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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222351/the-land-morphology-approach-to-flood-risk-mapping-an-application-to-portugal
#1
N S Cunha, M R Magalhães, T Domingos, M M Abreu, C Küpfer
In the last decades, the increasing vulnerability of floodplains is linked to societal changes such as population density growth, land use changes, water use patterns, among other factors. Land morphology directly influences surface water flow, transport of sediments, soil genesis, local climate and vegetation distribution. Therefore, the land morphology, the land used and management directly influences flood risks genesis. However, attention is not always given to the underlying geomorphological and ecological processes that influence the dynamic of rivers and their floodplains...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220443/contaminated-area-instability-along-%C3%A3-ngerman%C3%A3-lven-river-northern-sweden
#2
A Ströberg, K Ebert, J Jarsjö, A Frampton
Industrially utilized river basins are frequently exposed to contaminants originating from polluting activities. However, the physical instability and probability of mass movement mobilization of contaminated soil into rivers have only received little attention. In this study, we present a GIS-based method to produce a regional overview of where and how contaminated areas are potentially exposed to slope instability. A landslide susceptibility-index was used to study the degree and distribution of overlap between contaminated sites and unstable ground...
March 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219008/nanoroughness-strongly-impacts-lipid-mobility-in-supported-membranes
#3
Florence Sarah Blachon, Frederic F Harb, Bogdan Munteanu, Agnès Piednoir, Remy Fulcrand, Thierry Charitat, Giovanna Fragneto, Olivier Pierre-Louis, Bernard Tinland, Jean-Paul Rieu
In vivo lipid membranes interact with rough supramolecular structures such as protein clusters and fibrils. How these features whose size ranges from a few nanometers to a few tens of nanometers impact lipid and protein mobility is still investigated. Here, we study supported phospholipid bilayers, a unique biomimetic model, deposited on etched surfaces bearing nanometric corrugations. Surface roughness and mean curvature are carefully characterized by AFM imaging using ultrasharp tips. Neutron specular reflectivity supplements this surface characterization, and indicates that the bilayers follow the large scale corrugations of the substrate...
February 20, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215632/ventricular-geometry-from-non-contrast-non-ecg-gated-ct-scans-an-imaging-marker-of-cardiopulmonary-disease-in-smokers
#4
Farbod N Rahaghi, Gonzalo Vegas-Sanchez-Ferrero, Jasleen K Minhas, Carolyn E Come, Isaac De La Bruere, James M Wells, Germán González, Surya P Bhatt, Brett E Fenster, Alejandro A Diaz, Puja Kohli, James C Ross, David A Lynch, Mark T Dransfield, Russel P Bowler, Maria J Ledesma-Carbayo, Raúl San José Estépar, George R Washko
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: Imaging-based assessment of cardiovascular structure and function provides clinically relevant information in smokers. Non-cardiac-gated thoracic computed tomographic (CT) scanning is increasingly leveraged for clinical care and lung cancer screening. We sought to determine if more comprehensive measures of ventricular geometry could be obtained from CT using an atlas-based surface model of the heart. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Subcohorts of 24 subjects with cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and 262 subjects with echocardiography were identified from COPDGene, a longitudinal observational study of smokers...
February 15, 2017: Academic Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213101/additively-manufactured-metallic-porous-biomaterials-based-on-minimal-surfaces-a-unique-combination-of-topological-mechanical-and-mass-transport-properties
#5
F S L Bobbert, K Lietaert, A A Eftekhari, B Pouran, S M Ahmadi, H Weinans, A A Zadpoor
: Porous biomaterials that simultaneously mimic the topological, mechanical, and mass transport properties of bone are in great demand but are rarely found in the literature. In this study, we rationally designed and additively manufactured (AM) porous metallic biomaterials based on four different types of triply periodic minimal surfaces (TPMS) that mimic the properties of bone to an unprecedented level of multi-physics detail. Sixteen different types of porous biomaterials were rationally designed and fabricated using selective laser melting (SLM) from a titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V)...
February 14, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210178/a-steep-peripheral-ring-in-irregular-cornea-topography-real-or-an-instrument-error
#6
Alicia Galindo-Ferreiro, Alberto Galvez-Ruiz, Silvana A Schellini, Julio Galindo-Alonso
PURPOSE: To demonstrate that the steep peripheral ring (red zone) on corneal topography after myopic laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) could possibly due to instrument error and not always to a real increase in corneal curvature. METHODS: A spherical model for the corneal surface and modifying topography software was used to analyze the cause of an error due to instrument design. This study involved modification of the software of a commercially available topographer...
July 2016: Saudi Journal of Ophthalmology: Official Journal of the Saudi Ophthalmological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208420/hydrodynamic-mobility-of-a-solid-particle-near-a-spherical-elastic-membrane-axisymmetric-motion
#7
Abdallah Daddi-Moussa-Ider, Stephan Gekle
We use the image solution technique to compute the leading order frequency-dependent self-mobility function of a small solid particle moving perpendicular to the surface of a spherical capsule whose membrane possesses shearing and bending rigidities. Comparing our results with those obtained earlier for an infinitely extended planar elastic membrane, we find that membrane curvature leads to the appearance of a prominent additional peak in the mobility. This peak is attributed to the fact that the shear resistance of the curved membrane involves a contribution from surface-normal displacements, which is not the case for planar membranes...
