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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350504/royal-darwinian-demons-enforced-changes-in-reproductive-efforts-do-not-affect-the-life-expectancy-of-ant-queens
#1
Alexandra Schrempf, Julia Giehr, Ramona Röhrl, Sarah Steigleder, Jürgen Heinze
One of the central tenets of life-history theory is that organisms cannot simultaneously maximize all fitness components. This results in the fundamental trade-off between reproduction and life span known from numerous animals, including humans. Social insects are a well-known exception to this rule: reproductive queens outlive nonreproductive workers. Here, we take a step forward and show that under identical social and environmental conditions the fecundity-longevity trade-off is absent also within the queen caste...
April 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345115/counseling-practices-for-fetal-hypoplastic-left-heart-syndrome
#2
Michael J Walsh, George R Verghese, M Eric Ferguson, Nora F Fino, David J Goldberg, Sonal T Owens, Nelangi Pinto, Sinai C Zyblewski, Michael D Quartermain
While counseling parents of a fetus diagnosed with hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS), pediatric cardiologists play a critical role in shaping a family's expectations for the months and years to come. However, techniques for the most effective counseling practices have not been studied, and significant variation among physicians is likely present. Web-based survey of pediatric cardiologists that perform fetal echocardiography using snowball sampling. 201 physicians responded (61% male, 81% from academic centers, and 95% from the U...
March 27, 2017: Pediatric Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343147/ethical-ramifications-of-the-paolo-macchiarini-case
#3
Jaime A Teixeira da Silva
The Paolo Macchiarini case has several ethical ramifications. Professor Macchiarini, formerly of the Karolinska Institutet (KI), became famous for the tracheal surgeries he conducted between 2008 and 2014. His rapid rise to fame was followed by an almost equally rapid fall from grace as official reports, articles in newspapers and television programmes revealed several aspects related to misconduct in his curriculum vitae, professional practices and publishing-related activity. Formal misconduct reports issued by four KI co-workers in late 2014, then again in 2016, coupled with social scandals, including the tricking of a famous US television newscaster into a false marriage, a previous arrest in Italy for apparent bribery, and acute narcissism, all tainted Macchiarini's legend...
March 15, 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340193/addressing-structural-barriers-to-hiv-care-among-triply-diagnosed-adults-project-bridge-oakland
#4
Christina Powers, Megan Comfort, Andrea M Lopez, Alex H Kral, Owen Murdoch, Jennifer Lorvick
People who are "triply diagnosed" with HIV, mental health issues, and substance-related disorders face tremendous barriers connecting to and remaining in HIV care. Authors of this article implemented Project Bridge Oakland (PBO), an intervention based on harm reduction and trauma-informed care, to help maintain continuity of care for triply diagnosed adults through cycles of criminal justice involvement. From August 2011 to December 2014, a clinical social worker and an HIV physician provided intensive case management for 19 clients living in Oakland, California...
March 14, 2017: Health & Social Work
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339986/the-national-association-of-social-workers-code-of-ethics-and-cultural-competence-what-does-anne-fadiman-s-the-spirit-catches-you-and-you-fall-down-teach-us-today
#5
Haylee Hebenstreit
This article discusses limitations in the National Association of Social Workers (NASW) Code of Ethics conceptualization of "cultural competence." It uses the case example presented in Anne Fadiman's classic (2012) work, The Spirit Catches You and You Fall Down: A Hmong Child, Her American Doctors, and the Collision of Two Cultures, to explore the conventional markers of cultural competence, as taught in contemporary graduate-level social work education curricula, and their implications for socially just practice...
March 4, 2017: Health & Social Work
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339972/factors-associated-with-sickness-absence-among-employees-with-chronic-conditions
#6
L Meng, K T Robinson, M L Smith
Background: The growing prevalence of chronic conditions in the ageing workforce has been shown to have a negative impact in terms of optimal work performance and quality of life. It is therefore important to understand the factors associated with sickness absence due to health problems. Aims: To examine the socio-demographics, health status indicators, barriers to self-care and social support associated with working adults missing work because of chronic conditions...
March 8, 2017: Occupational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339829/perceived-office-environments-and-occupational-physical-activity-in-office-based-workers
#7
A Sawyer, L Smith, M Ucci, R Jones, A Marmot, A Fisher
Background: Individuals in office-based occupations have low levels of physical activity but there is little research into the socio-ecological correlates of workplace activity. Aims: To identify factors contributing to office-based workers' perceptions of the office environment and explore cross-sectional relationships between these factors and occupational physical activity. Methods: Participants in the Active Buildings study reported perceptions of their office environment using the Movement at Work Survey...
