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perioperative glucose control in neonates

Priyankar K Datta, Dilip K Pawar, Dalim K Baidya, Souvik Maitra, Ajisha Aravindan, Maddur Srinivas, Ramakrishnan Lakshmy, Nandita Gupta, Minu Bajpai, Veereshwar Bhatnagar, Sandeep Agarwala
BACKGROUND: Glucose requirement in neonates during surgery and the impact of glucose supplementation on neonatal metabolism remain unclear. AIM: This study was designed to identify an appropriate perioperative fluid regimen in neonates which maintains carbohydrate and lipid homeostasis. METHODS: Forty-five neonates undergoing primary repair of a trachea-esophageal fistula were randomly allocated into three groups. During surgery, the neonates received either 1% dextrose in Ringer lactate (RL) (group D1) at 10 ml·kg(-1) ·h(-1) , or 2% dextrose in RL (group D2) at 10 ml·kg(-1) ·h(-1) , or 10% dextrose in N/5 saline at 4 ml·kg(-1) ·h(-1) and replacement fluid with 6 ml·kg(-1) ·h(-1) of RL (group D4)...
June 2016: Paediatric Anaesthesia
Michael-Alice Moga, Cedric Manlhiot, Eva M Marwali, Brian W McCrindle, Glen S Van Arsdell, Steven M Schwartz
OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the effect of patient age and significant residual cardiac lesions on the association between hyperglycemia and adverse outcomes in children after cardiac surgery. The incidence, severity, and duration of hyperglycemia in this patient population and perioperative factors predisposing to hyperglycemia were also delineated. DESIGN: Retrospective, observational cohort study. SETTING: Eighteen-bed pediatric cardiac critical care unit...
February 2011: Critical Care Medicine
Glyn D Williams, Chandra Ramamoorthy
With advances in medical care, survival after cardiac surgery for congenital heart disease has dramatically improved, and attention is increasingly focused on long-term functional morbidities, especially neurodevelopmental outcomes, with their profound consequences to patients and society. There are multiple reasons for concern about brain injury. Some cardiac defects are associated with brain anomalies and altered cerebral blood flow regulation. Brain imaging studies have demonstrated that injury to gray and white matter is quite frequent before heart surgery in neonates...
March 2007: Seminars in Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia
Ryan Legrand, Joseph D Tobias
The constellation of neonatal hypotonia, developmental delay, hypogonadism and obesity caused by hyperphagia was first reported in 1956 and subsequently termed Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS). Genetic analysis has demonstrated abnormalities of chromosome 15. Anesthesia concerns of PWS include morbid obesity, the potential for difficulties with airway management, risk for perioperative respiratory failure, abnormalities in the central control of ventilation and temperature, rare reports of primary myocardial involvement, aggressive and at times violent behavior and glucose intolerance...
July 2006: Paediatric Anaesthesia
C D Kurth, M Priestley, J Golden, J McCann, R Raghupathi
OBJECTIVES: Deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA) widely used during neonatal heart surgery, carries a risk of brain damage. In adult normothermic ischemia, brain cells in certain regions die, some by necrosis and others by apoptosis (programmed cell death). This study characterized regional brain cell death after DHCA in newborn pigs. METHODS: Eighteen piglets underwent 90 minutes of DHCA and survived 6 hours, 2 days, or 1 week. Six piglets underwent surgery alone or deep hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass and survived 2 days...
December 1999: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
A M Conran, M Kahana
Neonatal neurosurgery patients have specific considerations throughout the perioperative course in addition to the usual care of neonates undergoing other surgical procedures. Prematurity, with its associated comorbidity, temperature, and glucose control are important topics to consider in this age group. This article addresses practical aspects of preoperative assessment, intraoperative management, and postoperative care. Because CSF shunting and myelomeningocele repair are common neonatal procedures, these specific procedures are the focus of this article...
January 1998: Neurosurgery Clinics of North America
J Shilyansky, S Fisher, E Cutz, K Perlman, R M Filler
A 95% pancreatectomy became the treatment of choice for persistent hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia of the neonate (PHHN, Nesidioblastosis) at the author's institution, when lesser resections failed to prevent hypoglycemia in 25% to 50% of cases. With few outcome data available in the literature, the authors reviewed their 25-year experience to assess the efficacy and the long-term consequences of this procedure. Since 1971, 27 infants underwent a 95% pancreatectomy for the treatment of PHHN. None had responded to medical treatment (glucose infusion, glucagon, octreotide, diazoxide), and two had 85% pancreatectomy that failed...
February 1997: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
A I Vinik, S T Tsai, A R Moattari, P Cheung, F E Eckhauser, K Cho
SMS 201-995 (Sandostatin) was studied using low doses (50 to 100 micrograms) administered subcutaneously every 12 hours. A single 50-micrograms dose of SMS 201-995 effectively controlled gastric acid and blood gastrin levels for 12 hours in three patients with benign gastrinomas and was useful in their perioperative management. Higher doses of the agent (500 to 800 micrograms per day) had no effect on metastases in one of two patients with metastatic gastrinoma. In the other patient, one tumor shrank but the other continued to grow after three months of treatment while serum gastrin levels did not change...
December 22, 1986: American Journal of Medicine
S Ramanathan, P Khoo, J Arismendy
Maternal and neonatal acid-base status and glucose metabolism were studied in 20 patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (group 1) undergoing elective cesarean section under lumbar epidural anesthesia. All patients were given glucose/insulin infusion before delivery. Fifteen healthy patients with iatrogenic hyperglycemia (group 2) and 15 healthy euglycemic patients (group 3) served as controls. Results were expressed as mean +/- 1 SE and were analyzed using analysis of variance and chi 2 analysis at P less than 0...
August 1991: Anesthesia and Analgesia
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