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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632157/development-of-a-novel-transparent-flexible-capacitive-micromachined-ultrasonic-transducer
#1
Da-Chen Pang, Cheng-Min Chang
This paper presents the world's first transparent flexible capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer (CMUT) that was fabricated through a roll-lamination technique. This polymer-based CMUT has advantages of transparency, flexibility, and non-contacting detection which provide unique functions in display panel applications. Comprising an indium tin oxide-polyethylene terephthalate (ITO-PET) substrate, SU-8 sidewall and vibrating membranes, and silver nanowire transparent electrode, the transducer has visible-light transmittance exceeding 80% and can operate on curved surfaces with a 40 mm radius of curvature...
June 20, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632153/fabrication-and-characterization-of-plasmonic-nanopores-with-cavities-in-the-solid-support
#2
Bita Malekian, Kunli Xiong, Gustav Emilsson, Jenny Andersson, Cecilia Fager, Eva Olsson, Elin M Larsson-Langhammer, Andreas B Dahlin
Plasmonic nanostructures are widely used for various sensing applications by monitoring changes in refractive index through optical spectroscopy or as substrates for surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy. However, in most practical situations conventional surface plasmon resonance is preferred for biomolecular interaction analysis because of its high resolution in surface coverage and the simple single-material planar interface. Still, plasmonic nanostructures may find unique sensing applications, for instance when the nanoscale geometry itself is of interest...
June 20, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631801/morphology-of-elastic-nematic-liquid-crystal-membranes
#3
Pardis Rofouie, Damiano Pasini, Alejandro D Rey
Liquid crystalline phases found in many biological materials, such as actin, DNA, cellulose, and collagen can be responsible for the deformation of cell membranes. In this paper, cell membrane deformation is investigated through the coupling between liquid crystal anisotropy and membrane bending elasticity. The generalized shape equation for anisotropic interfaces, which resort to the Cahn-Hoffman capillarity vector, the Rapini-Papoular anchoring energy, and the Helfrich elastic energy, is applied to gain insight into the deformation of closed liquid crystal membranes...
June 20, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630680/purely-entropic-self-assembly-of-the-bicontinuous-ia3d-gyroid-phase-in-equilibrium-hard-pear-systems
#4
Philipp W A Schönhöfer, Laurence J Ellison, Matthieu Marechal, Douglas J Cleaver, Gerd E Schröder-Turk
We investigate a model of hard pear-shaped particles which forms the bicontinuous Ia[Formula: see text]d structure by entropic self-assembly, extending the previous observations of Barmes et al. (2003 Phys. Rev. E68, 021708. (doi:10.1103/PhysRevE.68.021708)) and Ellison et al. (2006 Phys. Rev. Lett.97, 237801. (doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.97.237801)). We specifically provide the complete phase diagram of this system, with global density and particle shape as the two variable parameters, incorporating the gyroid phase as well as disordered isotropic, smectic and nematic phases...
August 6, 2017: Interface Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630675/how-geometric-frustration-shapes-twisted-fibres-inside-and-out-competing-morphologies-of-chiral-filament-assembly
#5
Douglas M Hall, Gregory M Grason
Chirality frustrates and shapes the assembly of flexible filaments in rope-like, twisted bundles and fibres by introducing gradients of both filament shape (i.e. curvature) and packing throughout the structure. Previous models of chiral filament bundle formation have shown that this frustration gives rise to several distinct morphological responses, including self-limiting bundle widths, anisotropic domain (tape-like) formation and topological defects in the lateral inter-filament order. In this paper, we employ a combination of continuum elasticity theory and discrete filament bundle simulations to explore how these distinct morphological responses compete in the broader phase diagram of chiral filament assembly...
August 6, 2017: Interface Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630668/competition-brings-out-the-best-modelling-the-frustration-between-curvature-energy-and-chain-stretching-energy-of-lyotropic-liquid-crystals-in-bicontinuous-cubic-phases
#6
Hao Chen, Chenyu Jin
It is commonly considered that the frustration between the curvature energy and the chain stretching energy plays an important role in the formation of lyotropic liquid crystals in bicontinuous cubic phases. Theoretic and numeric calculations were performed for two extreme cases: parallel surfaces eliminate the variance of the chain length; constant mean curvature surfaces eliminate the variance of the mean curvature. We have implemented a model with Brakke's Surface Evolver which allows a competition between the two variances...
August 6, 2017: Interface Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630666/curvature-driven-motion-of-a-bubble-in-a-toroidal-hele-shaw-cell
#7
A Mughal, S J Cox, G E Schröder-Turk
We investigate the equilibrium properties of a single area-minimizing bubble trapped between two narrowly separated parallel curved plates. We begin with the case of a bubble trapped between concentric spherical plates. We develop a model which shows that the surface energy of the bubble is lower when confined between spherical plates than between flat plates. We confirm our findings by comparing against Surface Evolver simulations. We then derive a simple model for a bubble between arbitrarily curved parallel plates...
