-and-schizophrenia-new-developments-and-future-perspective
#19
REVIEW
Madeleine Monique Uys, Mohammed Shahid, Brian Herbert Harvey
α2A- and α2C-adrenoceptors (ARs) are the primary α2-AR subtypes involved in central nervous system (CNS) function. These receptors are implicated in the pathophysiology of psychiatric illness, particularly those associated with affective, psychotic, and cognitive symptoms. Indeed, non-selective α2-AR blockade is proposed to contribute toward antidepressant (e.g., mirtazapine) and atypical antipsychotic (e.g., clozapine) drug action. Both α2C- and α2A-AR share autoreceptor functions to exert negative feedback control on noradrenaline (NA) release, with α2C-AR heteroreceptors regulating non-noradrenergic transmission (e...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846584/effects-of-preoperative-psychological-interventions-on-catecholamine-and-cortisol-levels-after-surgery-in-coronary-artery-bypass-graft-patients-the-randomized-controlled-psy-heart-trial
#20
Stefan Salzmann, Frank Euteneuer, Johannes A C Laferton, Charlotte J Auer, Meike C Shedden-Mora, Manfred Schedlowski, Rainer Moosdorf, Winfried Rief
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to examine whether preoperative psychological interventions targeting patients' expectations are capable of influencing the biological stress response after coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery and could thus improve recovery after heart surgery. METHODS: Randomized controlled trial with assessments 10 days before surgery, after psychological intervention (day of hospital admission, but before surgery), postoperative (6-8 days later), and at follow-up (6 months after surgery)...
September 2017: Psychosomatic Medicine
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