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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725337/humanized-mice-engrafted-with-human-hsc-only-or-hsc-and-thymus-support-comparable-hiv-1-replication-immunopathology-and-responses-to-art-and-immune-therapy
#1
Liang Cheng, Jianping Ma, Guangming Li, Lishan Su
Immunodeficient mice reconstituted with human immune tissues and cells (humanized mice) are relevant and robust models for the study of HIV-1 infection, immunopathogenesis, and therapy. In this study, we performed a comprehensive comparison of human immune reconstitution and HIV-1 infection, immunopathogenesis and therapy between immunodeficient NOD/Rag2-/- /γc -/- (NRG) mice transplanted with human HSCs (NRG-hu HSC) and mice transplanted with HSCs and thymus fragments (NRG-hu Thy/HSC) from the same donors...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672295/comparison-of-concanavalin-a-induced-murine-autoimmune-hepatitis-models
#2
Tinghong Ye, Tingting Wang, Xiaoxue Yang, Xiaoli Fan, Maoyao Wen, Yi Shen, Xiaotan Xi, Ruoting Men, Li Yang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is a chronic necroinflammatory disease of the liver whose pathogenic mechanisms have not yet been elucidated. Moreover, the current treatment used for the vast majority of AIH patients is largely dependent on immunosuppressant administration and liver transplantation. However, research on the pathogenesis of AIH and effective new treatments for AIH have been hampered by a lack of animal models that accurately reproduce the human condition. METHODS: AIH models created by concanavalin A (ConA) injections at different times and doses...
2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455798/immunopathogenesis-of-primary-graft-dysfunction-after-lung-transplantation
#3
EDITORIAL
Ankit Bharat, Daniel Kreisel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440324/natural-history-clinical-manifestations-and-pathogenesis-of-hepatitis-a
#4
Eui-Cheol Shin, Sook-Hyang Jeong
Hepatitis A virus (HAV) is transmitted by the fecal-oral route and is a major cause of acute viral hepatitis. The clinical manifestations of HAV infection range from asymptomatic infection to acute liver failure (ALF), but do not include progression to chronic hepatitis. Risk factors for severe acute hepatitis A are older age (>40 years) and preexisting liver disease. Some patients may show atypical clinical features such as relapsing hepatitis, prolonged cholestasis, or extrahepatic manifestations. Almost all hepatitis A patients spontaneously recover with supportive care...
February 12, 2018: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29361613/human-hepatocyte-depletion-in-the-presence-of-hiv-1-infection-in-dual-reconstituted-humanized-mice
#5
Raghubendra Singh Dagur, Weimin Wang, Yan Cheng, Edward Makarov, Murali Ganesan, Hiroshi Suemizu, Catherine L Gebhart, Santhi Gorantla, Natalia Osna, Larisa Y Poluektova
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection impairs liver function, and liver diseases have become a leading cause of morbidity in infected patients. The immunopathology of liver damage caused by HIV-1 remains unclear. We used chimeric mice dually reconstituted with a human immune system and hepatocytes to address the relevance of the model to pathobiology questions related to human hepatocyte survival in the presence of systemic infection. TK-NOG males were transplanted with mismatched human hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells and hepatocytes, human albumin concentration and the presence of human immune cells in blood were monitored for hepatocytes and immune reconstitution, and mice were infected with HIV-1...
February 13, 2018: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179600/nanovaccine-for-immunotherapy-and-reduced-hepatitis-b-virus-in-humanized-model
#6
Hitesh Kumar Dewangan, Tarun Pandey, Sanjay Singh
Chronic Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) infections are severe with weak antiviral immune responses. The lack of an appropriate small animal model for chronic hepatitis, a major hurdle for studying the immunotolerance and immunopathogenesis induced by hepatitis B viral (HBV) infection. In this study, for enhancing the antibody production efficiency the prepared polymeric HBsAg-loaded nanoparticles (nanovaccine) will be tested in immune-deficit mice, which suffer from chronic Hepatitis B virus. Vaccination of Balb/c mice by this prepared nanoparticles that were engrafted with peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), which was already lethally irradiated and transplanted by the bone marrow of NOD (knockout mice) mice...
