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kenneth kendler

Rose S Bono, Andrew J Barnes, Danielle M Dick, Kenneth S Kendler
BACKGROUND: For American college students, alcohol and cigarette use are important health concerns, and employment concurrent with school attendance is on the rise. Given the lifelong importance of employment and substance use trajectories begun in college, parsing out the relationship between the two is meaningful. OBJECTIVES: This study's purpose is to determine whether employment during college is associated with substance use. METHODS: Cross-sectional associations between employment (work hours, earnings) and substance use (drinking frequency, drinking quantity, smoking frequency) were estimated using partial proportional odds models in a sample of N = 1457 freshmen attending a large, public 4-year university in 2011, after accounting for demographics, personality, social environment, and parental influences...
October 18, 2016: Substance Use & Misuse
Richard Noll, Kenneth S Kendler
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 1, 2016: American Journal of Psychiatry
Kenneth S Kendler
Importance: This article aims to determine the degree to which modern operationalized diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia reflect the main clinical features of the disorder as described historically by diagnostic experts. Observations:, the National Library of Medicine, and were searched for articles written or translated into English from 1900 to 1960. Clinical descriptions of schizophrenia or dementia praecox appearing in 16 textbooks or review articles published between 1899 and 1956 were reviewed and compared with the criteria for schizophrenia from 6 modern US operationalized diagnostic systems...
October 1, 2016: JAMA Psychiatry
Kenneth S Kendler, Nancy A Morris, Henrik Ohlsson, Sara Larsson Lönn, Jan Sundquist, Kristina Sundquist
BACKGROUND: Criminal offending is strongly transmitted across generations. AIMS: To clarify the contribution of rearing environment to cross-generational transmission of crime. METHOD: Using Swedish national registries, we identified 1176 full-sibling and 3085 half-sibling sets from high-risk families where at least one sibling was adopted and the other raised by the biological parents. RESULTS: Risk for criminal conviction was substantially lower in the full- and half-siblings who were adopted v...
October 2016: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
Kristian Amundsen Østby, Nikolai Czajkowski, Gun Peggy Knudsen, Eivind Ystrøm, Line C Gjerde, Kenneth S Kendler, Ragnhild E Ørstavik, Ted Reichborn-Kjennerud
BACKGROUND: Results from observational studies suggest that people who drink little or no alcohol are less healthy than medium drinkers. This has been demonstrated for many different measures of health, including sick leave. However, whether these associations are causal or due to confounding remains to be clarified. The aim of this study was to use a discordant twin design to determine whether the increased level of sick leave associated with a low level of alcohol consumption, as compared to those with a medium level of consumption, reflects a causal mechanism or is due to genetic or environmental confounding...
2016: BMC Public Health
Kenneth S Kendler, Eric J Engstrom
The nosology for major psychiatric disorders developed by Emil Kraepelin in the 1890s has substantially shaped psychiatry. His theories, however, did not arise de novo, being strongly influenced by Karl Kahlbaum and Ewald Hecker. From the 1860-1880s, they articulated a paradigm shift in the conceptualization of psychiatric diagnosis, from symptom-based syndromes, popular since the late 18th century, to proto-disease entities. This effort was influenced by parallel developments in general medicine, especially the rise of bacterial theories of disease where different syndromes had distinctive symptoms, courses, and etiologies...
August 13, 2016: American Journal of Psychiatry
Kenneth S Kendler, MirNabi PirouziFard, Sara Lönn, Alexis C Edwards, Hermine H Maes, Paul Lichtenstein, Jan Sundquist, Kristina Sundquist
The relationship between the genetic and environmental risk factors for alcohol use disorders (AUD) detected in Swedish medical, pharmacy, and criminal registries has not been hitherto examined. Prior twin studies have varied with regard to the detection of shared environmental effects and sex differences in the etiology of AUD. In this report, structural equation modeling in OpenMx was applied to (1) the three types of alcohol registration in a population-based sample of male-male twins and reared-together full and half siblings (total 208,810 pairs), and (2) AUD, as a single diagnosis, in male-male, female-female, and opposite-sex (OS) twins and reared-together full and half siblings (total 787,916 pairs)...