March 1, 2017: Occupational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339637/provider-perspectives-on-the-implementation-of-psychosocial-risk-screening-in-pediatric-cancer
#8
Anne E Kazak, Lamia P Barakat, Martha A Askins, Maureen McCafferty, Alyssa Lattomus, Nicole Ruppe, Janet Deatrick
Objective:  Psychosocial risk screening is an important initial step in delivering evidence-based care. This qualitative descriptive study identified how multidisciplinary pediatric oncology health-care providers perceive psychosocial risk screening to identify factors in uptake and implementation. Methods:  A script guided digitally recorded (transcribed) interviews regarding psychosocial screening and challenges to facilitators of screening. Participants were 15 multidisciplinary staff (physicians, nurses, social workers, psychologists, physician assistant) at nine sites, three using the Psychosocial Assessment Tool© for research and six for clinical care...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339592/active-collaboration-with-clients-an-underemphasized-but-vital-part-of-evidence-based-practice
#9
James Drisko
Evidence-based practice (EBP) is a widely recognized concept in contemporary social work practice. However, recent studies have shown that social workers do not understand EBP correctly. Standardized administrative approaches to implementing EBP have led to confusion about its core practice decision-making process. This collaborative process is the heart of EBP in direct social work practice. This article explores the EBP process and addresses a vital but often underemphasized step of EBP: active collaboration with the client in decision making...
January 28, 2017: Social Work
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339563/trauma-informed-social-work-practice
#10
Jill Levenson
Social workers frequently encounter clients with a history of trauma. Trauma-informed care is a way of providing services by which social workers recognize the prevalence of early adversity in the lives of clients, view presenting problems as symptoms of maladaptive coping, and understand how early trauma shapes a client's fundamental beliefs about the world and affects his or her psychosocial functioning across the life span. Trauma-informed social work incorporates core principles of safety, trust, collaboration, choice, and empowerment and delivers services in a manner that avoids inadvertently repeating unhealthy interpersonal dynamics in the helping relationship...
January 23, 2017: Social Work
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336243/hand-arm-vibration-syndrome-workers-experience-with-functional-impairment-and-disability
#11
Midori Handford, Kiera Lepine, Kristina Boccia, Francesca Ruddick, Darya Alyeksyeyeva, Aaron Thompson, D Linn Holness, Sharon Switzer-McIntyre
STUDY DESIGN: Qualitative and descriptive study. INTRODUCTION: Hand-arm vibration syndrome (HAVS) is a prevalent disease in Canada. There is little work on the perspectives of HAVS patients. PURPOSE OF THE STUDY: Explore perceptions of disability and functional compromise in patients with HAVS. METHODS: Semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with HAVS patients and analysed using content analysis. RESULTS: The 11 participants reported numbness, pain, and reduced dexterity, strength, and sensation...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Hand Therapy: Official Journal of the American Society of Hand Therapists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334786/lessons-learned-from-community-based-participatory-research-establishing-a-partnership-to-support-lesbian-gay-bisexual-and-transgender-ageing-in-place
#12
Leslie A Wright, Diane K King, Jessica H Retrum, Kenneth Helander, Shari Wilkins, Jennifer M Boggs, Jennifer Dickman Portz, Kathryn Nearing, Wendolyn S Gozansky
Background.: Due to a history of oppression and lack of culturally competent services, lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) seniors experience barriers to accessing social services. Tailoring an evidence-based ageing in place intervention to address the unique needs of LGBT seniors may decrease the isolation often faced by this population. Objective.: To describe practices used in the formation of a community-based participatory research (CBPR), partnership involving social workers, health services providers, researchers and community members who engaged to establish a LGBT ageing in place model called Seniors Using Supports To Age In Neighborhoods (SUSTAIN)...
February 21, 2017: Family Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333571/screening-and-assessment-of-substance-use-in-hospice-care-examining-content-from-a-national-sample-of-psychosocial-assessments
#13
Paul Sacco, John G Cagle, Melissa L Moreland, Elizabeth A S Camlin
BACKGROUND: Quality of care provided by hospice and palliative care agencies depends on a thorough understanding of the patient, the family, their history, and current risk factors. It is therefore imperative for social workers and other providers in these settings to assess patients and caregivers for substance use disorders and potential for substance misuse. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to examine how hospice social workers in the United States screen and assess for alcohol and substance use and risk of medication diversion among patients and family caregivers...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Palliative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333551/effect-of-a-group-behavioural-management-program-on-emotional-regulation-of-food-choices-a-pilot-randomized-controlled-trial
#14
Danuta Southgate, Michelle Greiver, Greg Hubka, Kori Kostka, Rahim Moineddin, Marjan Moienedin, James Pencharz, Heather Bogetta, Claudia Mazariegos, Jo-Anne Guindon, Andrea Petroff
PURPOSE: In Ontario, group programs to increase mindfulness of food choices are provided in Family Health Teams (FHTs), but evaluation is limited. We targeted patients with chronic conditions that could benefit from intensified management and evaluated an existing program. METHODS: We included 3 FHTs. Patients were randomized to immediate participation in the intervention (n = 16) or to wait-list control (n = 14). Eligible participants were between 40 and 70 years old, living with diabetes and/or hypertension and had at least 2 of: elevated cholesterol (LDL >4 if hypertension or LDL >2 mmol/L if diabetes), blood sugar (A1c >7...