January 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203027/-a-new-method-to-orthodontically-correct-dental-occlusal-plane-canting-wave-shaped-arch
#8
X Zheng, X X Hu, N Ma, X H Chen
OBJECTIVE: To introduce a technique of second order wave-shaped arch wire to orthodontically treat dental occlusal plane canting (DOPC) with left-right interactive anchorage, and to test its clinical efficacy. METHODS: Among the permanent dentition malocclusion patients who showed no obvious facial asymmetry, we screened for patients who showed anterior occlusal plane canting (AOPC) after routine orthodontic examination, treatment planning, MBT fixed appliance installation and serial arch wires alignment...
February 18, 2017: Beijing da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Peking University. Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199222/liquid-crystals-in-micron-scale-droplets-shells-and-fibers
#9
Martin Urbanski, Catherine G Reyes, JungHyun Noh, Anshul Sharma, Yong Geng, Venkata Subba Rao Jampani, Jan P F Lagerwall
The extraordinary responsiveness and large diversity of self-assembled structures of liquid crystals are well documented and they have been extensively used in devices like displays. For long, this application route strongly influenced academic research, which frequently focused on the performance of liquid crystals in display-like geometries, typically between flat, rigid substrates of glass or similar solids. Today a new trend is clearly visible, where liquid crystals confined within curved, often soft and flexible, interfaces are in focus...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199110/kinetics-of-hydrogen-abstraction-and-addition-reactions-of-3-hexene-by-%C3%A8-h-radicals
#10
Feiyu Yang, Fuquan Deng, Youshun Pan, Yingjia Zhang, Chenglong Tang, Zuohua Huang
Rate coefficients of H-atom abstraction and H-atom addition reactions of 3-hexene by the hydroxyl radicals were determined using both conventional transition-state theory and canonical variational transition-state theory, with potential energy surface (PES) evaluated at the CCSD(T)/CBS//BHandHLYP/6-311G (d, p) level and quantum mechanical effect corrected by the compounded methods including one-dimensional Wigner method, multi-dimensional zero-curvature tunneling method and small-curvature tunneling method...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196218/association-of-baseline-anterior-segment-parameters-with-the-development-of-incident-gonioscopic-angle-closure
#11
Monisha E Nongpiur, Inas F Aboobakar, Mani Baskaran, Arun Narayanaswamy, Lisandro M Sakata, Renyi Wu, Eray Atalay, David S Friedman, Tin Aung
Importance: Baseline anterior segment imaging parameters associated with incident gonioscopic angle closure, to our knowledge, are unknown. Objective: To identify baseline quantitative anterior segment optical coherence tomography parameters associated with the development of incident gonioscopic angle closure after 4 years among participants with gonioscopically open angles at baseline. Design, Setting, and Participants: Three hundred forty-two participants aged 50 years or older were recruited to participate in this prospective, community-based observational study...
February 9, 2017: JAMA Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188555/curvature-effects-on-the-velocity-profile-in-turbulent-pipe-flow
#12
Siegfried Grossmann, Detlef Lohse
Prandtl and von Kármán have developed the famous log-law for the mean velocity profile for turbulent flow over a plate. The log-law has also been applied to turbulent pipe flow, though the wall surface is curved (in span-wise direction) and has finite diameter. Here we discuss the theoretical framework, based on the Navier-Stokes equations, with which one can describe curvature effects and also the well-known finite-size effects in the turbulent mean-velocity profile. When comparing with experimental data we confirm that the turbulent eddy viscosity must contain both curvature and finite-size contributions and that the usual ansatz for the turbulent eddy viscosity as being linear in the wall distance is insufficient, both for small and large wall distances...
February 2017: European Physical Journal. E, Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185927/evidence-of-proteolipid-domain-formation-in-an-inner-mitochondrial-membrane-mimicking-model
#13
Mouhedine Cheniour, Jonathan Brewer, Luis Bagatolli, Olivier Marcillat, Thierry Granjon
BACKGROUND: Mitochondrial Creatine kinase (mtCK) is highly abundant in mitochondria; its quantity is equimolecular to the Adenylic Nucleotide Translocator and represents 1% of the mitochondrial proteins. It is a multitask protein localized in the mitochondria intermembrane space where it binds to the specific cardiolipin (CL) phospholipid. If mtCK was initially thought to be exclusively implicated in energy transfer between mitochondria and cytosol through a mechanism referred to as the phosphocreatine shuttle, several recent studies suggested an additional role in maintaining mitochondria membrane structure...