November 27, 2017: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135572/long-term-observational-studies-of-chronic-granulomatous-disease
#7
Maria Kanariou, Kleopatra Spanou, Sofia Tantou
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a primary immunodeficiency, with a defect of phagocytes in killing specific pathogens. CGD is characterized by severe recurrent bacterial and fungal infections and dysregulated inflammatory response. Since its first description as fatal disease about 60 years ago, a significant improvement in outcome has been achieved in the last 20 years. The purpose of this review is to framework recent advances in CGD immunopathogenesis, management of disease manifestation and cure of CGD patients...
January 2018: Current Opinion in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057173/pathogenesis-diagnosis-and-therapeutic-strategies-in-whim-syndrome-immunodeficiency
#8
Lauren E Heusinkveld, Erin Yim, Alexander Yang, Ari B Azani, Qian Liu, Ji-Liang Gao, David H McDermott, Philip M Murphy
21 INTRODUCTION: WHIM syndrome is a rare combined primary immunodeficiency disorder caused by autosomal dominant gain-of-function mutations in the chemokine receptor CXCR4. It is the only Mendelian condition known to be caused by mutation of a chemokine or chemokine receptor. As such, it provides a scientific opportunity to understand chemokine-dependent immunoregulation in humans and a medical opportunity to develop mechanism-based treatment and cure strategies. 22 AREAS COVERED: This review covers the clinical features, genetics, immunopathogenesis and clinical management of WHIM syndrome...
2017: Expert Opinion on Orphan Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874533/type-1-diabetes-induction-in-humanized-mice
#9
Shulian Tan, Yang Li, Jinxing Xia, Chun-Hui Jin, Zheng Hu, Gaby Duinkerken, Yuying Li, Mohsen Khosravi Maharlooei, Estefania Chavez, Grace Nauman, Nichole Danzl, Maki Nakayama, Bart O Roep, Megan Sykes, Yong-Guang Yang
There is an urgent and unmet need for humanized in vivo models of type 1 diabetes to study immunopathogenesis and immunotherapy, and in particular antigen-specific therapy. Transfer of patient blood lymphocytes to immunodeficient mice is associated with xenogeneic graft-versus-host reactivity that complicates assessment of autoimmunity. Improved models could identify which human T cells initiate and participate in beta-cell destruction and help define critical target islet autoantigens. We used humanized mice (hu-mice) containing robust human immune repertoires lacking xenogeneic graft-versus-host reactivity to address this question...
October 10, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659437/type-2-immunity-is-protective-in-metabolic-disease-but-exacerbates-nafld-collaboratively-with-tgf-%C3%AE
#10
Kevin M Hart, Thomas Fabre, Joshua C Sciurba, Richard L Gieseck, Lee A Borthwick, Kevin M Vannella, Thomas H Acciani, Rafael de Queiroz Prado, Robert W Thompson, Sandra White, Genevieve Soucy, Marc Bilodeau, Thirumalai R Ramalingam, Joseph R Arron, Naglaa H Shoukry, Thomas A Wynn
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is now the most common progressive liver disease in developed countries and is the second leading indication for liver transplantation due to the extensive fibrosis it causes. NAFLD progression is thought to be tied to chronic low-level type 1 inflammation originating in the adipose tissue during obesity; however, the specific immunological mechanisms regulating the progression of NAFLD-associated fibrosis in the liver are unclear. To investigate the immunopathogenesis of NAFLD more completely, we investigated adipose dysfunction, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), and fibrosis in mice that develop polarized type 1 or type 2 immune responses...