August 6, 2017: Interface Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630157/pore-formation-by-dimeric-bak-and-bax-an-unusual-pore
#8
REVIEW
Rachel T Uren, Sweta Iyer, Ruth M Kluck
Apoptotic cell death via the mitochondrial pathway occurs in all vertebrate cells and requires the formation of pores in the mitochondrial outer membrane. Two Bcl-2 protein family members, Bak and Bax, form these pores during apoptosis, and how they do so has been investigated for the last two decades. Many of the conformation changes that occur during their transition to pore-forming proteins have now been delineated. Notably, biochemical, biophysical and structural studies indicate that symmetric homodimers are the basic unit of pore formation...
August 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623079/restoration-of-articular-geometry-using-current-graft-options-for-large-glenoid-bone-defects-in-anterior-shoulder-instability
#9
Laurent B Willemot, Mohsen Akbari-Shandiz, Joaquin Sanchez-Sotelo, Kristin Zhao, Olivier Verborgt
PURPOSE: The purpose of this cadaveric study was to compare standard and modified coracoid transfer procedures, bicortical and tricortical iliac crest autografts, and tibial plafond and glenoid allografts with respect to glenoid surface curvature restoration. METHODS: Computed tomography scans of 8 cadaveric shoulders were acquired in 9 conditions: (1) intact, (2) 25% width defect, (3) classic Latarjet, (4) modified congruent-arc Latarjet, (5) tricortical iliac crest inner table, (6) outer table, (7) bicortical iliac crest, (8) distal tibia, and (9) glenoid allograft...
June 13, 2017: Arthroscopy: the Journal of Arthroscopic & related Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622141/analysis-of-structural-brain-mri-and-multi-parameter-classification-for-alzheimer-s-disease
#10
Yingteng Zhang, Shenquan Liu
Incorporating with machine learning technology, neuroimaging markers which extracted from structural Magnetic Resonance Images (sMRI), can help distinguish Alzheimer's Disease (AD) patients from Healthy Controls (HC). In the present study, we aim to investigate differences in atrophic regions between HC and AD and apply machine learning methods to classify these two groups. T1-weighted sMRI scans of 158 patients with AD and 145 age-matched HC were acquired from the ADNI database. Five kinds of parameters (i...
June 15, 2017: Biomedizinische Technik. Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618556/strain-tensor-selection-and-the-elastic-theory-of-incompatible-thin-sheets
#11
Oz Oshri, Haim Diamant
The existing theory of incompatible elastic sheets uses the deviation of the surface metric from a reference metric to define the strain tensor [Efrati et al., J. Mech. Phys. Solids 57, 762 (2009)JMPSA80022-509610.1016/j.jmps.2008.12.004]. For a class of simple axisymmetric problems we examine an alternative formulation, defining the strain based on deviations of distances (rather than distances squared) from their rest values. While the two formulations converge in the limit of small slopes and in the limit of an incompressible sheet, for other cases they are found not to be equivalent...
May 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618516/viral-self-assembly-pathway-and-mechanical-stress-relaxation
#12
Martin Castelnovo
The final shape of a virus is dictated by the self-assembly pathway of its constituents. Using standard thin-shell elasticity, we highlight the prominent role of the viral shell's spontaneous curvature in determining the assembly pathway. In particular, we demonstrate that the mechanical stress inherent to the growth of a curved surface can be relaxed in two different ways in the early steps of assembly, depending on the value of the spontaneous curvature of the surface. This important result explains why most viral shells have either a compact shape with icosahedral symmetry or an elongated shape lacking this symmetry...
May 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618487/measuring-geometric-frustration-in-twisted-inextensible-filament-bundles
#13
Andreea Panaitescu, Gregory M Grason, Arshad Kudrolli
We investigate with experiments and mapping the structure of a hexagonally ordered filament bundle that is held near its ends and progressively twisted around its central axis. The filaments are free to slide relative to each other and are further held under tension-free boundary conditions. Measuring the bundle packing with micro x-ray imaging, we find that the filaments develop the helical rotation Ω imposed at the boundaries. We then show that the observed structure is consistent with a mapping of the filament positions to disks packed on a dual non-Euclidean surface with a Gaussian curvature which increases with twist...
