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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108863/genetic-and-environmental-structure-of-dsm-iv-criteria-for-antisocial-personality-disorder-a-twin-study
#1
Tom Rosenström, Eivind Ystrom, Fartein Ask Torvik, Nikolai Olavi Czajkowski, Nathan A Gillespie, Steven H Aggen, Robert F Krueger, Kenneth S Kendler, Ted Reichborn-Kjennerud
Results from previous studies on DSM-IV and DSM-5 Antisocial Personality Disorder (ASPD) have suggested that the construct is etiologically multidimensional. To our knowledge, however, the structure of genetic and environmental influences in ASPD has not been examined using an appropriate range of biometric models and diagnostic interviews. The 7 ASPD criteria (section A) were assessed in a population-based sample of 2794 Norwegian twins by a structured interview for DSM-IV personality disorders. Exploratory analyses were conducted at the phenotypic level...
January 21, 2017: Behavior Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103713/divorce-and-the-onset-of-alcohol-use-disorder-a-swedish-population-based-longitudinal-cohort-and-co-relative-study
#2
Kenneth S Kendler, Sara Larsson Lönn, Jessica Salvatore, Jan Sundquist, Kristina Sundquist
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to clarify the magnitude and nature of the relationship between divorce and risk for alcohol use disorder (AUD). METHOD: In a population-based Swedish sample of married individuals (N=942,366), the authors examined the association between divorce or widowhood and risk for first registration for AUD. AUD was assessed using medical, criminal, and pharmacy registries. RESULTS: Divorce was strongly associated with risk for first AUD onset in both men (hazard ratio=5...
January 20, 2017: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092418/an-examination-of-the-etiologic-overlap-between-the-genetic-and-environmental-influences-on-insomnia-and-common-psychopathology
#3
Mackenzie J Lind, Sage E Hawn, Christina M Sheerin, Steven H Aggen, Robert M Kirkpatrick, Kenneth S Kendler, Ananda B Amstadter
BACKGROUND: Insomnia is comorbid with internalizing and externalizing psychiatric disorders. However, the extent to which the etiologic influences on insomnia and common psychopathology overlap is unclear. There are limited genetically informed studies of insomnia and internalizing disorders and few studies of overlap exist with externalizing disorders. METHODS: We utilized twin data from the Virginia Adult Twin Studies of Psychiatric and Substance Use Disorders (total n = 7,500)...
January 16, 2017: Depression and Anxiety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038364/electronic-cigarette-use-and-uptake-of-cigarette-smoking-a-longitudinal-examination-of-u-s-college-students
#4
Tory R Spindle, Marzena M Hiler, Megan E Cooke, Thomas Eissenberg, Kenneth S Kendler, Danielle M Dick
INTRODUCTION: Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use prevalence is increasing among U.S. adolescents and adults but recent longitudinal data for college/university students are scarce. Furthermore, the extent that e-cigarette use is associated with the onset of cigarette smoking and the factors that lead to the uptake of e-cigarettes in college students has not been explored. METHODS: 3757 participants from a Mid-Atlantic university (women: 66%; White: 45%; Black: 21%; Asian: 19%; Hispanic/Latino: 6%) were surveyed in 2014 and again in 2015...
April 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003468/the-clinical-features-of-paranoia-in-the-20th-century-and-their-representation-in-diagnostic-criteria-from-dsm-iii-through-dsm-5
#5
Kenneth S Kendler
This review traces, through psychiatric textbooks, the history of the Kraepelinian concept of paranoia in the 20th century and then relates the common reported symptoms and signs to the diagnostic criteria for paranoia/delusional disorder in DSM-III through DSM-5. Clinical descriptions of paranoia appearing in 10 textbooks, published 1899 to 1970, revealed 11 prominent symptoms and signs reported by 5 or more authors. Three symptoms (systematized delusions, minimal hallucinations, and prominent ideas of reference) and 2 signs (chronic course and minimal affective deterioration) were reported by 8 or 9 of the authors...
December 21, 2016: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002544/the-genetic-architecture-of-major-depressive-disorder-in-han-chinese-women
#6
Roseann E Peterson, Na Cai, Tim B Bigdeli, Yihan Li, Mark Reimers, Anna Nikulova, Bradley T Webb, Silviu-Alin Bacanu, Brien P Riley, Jonathan Flint, Kenneth S Kendler
Importance: Despite the moderate, well-demonstrated heritability of major depressive disorder (MDD), there has been limited success in identifying replicable genetic risk loci, suggesting a complex genetic architecture. Research is needed to quantify the relative contribution of classes of genetic variation across the genome to inform future genetic studies of MDD. Objectives: To apply aggregate genetic risk methods to clarify the genetic architecture of MDD by estimating and partitioning heritability by chromosome, minor allele frequency, and functional annotations and to test for enrichment of rare deleterious variants...