February 6, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182428/direct-observation-of-the-outermost-surfaces-of-mesoporous-silica-thin-films-by-high-resolution-ultralow-voltage-scanning-electron-microscopy
#14
Maho Kobayashi, Kyoka Susuki, Haruo Otsuji, Yusuke Sakuda, Shunsuke Asahina, Naoki Kikuchi, Toshiyuki Kanazawa, Yoshiyuki Kuroda, Hiroaki Wada, Atsushi Shimojima, Kazuyuki Kuroda
The properties of the outermost surfaces of mesoporous silica thin films are critical in determining their functions. Obtaining information on the presence or absence of silica layers on the film surfaces and on the degree of mesopore opening is essential for applications of surface mesopores. In this study, the outermost surfaces of mesoporous silica thin films with 3-dimensional orthorhombic and 2-dimensional hexagonal structures were observed using ultralow voltage high resolution scanning electron microscopy (HR-SEM) with decelerating optics...
February 20, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181798/shape-morphing-materials-from-stimuli-responsive-hydrogel-hybrids
#15
Seog-Jin Jeon, Adam W Hauser, Ryan C Hayward
The formation of well-defined and functional three-dimensional (3D) structures by buckling of thin sheets subjected to spatially nonuniform stresses is common in biological morphogenesis and has become a subject of great interest in synthetic systems, as such programmable shape-morphing materials hold promise in areas including drug delivery, biomedical devices, soft robotics, and biomimetic systems. Given their ability to undergo large changes in swelling in response to a wide variety of stimuli, hydrogels have naturally emerged as a key type of material in this field...
February 9, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179102/impact-of-surface-grafting-density-of-peg-macromolecules-on-dually-fluorescent-silica-nanoparticles-used-for-the-in-vivo-imaging-of-subcutaneous-tumors
#16
Laurent Adumeau, Coralie Genevois, Lydia Roudier, Christophe Schatz, Franck Couillaud, Stéphane Mornet
BACKGROUND: In the context of systematically administered nanomedicines, the physicochemistry of NP surfaces must be controlled as a prerequisite to improve blood circulation time, and passive and active targeting. In particular, there is a real need to develop NP stealth and labelling for both in vivo and microscopic fluorescence imaging in a mice model. METHODS: We have synthesized NIR/red dually fluorescent silica nanoparticles of 19nm covalently covered by a PEG layer of different grafting density in the brush conformational regime by using a reductive amination reaction...
February 4, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177003/density-functional-based-simulations-of-proton-permeation-of-graphene-and-hexagonal-boron-nitride
#17
J M H Kroes, A Fasolino, M I Katsnelson
Using density functional theory, we study proton permeation through graphene and hexagonal boron nitride. We consider several factors influencing the barriers for permeation, including structural optimization, the role of the solvent, surface curvature and proton transport through hydrogenated samples. Furthermore, we discuss the ground state charge transfer from the membrane to the proton and the strong tendency for bond formation. If the process is assumed to be slow we find that none of these effects lead to a satisfactory answer to the observed discrepancies between theory and experiment...
February 8, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174270/quantum-chaos-on-a-critical-fermi-surface
#18
Aavishkar A Patel, Subir Sachdev
We compute parameters characterizing many-body quantum chaos for a critical Fermi surface without quasiparticle excitations. We examine a theory of [Formula: see text] species of fermions at nonzero density coupled to a [Formula: see text] gauge field in two spatial dimensions and determine the Lyapunov rate and the butterfly velocity in an extended random-phase approximation. The thermal diffusivity is found to be universally related to these chaos parameters; i.e., the relationship is independent of [Formula: see text], the gauge-coupling constant, the Fermi velocity, the Fermi surface curvature, and high-energy details...
February 7, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163773/assessment-of-iterative-closest-point-registration-accuracy-for-different-phantom-surfaces-captured-by-an-optical-3d-sensor-in-radiotherapy
#19
Gerald Krell, Nazila Saeid Nezhad, Mathias Walke, Ayoub Al-Hamadi, Günther Gademann
An optical 3D sensor provides an additional tool for verification of correct patient settlement on a Tomotherapy treatment machine. The patient's position in the actual treatment is compared with the intended position defined in treatment planning. A commercially available optical 3D sensor measures parts of the body surface and estimates the deviation from the desired position without markers. The registration precision of the in-built algorithm and of selected ICP (iterative closest point) algorithms is investigated on surface data of specially designed phantoms captured by the optical 3D sensor for predefined shifts of the treatment table...
2017: Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158052/analysis-of-surface-deformation-in-thin-film-coatings-by-carrier-frequency-interferometry
#20
E Jankowska, S Drobczynski, C S Menoni
We demonstrate a method based on carrier frequency interferometry (CFI) that measures surface deformation with high accuracy. The method is applied to assess the deformation of thin-film dielectrics deposited on thick substrates. CFI measured the wavefront radius of curvature R with an accuracy of 0.2% for an R smaller than 500 m and 2% for an R between 500 and 2000 m (flat reference substrate). We show the method has a significantly larger dynamic range and sensitivity than Twyman-Green and comparable sensitivity to white light interferometry...
February 1, 2017: Applied Optics
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