October 2016: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
Emily L Olivares, Kenneth S Kendler, Michael C Neale, Nathan A Gillespie
Our aim was to test the direction of causation between self-report parental monitoring (PM) and the liability to illicit drug initiation (DI) as indicated by cannabis, cocaine, and stimulants. We fitted a multiple indicator model to test causal and non-causal models based on a large, genetically informative cross-sectional sample of male twins. The sample comprised 1,778 males aged 24-62 years from the Virginia Adult Twin Study of Psychiatric and Substance Use Disorders. Data came from self-report measures of lifetime cannabis, stimulants, and cocaine initiation, and retrospective assessment of PM between ages 8-17 years...
August 2016: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
Ragnar Nesvåg, Ted Reichborn-Kjennerud, Nathan A Gillespie, Gun Peggy Knudsen, Jørgen G Bramness, Kenneth S Kendler, Eivind Ystrom
To investigate contributions of genetic and environmental risk factors and possible direction of causation for the relationship between symptoms of cannabis use disorders (CUD) and psychotic-like experiences (PLEs), a population-based sample of 2793 young adult twins (63.5% female, mean [range] age 28.2 [19-36] y) were assessed for symptoms of CUD and PLEs using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Latent risk of having symptoms of CUD or PLEs was modeled using Item Response Theory. Co-twin control analysis was performed to investigate effect of familiar confounding for the association between symptoms of CUD and PLEs...
July 18, 2016: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Cristina B Bares, Kenneth S Kendler, Hermine H M Maes
INTRODUCTION: Although epidemiologic studies suggest low levels of cigarette use among African American adolescents relative to White U.S. adolescents, it is not known whether this may be due to racial differences in the relative contribution of genes and environment to cigarette use initiation and progression to regular use. METHODS: Using data from White (n=2665) and African American (n=809) twins and full siblings sampled in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescents, we fitted age-, sex- and race-specific variance decomposition models to estimate the magnitude of genetic and environmental effects on cigarette use initiation and cigarette use quantity in Whites and African Americans across adolescence and adulthood...
September 1, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Jan Sundquist, Cecilia Sjöstedt, Marilyn Winkleby, Xinjun Li, Kenneth S Kendler, Kristina Sundquist
AIMS: This study examines the association between the incidence of drug abuse (DA) and linking (communal) social capital, a theoretical concept describing the amount of trust between individuals and societal institutions. METHODS: We present results from an 8-year population-based cohort study that followed all residents in Sweden, aged 15-44, from 2003 through 2010, for a total of 1,700,896 men and 1,642,798 women. Linking social capital was conceptualized as the proportion of people in a geographically defined neighborhood who voted in local government elections...
December 2016: Addictive Behaviors
Ashlee A Moore, Cassie Overstreet, Kenneth S Kendler, Danielle M Dick, Amy Adkins, Ananda B Amstadter
OBJECTIVE: Impulsivity and extraversion have demonstrated associations with risky sexual behavior (RSB) and potentially traumatic events (PTEs). In addition, interpersonal trauma appears to be associated with RSB, but research on the relationship between RSB and noninterpersonal PTEs (e.g., accidental) is lacking. The current study aims to investigate the relationships between personality (i.e., impulsivity, extraversion), RSB and multiple types of PTEs (i.e., accidental, physical, or sexual)...
June 27, 2016: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
Megan E Cooke, Aashir Nasim, Seung Bin Cho, Kenneth S Kendler, Shaunna L Clark, Danielle M Dick
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess patterns of tobacco use across the first year of college, transitions in use, and associated predictors. METHODS: The frequency of tobacco use (cigarettes, cigars, smokeless tobacco, and hookah) during the fall and spring of 4073 college students' first year at college were used as indicators in latent class (LCA) and latent transition analyses (LTA). RESULTS: The LCA yielded 3 classes that represent levels of use frequency and not specific tobacco product classes: non-using, experimenting, and frequent using...
July 2016: American Journal of Health Behavior
Alexis C Edwards, Silviu-Alin Bacanu, Tim B Bigdeli, Arden Moscati, Kenneth S Kendler
BACKGROUND: The dopamine hypothesis, which posits that dysregulation of the dopaminergic system is etiologic for schizophrenia, is among the most enduring biological theories in psychiatry. Although variation within genes related to dopaminergic functioning has been associated with schizophrenia, an aggregate test of variation, using the largest publicly available schizophrenia dataset, has not previously been conducted. METHODS: We first identified a core set of 11 genes involved in the synthesis, metabolism, and neurotransmission of dopamine...