June 28, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28567072/hyperimmunoglobulin-e-syndrome-genetics-immunopathogenesis-clinical-findings-and-treatment-modalities
#11
REVIEW
Hassan Hashemi, Masoumeh Mohebbi, Shiva Mehravaran, Mehdi Mazloumi, Hamidreza Jahanbani-Ardakani, Seyed-Hossein Abtahi
The hyperimmunoglobulin E syndromes (HIESs) are very rare immunodeficiency syndromes with multisystem involvement, including immune system, skeleton, connective tissue, and dentition. HIES are characterized by the classic triad of high serum levels of immunoglobulin E (IgE), recurrent staphylococcal cold skin abscess, and recurrent pneumonia with pneumatocele formation. Most cases of HIES are sporadic although can be inherited as autosomal dominant and autosomal recessive traits. A fundamental immunologic defect in HIES is not clearly elucidated but abnormal neutrophil chemotaxis due to decreased production or secretion of interferon γ has main role in the immunopathogenesis of syndrome, also distorted Th1/Th2 cytokine profile toward a Th2 bias contributes to the impaired cellular immunity and a specific pattern of infection susceptibility as well as atopic-allergic constitution of syndrome...
2017: Journal of Research in Medical Sciences: the Official Journal of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539707/effector-and-regulatory-t-cell-trafficking-in-corneal-allograft-rejection
#12
REVIEW
Afsaneh Amouzegar, Sunil K Chauhan
Corneal transplantation is among the most prevalent and successful forms of solid tissue transplantation in humans. Failure of corneal allograft is mainly due to immune-mediated destruction of the graft, a complex and highly coordinated process that involves elaborate interactions between cells of innate and adaptive immunity. The migration of immune cells to regional lymphoid tissues and to the site of graft plays a central role in the immunopathogenesis of graft rejection. Intricate interactions between adhesion molecules and their counter receptors on immune cells in conjunction with tissue-specific chemokines guide the trafficking of these cells to the draining lymph nodes and ultimately to the site of graft...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941431/role-of-circulating-micrornas-in-the-immunopathogenesis-of-rejection-after-pediatric-lung-transplantation
#13
MULTICENTER STUDY
Zhongping Xu, Wei Yang, Nancy Steward, Stuart C Sweet, Lara Danziger-Isakov, Peter S Heeger, Thalachallour Mohanakumar
BACKGROUND: Acute rejection (AR) and development of chronic rejection, bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) remain major limiting factors for lung transplantation (LTx). This retrospective study is to identify differentially expressed circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) that associate with development of AR and BOS in pediatric lung transplant recipients (LTxR). METHODS: We determined the circulating levels of 7 selected candidate miRNAs in 14 LTxR with AR, 7 with BOS, and compared them against 13 stable pediatric LTxR at 1, 6, and 12 months after LTx...
October 2017: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777805/two-cases-of-human-t-lymphotropic-virus-type-i-associated-myelopathy-tropical-spastic-paraparesis-caused-by-living-donor-renal-transplantation
#14
Yasutaka Tajima, Mariko Matsumura, Hiroaki Yaguchi, Yasunori Mito
In rare instances, recipients of organ transplants from human T-lymphotropic virus type I- (HTLV-I-) positive donors reportedly developed neurologic symptoms due to HTLV-I-associated myelopathy (HAM). We present herein two cases of HAM associated with renal transplantation from HTLV-I seropositive living-donors. The first patient was a 42-year-old woman with chronic renal failure for twelve years and seronegative for HTLV-I. She underwent renal transplantation with her HTLV-I seropositive mother as the donor, and she developed HAM three years after the transplantation...
2016: Case Reports in Neurological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27713198/-the-history-and-development-of-experimental-rodent-models-of-chronic-lung-allograft-dysfunction-after-lung-transplantation
#15
Hidemi Suzuki, Atsushi Hata, Yuki Shina, Takamasa Yun, Kazuhisa Tanaka, Yuichi Sakairi, Hironobu Wada, Taiki Fujiwara, Takahiro Nakajima, Takekazu Iwata, Masako Chiyo, Shigetoshi Yoshida, Ichiro Yoshino
Chronic lung allograft dysfunction (CLAD) is a critical impediment to the long-term survival after lung transplantation. A rat orthotopic lung transplantation model was developed in the early 1970s, and using this model, our laboratory has shown that the immunopathogenesis of CLAD involves both allogeneic immunity and autoimmunity. However, further investigation of CLAD is limited by the scarcity of transgenic and knockout strains. The model most widely used to study CLAD, the mouse model of heterotopic tracheal transplantation, has some incomplete pathophysiologic features of CLAD, which limits the utility of this model...