December 21, 2016: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981669/alcohol-use-disorder-and-divorce-evidence-for-a-genetic-correlation-in-a-population-based-swedish-sample
#7
Jessica E Salvatore, Sara Larsson Lönn, Jan Sundquist, Paul Lichtenstein, Kristina Sundquist, Kenneth S Kendler
AIMS: We tested the association between alcohol use disorder (AUD) and divorce; estimated the genetic and environmental influences on divorce; estimated how much genetic and environmental influences accounted for covariance between AUD and divorce; and estimated latent genetic and environmental correlations between AUD and divorce. We tested sex differences in these effects. DESIGN: We identified twin and sibling pairs with AUD and divorce information in Swedish national registers...
December 16, 2016: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940325/predictors-and-mental-health-outcomes-of-potentially-traumatic-event-exposure
#8
Cassie Overstreet, Erin C Berenz, Kenneth S Kendler, Danielle M Dick, Ananda B Amstadter
The aims were two-fold: to examine prevalence and correlates of lifetime potentially traumatic event (PTE) exposure and to explore the relationships between PTE exposure and mental health outcomes (i.e., trauma related distress, alcohol use quantity and frequency, depression symptoms, and anxiety symptoms) within a large sample of college freshmen. 6120 participants, consisting of three cohorts of incoming freshman at a large southeastern university, completed an online assessment battery measuring a multitude of factors including PTEs, personality, relationships (i...
January 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930698/major-depression-as-a-complex-dynamic-system
#9
Angélique O J Cramer, Claudia D van Borkulo, Erik J Giltay, Han L J van der Maas, Kenneth S Kendler, Marten Scheffer, Denny Borsboom
In this paper, we characterize major depression (MD) as a complex dynamic system in which symptoms (e.g., insomnia and fatigue) are directly connected to one another in a network structure. We hypothesize that individuals can be characterized by their own network with unique architecture and resulting dynamics. With respect to architecture, we show that individuals vulnerable to developing MD are those with strong connections between symptoms: e.g., only one night of poor sleep suffices to make a particular person feel tired...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918840/resilience-and-risk-for-alcohol-use-disorders-a-swedish-twin-study
#10
Elizabeth C Long, Sara L Lönn, Jianguang Ji, Paul Lichtenstein, Jan Sundquist, Kristina Sundquist, Kenneth S Kendler
BACKGROUND: Resilience has been shown to be protective against alcohol use disorders (AUDs), but the magnitude and nature of the relationship between these 2 phenotypes are not clear. The aim of this study was to examine the strength of this relationship and the degree to which it results from common genetic or common environmental influences. METHODS: Resilience was assessed on a 9-point scale during a personal interview in 1,653,721 Swedish men aged 17 to 25 years...
January 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892595/the-rate-of-change-in-alcohol-misuse-across-adolescence-is-heritable
#11
Alexis C Edwards, Jon Heron, Vladimir Vladimirov, Aaron R Wolen, Daniel E Adkins, Fazil Aliev, Matthew Hickman, Kenneth S Kendler
BACKGROUND: Alcohol use typically begins during adolescence and escalates into young adulthood. This represents an important period for the establishment of alcohol use and misuse patterns, which can have psychosocial and medical consequences. Although changes in alcohol use during this time have been phenotypically characterized, their genetic nature is poorly understood. METHODS: Participants of the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children completed the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) 4 times from age 16 to 20...
January 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851854/the-future-of-the-dsm-implementing-a-continuous-improvement-model
#12
Michael B First, Kenneth S Kendler, Ellen Leibenluft
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 16, 2016: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849409/gender-and-direction-of-effect-of-alcohol-problems-and-internalizing-symptoms-in-a-longitudinal-sample-of-college-students
#13
Lina E Homman, Alexis C Edwards, Seung Bin Cho, Danielle M Dick, Kenneth S Kendler
BACKGROUND: Alcohol problems and internalizing symptoms are consistently found to be associated but how they relate to each other is unclear. OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to address limitations in the literature of comorbidity of alcohol problems and internalizing symptoms by investigating the direction of effect between the phenotypes and possible gender differences in college students. METHOD: We utilized data from a large longitudinal study of college students from the United States (N = 2607)...