October 2016: Schizophrenia Research
Christina Sheerin, Erin C Berenz, Gun Peggy Knudsen, Ted Reichborn-Kjennerud, Kenneth S Kendler, Steven H Aggen, Ananda B Amstadter
Epidemiologic studies of trauma highlight the imbalance between prevalence of psychiatric diagnoses and help seeking. We investigated prevalence and correlates of help seeking and self-medication in Norwegian adults with trauma history with a focus on common posttrauma outcomes of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and substance use disorders (alcohol or drug). Participants reporting at least 1 PTSD symptom (n = 307) were asked if they consulted with a doctor/another professional (help seeking) or used drugs/alcohol (self-medication) for trauma-related problems...
June 6, 2016: Psychology of Addictive Behaviors: Journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors
Kenneth S Kendler, Henrik Ohlsson, Alexis C Edwards, Katherine J Karriker-Jaffe, Jan Sundquist, Kristina Sundquist
BACKGROUND: Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD) is clinically heterogeneous. Using a large epidemiological sample ascertained via public registries, is it possible to identify clinical and historical features of AUD that reflect familial risk? METHODS: Using registration in national medical, legal or pharmacy registries, we identified four kinds of relative pairs (n=683,223) starting with a proband with AUD: cousins, half-siblings, full-siblings and monozygotic cotwins. Using linear hazard regression, we examined the interaction between five clinical/historical features of AUD in the proband and risk for AUD in these relatives...
July 1, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Jessica E Salvatore, Nathaniel S Thomas, Seung Bin Cho, Amy Adkins, Kenneth S Kendler, Danielle M Dick
Dating several people in emerging adulthood has been associated with higher alcohol use compared with being single or being in an exclusive relationship. As a follow-up to that report, we examined whether romantic relationship status is part of a pathway of risk between antecedent alcohol use risk factors and subsequent alcohol outcomes. Participants were 4,410 emerging adults assessed at 2 time-points during their first year of college. We found that a parental history of alcohol problems was indirectly related to dating several people via 2 modestly correlated pathways...
May 2016: Psychology of Addictive Behaviors: Journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors
T Bernard Bigdeli, Donghyung Lee, Bradley Todd Webb, Brien P Riley, Vladimir I Vladimirov, Ayman H Fanous, Kenneth S Kendler, Silviu-Alin Bacanu
MOTIVATION: For genetic studies, statistically significant variants explain far less trait variance than 'sub-threshold' association signals. To dimension follow-up studies, researchers need to accurately estimate 'true' effect sizes at each SNP, e.g. the true mean of odds ratios (ORs)/regression coefficients (RRs) or Z-score noncentralities. Naïve estimates of effect sizes incur winner's curse biases, which are reduced only by laborious winner's curse adjustments (WCAs). Given that Z-scores estimates can be theoretically translated on other scales, we propose a simple method to compute WCA for Z-scores, i...
September 1, 2016: Bioinformatics
Kenneth S Kendler, Sara Larsson Lönn, Jessica Salvatore, Jan Sundquist, Kristina Sundquist
OBJECTIVE: The authors sought to clarify the relationship between marriage and risk for alcohol use disorder. METHOD: The association between marital status and risk for first registration for alcohol use disorder in medical, criminal, and pharmacy registries was assessed in a population-based Swedish cohort (N=3,220,628) using longitudinal time-dependent survival and co-relative designs. RESULTS: First marriage was associated with a substantial decline in risk for onset of alcohol use disorder in men (hazard ratio=0...
September 1, 2016: American Journal of Psychiatry
Marcus R Munafò, Sara Larsson Lönn, Jan Sundquist, Kristina Sundquist, Kenneth Kendler
BACKGROUND: Recent studies suggest a possible causal role for smoking in schizophrenia and psychosis. Most studies have focused on cigarette smoking, the most common form of tobacco use, but other forms of tobacco exist, including smokeless products such as Swedish snuff (or "snus"). METHODS: We explored whether snus use is associated with schizophrenia and non-affective psychotic illness in a large Swedish registry data set. The majority of participants were aged 18 or 19 at the time of assessment...
July 1, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
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