March 23, 2017: Canadian Journal of Dietetic Practice and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333289/the-role-of-daf-21-hsp90-in-mouth-form-plasticity-in-pristionchus-pacificus
#15
Bogdan Sieriebriennikov, Gabriel V Markov, Hanh Witte, Ralf J Sommer
Phenotypic plasticity is increasingly recognized to facilitate adaptive change in plants and animals, including insects, nematodes and vertebrates. Plasticity can occur as continuous or discrete (polyphenisms) variation. In social insects, e.g. in ants, some species have workers of distinct size classes while in other closely related species variation in size may be continuous. Despite the abundance of examples in nature, how discrete morphs are specified remains currently unknown. In theory, polyphenisms might require robustness, whereby the distribution of morphologies would be limited by the same mechanisms that execute buffering from stochastic perturbations, a function attributed to heat-shock proteins of the Hsp90 family...
March 13, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332946/ethnic-differences-in-psychosocial-services-use-among-non-latina-white-and-latina-breast-cancer-survivors
#16
Rosario Costas-Muñiz, Migda Hunter-Hernández, Olga Garduño-Ortega, Jennifer Morales-Cruz, Francesca Gany
Background This study examined the use of psychosocial services (i.e. social work, psychiatric, psychological, and spiritual/pastoral services) among Latina and Non-Latina White breast cancer survivors. Methods Survivors who received treatment in a Comprehensive Cancer Center in New York completed a mailed questionnaire about interest in help for distress, and psychosocial service use. Descriptive and non-parametric statistics were used to explore ethnic differences in use of, and interest in, psychosocial services...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Psychosocial Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331353/undernutrition-and-associated-factors-among-24-36-month-old-children-in-slum-areas-of-bahir-dar-city-ethiopia
#17
Yeshalem Mulugeta Demilew, Dagninet Derebe Abie
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to assess undernutrition and associated factors among 24-36-month-old children in the slum areas of Bahir Dar city. METHODS: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 480 children from May 1 to 26, 2015. The simple random sampling technique was used to select respondents. Data were collected using a structured interviewer-administered questionnaire. Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 20 was used for analysis...
2017: International Journal of General Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330856/-my-friend-who-bought-it-for-me-she-has-had-an-abortion-before-the-influence-of-ghanaian-women-s-social-networks-in-determining-the-pathway-to-induced-abortion
#18
Sarah D Rominski, Jody R Lori, Emmanuel Sk Morhe
BACKGROUND: Even given the liberal abortion law in Ghana, abortion complications are a large contributor to maternal morbidity and mortality. This study sought to understand why young women seeking an abortion in a legally enabling environment chose to do this outside the formal healthcare system. METHODS: Women being treated for complications arising from a self-induced abortion as well as for elective abortions at three hospitals in Ghana were interviewed. Community-based focus groups were held with women as well as men, separately...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Family Planning and Reproductive Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330400/academic-responses-to-fukushima-disaster
#19
Kiyotaka Yasui, Yuko Kimura, Kenji Kamiya, Rie Miyatani, Naohiro Tsuyama, Akira Sakai, Koji Yoshida, Shunichi Yamashita, Rethy Chhem, May Abdel-Wahab, Akira Ohtsuru
Since radiation accidents, particularly nuclear disasters, are rarer than other types of disasters, a comprehensive radiation disaster medical curriculum for them is currently unavailable. The Fukushima compound disaster has urged the establishment of a new medical curriculum in preparation for any future complex disaster. The medical education will aim to aid decision making on various health risks for workers, vulnerable people, and residents addressing each phase in the disaster. Herein, we introduce 3 novel educational programs that have been initiated to provide students, professionals, and leaders with the knowledge of and skills to elude the social consequences of complex nuclear disasters...
March 2017: Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330379/patient-self-defined-goals
#20
Sandra Ellen Schellinger, Eric Worden Anderson, Monica Schmitz Frazer, Cindy Lynn Cain
This research, a descriptive qualitative analysis of self-defined serious illness goals, expands the knowledge of what goals are important beyond the physical-making existing disease-specific guidelines more holistic. Integration of goals of care discussions and documentation is standard for quality palliative care but not consistently executed into general and specialty practice. Over 14 months, lay health-care workers (care guides) provided monthly supportive visits for 160 patients with advanced heart failure, cancer, and dementia expected to die in 2 to 3 years...
January 1, 2017: American Journal of Hospice & Palliative Care
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