May 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617981/what-is-the-variability-in-shoulder-axillae-and-waist-position-in-a-group-of-adolescents
#14
Adrian Gardner, Fiona Berryman, Paul Pynsent
The clinical assessment of scoliosis is based on the recognition of asymmetry. It is not clear what the degree of asymmetry is in a population without scoliosis, which could make the differentiation between abnormal and normal uncertain. This study defines the range of normality in certain parameters of torso shape that are also associated with the clinical assessment of scoliosis. This was done by analysing the surface topography of a group of 195 children serially measured over a 5-year period. The analysis considered both the spinal curvature and the relative position of shoulders, axillae and waist on each side...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611133/long-term-clinical-outcome-of-femtosecond-laser-assisted-lamellar-keratectomy-with-phototherapeutic-keratectomy-in-anterior-corneal-stromal-dystrophy
#15
Jonghyun Lee, Jin Hyoung Kim, Doh Lee, Ji Woong Chang, Joo Youn Shin, Ji Won Seo, Min Hwan Seo, Nam Ju Moon
PURPOSE: To evaluate long-term outcome of femtosecond laser-assisted lamellar keratectomy (FLK) with phototherapeutic keratectomy (PTK) in patients with anterior corneal stromal dystrophies. METHODS: A total of 10 eyes from seven patients who underwent FLK were included. The patients had suffered from recurrent corneal erosion or visual disturbance in anterior corneal dystrophies (five Avellino dystrophies and two lattice dystrophies). Planar-shaped lamellar keratectomy was performed using femtosecond laser...
June 13, 2017: British Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608920/facial-curvature-detects-and-explicates-ethnic-differences-in-effects-of-prenatal-alcohol-exposure
#16
Michael Suttie, Leah Wetherill, Sandra W Jacobson, Joseph L Jacobson, H Eugene Hoyme, Elizabeth R Sowell, Claire Coles, Jeffrey R Wozniak, Edward P Riley, Kenneth L Jones, Tatiana Foroud, Peter Hammond
BACKGROUND: Our objective is to help clinicians detect the facial effects of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) by developing computer based tools for screening facial form. METHODS: All 415 individuals considered were evaluated by expert dysmorphologists and categorized as 1) healthy control (HC), 2) fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) or 3) heavily prenatally alcohol exposed (HE) but not clinically diagnosable as FAS. 3D facial photographs were used to build models of facial form to support discrimination studies...
June 13, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608781/nano-and-microparticles-at-fluid-and-biological-interfaces
#17
Sabyasachi Dasgupta, Thorsten Auth, Gerhard Gompper
Systems with interfaces are abundant in both technological applications and biology. While a fluid interface separates two fluids, membranes separate the inside of vesicles from the outside, the interior of biological cells from the environment, and compartmentalize cells into organelles. The physical properties of interfaces are characterized by interface tension, those of membranes are characterized by bending and stretching elasticity. Amphiphilic molecules like surfactants that are added to a system with two immiscible fluids decrease the interface tension and induce a bending rigidity...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608414/use-of-lecithin-to-control-fibre-morphology-in-electrospun-poly-%C3%AE%C2%B5-caprolactone-scaffolds-for-improved-tissue-engineering-applications
#18
Benjamin D M Coverdale, Julie E Gough, William W Sampson, Judith A Hoyland
We elucidate the effects of incorporating surfactants into electrospun poly (ε-caprolactone) (PCL) scaffolds on network homogeneity, cellular adherence and osteogenic differentiation. Lecithin was added with a range of concentrations to PCL solutions, which were electrospun to yield functionalised scaffolds. Addition of lecithin yielded a dose-dependent reduction in scaffold hydrophobicity, whilst reducing fibre width and hence increasing specific surface area. These changes in scaffold morphology were associated with increased cellular attachment of Saos-2 osteoblasts 3-hours post-seeding...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607867/a-quadrangular-flap-technique-for-vermilion-repair-in-unilateral-cleft-lip
#19
Hiromu Masuoka
In unilateral cleft lip repair, the vermilion triangular flap technique reported by Noordhoff(1) and its modification are widely accepted for the augmentation of the vermilion height on the medial side of the cleft; however, these techniques do not focus on the deformity of the labial tubercle. In this article, we herein report a modified technique for vermilion repair that is focused on the labial tubercle. The muco-vermilion quadrangular flap was elevated from the lateral lip to augment the labial tubercle...
May 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Global Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598643/from-glass-formation-to-icosahedral-ordering-by-curving-three-dimensional-space
#20
Francesco Turci, Gilles Tarjus, C Patrick Royall
Geometric frustration describes the inability of a local molecular arrangement, such as icosahedra found in metallic glasses and in model atomic glass formers, to tile space. Local icosahedral order, however, is strongly frustrated in Euclidean space, which obscures any causal relationship with the observed dynamical slowdown. Here we relieve frustration in a model glass-forming liquid by curving three-dimensional space onto the surface of a 4-dimensional hypersphere. For sufficient curvature, frustration vanishes and the liquid "freezes" in a fully icosahedral structure via a sharp "transition...
May 26, 2017: Physical Review Letters
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