October 2016: Kyobu Geka. the Japanese Journal of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26700440/b-cells-antibodies-and-more
#16
REVIEW
William Hoffman, Fadi G Lakkis, Geetha Chalasani
B cells play a central role in the immunopathogenesis of glomerulonephritides and transplant rejection. B cells secrete antibodies that contribute to tissue injury via multiple mechanisms. In addition, B cells contribute to disease pathogenesis in autoimmunity and alloimmunity by presenting antigens as well as providing costimulation and cytokines to T cells. B cells also play an immunomodulatory role in regulating the immune response by secreting cytokines that inhibit disease onset and/or progression. B cell-targeted approaches for treating immune diseases of the kidney and other organs have gained significant momentum...
January 7, 2016: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26072395/tumor-necrosis-factor-receptor-2-restricts-the-pathogenicity-of-cd8-t-cells-in-mice-with-colitis
#17
Shivesh Punit, Philip E Dubé, Cambrian Y Liu, Nandini Girish, M Kay Washington, D Brent Polk
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Tumor necrosis factor receptor 2 (TNFR2, Tnfrsf1b) regulates multiple aspects of immune function, but little is known about its role in the immunopathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). We investigated whether TNFR2 restricts the activity of specific immune cell subtypes to protect against the development of colitis in mice. METHODS: Tnfr2(-/-) mice were crossed with interleukin (Il) 10(-/-) mice, which spontaneously develop colitis, to generate Il10(-/-)Tnfr2(-/-) mice...
October 2015: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25749982/autoimmune-hepatitis
#18
REVIEW
Farhad Sahebjam, John M Vierling
Autoimmune hepatitis is a chronic liver disease putatively caused by loss of tolerance to hepatocyte-specific autoantigens. It is characterized by female predilection, elevated aminotransferase levels, autoantibodies, increased γ-globulin or IgG levels and biopsy evidence of interface hepatitis. It is currently divided into types 1 and 2, based on expression of autoantibodies. Autoantigenic epitopes have been identified only for the less frequent type 2. Although autoimmune hepatitis occurs in childhood, this review focuses on disease in adults...
June 2015: Frontiers of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25286244/cd8-il-17-t-cells-mediate-neutrophilic-airway-obliteration-in-t-bet-deficient-mouse-lung-allograft-recipients
#19
Elizabeth A Lendermon, Jeffrey M Dodd-o, Tiffany A Coon, Hannah L Miller, Sudipto Ganguly, Iulia Popescu, Christopher P O'Donnell, Nayra Cardenes, Melanie Levine, Mauricio Rojas, Nathaniel M Weathington, Jing Zhao, Yutong Zhao, John F McDyer
Acute cellular rejection is a known risk factor for the development of obliterative bronchiolitis, which limits the long-term survival of lung transplant recipients. However, the T cell effector mechanisms in both of these processes remain incompletely understood. Using the mouse orthotopic lung transplant model, we investigated whether C57BL/6 T-bet(-/-) recipients of major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-mismatched BALB/c lung grafts develop rejection pathology and allospecific cytokine responses that differ from wild-type mice...
May 2015: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24634796/corneal-allograft-rejection-immunopathogenesis-to-therapeutics
#20
Yureeda Qazi, Pedram Hamrah
Corneal transplantation is among the most successful solid organ transplants. However, despite low rejection rates of grafts in the 'low-risk' setting, rejection can be as high as 70% when grafted into 'high-risk' recipient beds. Under normal homeostatic conditions, the avascular cornea provides a unique environment that facilitates immune and angiogenic privilege. An imbalance in pro-inflammatory, angiogenic and lymphangiogenic mediators leads to a breakdown in corneal immune privilege with a consequent host response against the donor graft...
November 20, 2013: Journal of Clinical & Cellular Immunology
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