November 16, 2016: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797545/a-population-based-twin-study-of-dsm-5-maladaptive-personality-domains
#14
Susan C South, Robert F Krueger, Gun Peggy Knudsen, Eivind Ystrom, Nikolai Czajkowski, Steven H Aggen, Michael C Neale, Nathan A Gillespie, Kenneth S Kendler, Ted Reichborn-Kjennerud
Personality disorders (PDs) can be partly captured by dimensional traits, a viewpoint reflected in the most recent Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fifth Edition (DSM-5) Alternative (Section III) Model for PD classification. The current study adds to the literature on the Alternative Model by examining the magnitude of genetic and environmental influences on 6 domains of maladaptive personality: negative emotionality, detachment, antagonism, disinhibition, compulsivity, and psychoticism...
October 31, 2016: Personality Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27786512/posttraumatic-stress-disorder-symptoms-anxiety-sensitivity-and-alcohol-use-motives-in-college-students-with-a-history-of-interpersonal-trauma
#15
Erin C Berenz, Salpi Kevorkian, Nadia Chowdhury, Danielle M Dick, Kenneth S Kendler, Ananda B Amstadter
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms are associated with coping-motivated alcohol use in trauma-exposed samples. However, it is unclear which individuals experiencing PTSD symptoms are at greatest risk for alcohol-use problems following trauma exposure. Individuals endorsing high anxiety sensitivity, which is the fear of anxiety and related sensations, may be particularly motivated to use alcohol to cope with PTSD symptoms. In the current study, we examined the moderating role of anxiety sensitivity in the association between PTSD symptoms and coping motives in a sample of 295 young adults with a history of interpersonal trauma and current alcohol use...
November 2016: Psychology of Addictive Behaviors: Journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27754728/drinking-cigarette-smoking-and-employment-among-american-college-freshmen-at-a-four-year-university
#16
Rose S Bono, Andrew J Barnes, Danielle M Dick, Kenneth S Kendler
BACKGROUND: For American college students, alcohol and cigarette use are important health concerns, and employment concurrent with school attendance is on the rise. Given the lifelong importance of employment and substance use trajectories begun in college, parsing out the relationship between the two is meaningful. OBJECTIVES: This study's purpose is to determine whether employment during college is associated with substance use. METHODS: Cross-sectional associations between employment (work hours, earnings) and substance use (drinking frequency, drinking quantity, smoking frequency) were estimated using partial proportional odds models in a sample of N = 1457 freshmen attending a large, public 4-year university in 2011, after accounting for demographics, personality, social environment, and parental influences...
January 28, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27690547/edward-cowles-1837-1919
#17
Richard Noll, Kenneth S Kendler
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 1, 2016: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27626788/phenomenology-of-schizophrenia-and-the-representativeness-of-modern-diagnostic-criteria
#18
Kenneth S Kendler
Importance: This article aims to determine the degree to which modern operationalized diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia reflect the main clinical features of the disorder as described historically by diagnostic experts. Observations: Amazon.com, the National Library of Medicine, and Forgottenbooks.com were searched for articles written or translated into English from 1900 to 1960. Clinical descriptions of schizophrenia or dementia praecox appearing in 16 textbooks or review articles published between 1899 and 1956 were reviewed and compared with the criteria for schizophrenia from 6 modern US operationalized diagnostic systems...
October 1, 2016: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27539295/criminal-offending-and-the-family-environment-swedish-national-high-risk-home-reared-and-adopted-away-co-sibling-control-study
#19
Kenneth S Kendler, Nancy A Morris, Henrik Ohlsson, Sara Larsson Lönn, Jan Sundquist, Kristina Sundquist
BACKGROUND: Criminal offending is strongly transmitted across generations. AIMS: To clarify the contribution of rearing environment to cross-generational transmission of crime. METHOD: Using Swedish national registries, we identified 1176 full-sibling and 3085 half-sibling sets from high-risk families where at least one sibling was adopted and the other raised by the biological parents. RESULTS: Risk for criminal conviction was substantially lower in the full- and half-siblings who were adopted v...
October 2016: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27538396/does-low-alcohol-use-increase-the-risk-of-sickness-absence-a-discordant-twin-study
#20
Kristian Amundsen Østby, Nikolai Czajkowski, Gun Peggy Knudsen, Eivind Ystrøm, Line C Gjerde, Kenneth S Kendler, Ragnhild E Ørstavik, Ted Reichborn-Kjennerud
BACKGROUND: Results from observational studies suggest that people who drink little or no alcohol are less healthy than medium drinkers. This has been demonstrated for many different measures of health, including sick leave. However, whether these associations are causal or due to confounding remains to be clarified. The aim of this study was to use a discordant twin design to determine whether the increased level of sick leave associated with a low level of alcohol consumption, as compared to those with a medium level of consumption, reflects a causal mechanism or is due to genetic or environmental confounding...
2016: BMC Public Health
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