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kenneth kendler

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667198/alcohol-availability-and-onset-and-recurrence-of-alcohol-use-disorder-examination-in-a-longitudinal-cohort-with-co-sibling-analysis
#1
Katherine J Karriker-Jaffe, Henrik Ohlsson, Kenneth S Kendler, Won Kim Cook, Kristina Sundquist
BACKGROUND: Recent reviews of associations of alcohol availability with alcohol outcomes suggest findings are highly inconsistent and highlight a lack of longitudinal and causal evidence. Effect modification (moderation or statistical interaction), which could contribute to the inconsistent picture in the existing literature, has not been systematically assessed. We examined associations of alcohol availability with onset and recurrence of alcohol use disorder (AUD) using multi-level, longitudinal population data from Sweden and test hypothesized effect modifiers to identify groups for whom increased alcohol availability may be particularly risky...
April 18, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652647/prevalence-and-predictors-of-ptsd-among-a-college-sample
#2
Shannon E C Usack, Terrell A Hicks, Jessica Bourdon, Christina M Sheerin, Cassie M Overstreet, Kenneth S Kendler, Danielle M Dick, Ananda B Amstadter
OBJECTIVE: This study examined the prevalence and correlates of probable posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in freshman entering college and prospective associations of probable PTSD with additional outcomes. PARTICIPANTS: 2,310 students with data collected from Fall 2014 through Spring 2015. METHODS: Incoming freshman completed a survey assessing for relevant variables at the beginning of fall semester and during the spring semester. RESULTS: Seventy percent of the sample endorsed experiencing at least one potentially traumatic event (PTE)...
April 13, 2018: Journal of American College Health: J of ACH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29558815/a-twin-study-of-normative-personality-and-dsm-iv-personality-disorder-criterion-counts-evidence-for-separate-genetic-influences
#3
Nikolai Czajkowski, Steven H Aggen, Robert F Krueger, Kenneth S Kendler, Michael C Neale, Gun Peggy Knudsen, Nathan A Gillespie, Espen Røysamb, Kristian Tambs, Ted Reichborn-Kjennerud
OBJECTIVE: Both normative personality and DSM-IV personality disorders have been found to be heritable. However, there is limited knowledge about the extent to which the genetic and environmental influences underlying DSM personality disorders are shared with those of normative personality. The aims of this study were to assess the phenotypic similarity between normative and pathological personality and to investigate the extent to which genetic and environmental influences underlying individual differences in normative personality account for symptom variance across DSM-IV personality disorders...
March 21, 2018: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29554991/historical-precedents-for-the-dsm-iii-bereavement-exclusion-criteria-for-major-depression
#4
Kenneth S Kendler
BACKGROUND: I review the historical antecedents of the two key features of the bereavement exclusion (BE) for major depression (MD) criteria initially proposed in DSM-III: (i) a context-dependent approach to the evaluation of MD which required that the diagnosis be given only when course, symptoms and signs are 'out of proportion' to experienced adversities, and (ii) bereavement is the sole adversity for which this context-dependent approach should be utilized. METHODS: A review of 49 textbook and review articles on depression or melancholia published 1880-1960...
March 20, 2018: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29540840/correction-to-psychiatric-genetics-and-the-structure-of-psychopathology
#5
Jordan W Smoller, Ole A Andreassen, Howard J Edenberg, Stephen V Faraone, Stephen J Glatt, Kenneth S Kendler
In the Table 1 legend, the reference numbers and symbols were not correctly presented in the footnotes. The corrected footnotes are presented below.
March 14, 2018: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29530109/the-nature-of-nurture-using-a-virtual-parent-design-to-test-parenting-effects-on-children-s-educational-attainment-in-genotyped-families
#6
Timothy C Bates, Brion S Maher, Sarah E Medland, Kerrie McAloney, Margaret J Wright, Narelle K Hansell, Kenneth S Kendler, Nicholas G Martin, Nathan A Gillespie
Research on environmental and genetic pathways to complex traits such as educational attainment (EA) is confounded by uncertainty over whether correlations reflect effects of transmitted parental genes, causal family environments, or some, possibly interactive, mixture of both. Thus, an aggregate of thousands of alleles associated with EA (a polygenic risk score; PRS) may tap parental behaviors and home environments promoting EA in the offspring. New methods for unpicking and determining these causal pathways are required...
March 13, 2018: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29505386/relationships-among-avoidant-personality-disorder-social-anxiety-disorder-and-normative-personality-traits-a-twin-study
#7
Audun Welander-Vatn, Fartein Ask Torvik, Nikolai Czajkowski, Kenneth S Kendler, Ted Reichborn-Kjennerud, Gun Peggy Knudsen, Eivind Ystrom
Avoidant personality disorder (AvPD) and social anxiety disorder (SAD) share risk factors to a substantial degree, and both are characterized by the experience of anxiety in social situations. The authors investigated whether these disorders are differentially related to the Big Five personality traits. They also examined the underlying genetic and environmental influences on these associations. A population-based sample of 1,761 female twins was interviewed at baseline, and 1,471 of these were re-interviewed 10 years later...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Personality Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29495898/molecular-genetic-analysis-subdivided-by-adversity-exposure-suggests-etiologic-heterogeneity-in-major-depression
#8
Roseann E Peterson, Na Cai, Andy W Dahl, Tim B Bigdeli, Alexis C Edwards, Bradley T Webb, Silviu-Alin Bacanu, Noah Zaitlen, Jonathan Flint, Kenneth S Kendler
OBJECTIVE: The extent to which major depression is the outcome of a single biological mechanism or represents a final common pathway of multiple disease processes remains uncertain. Genetic approaches can potentially identify etiologic heterogeneity in major depression by classifying patients on the basis of their experience of major adverse events. METHOD: Data are from the China, Oxford, and VCU Experimental Research on Genetic Epidemiology (CONVERGE) project, a study of Han Chinese women with recurrent major depression aimed at identifying genetic risk factors for major depression in a rigorously ascertained cohort carefully assessed for key environmental risk factors (N=9,599)...
March 2, 2018: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417130/the-origin-of-spousal-resemblance-for-alcohol-use-disorder
#9
Kenneth S Kendler, Sara Larsson Lönn, Jessica Salvatore, Jan Sundquist, Kristina Sundquist
Importance: Although spouses strongly resemble one another in their risk for alcohol use disorder (AUD), the causes of this association remain unclear. Objectives: To examine longitudinally, in first marriages, the association of a first registration for AUD in one spouse with risk of registration in his or her partner and to explore changes in the risk for AUD registration in individuals with multiple marriages as they transition from a spouse with AUD to one without or vice versa...
February 7, 2018: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29405876/effects-of-social-support-on-the-association-between-pre-college-sexual-assault-and-college-onset-victimization
#10
Sage E Hawn, Mackenzie J Lind, Abigail Conley, Cassie M Overstreet, Kenneth S Kendler, Danielle M Dick, Ananda B Amstadter
OBJECTIVE: This study examined the moderating and mediating effects of perceived social support on the association between pre-college sexual assault (SA) and college-onset SA. PARTICIPANTS: A representative sample of 6,132 undergraduates. METHODS: The PLUM procedure in SPSS was used to test the moderation model, with individual regressions conducted in a hierarchical fashion. A weighted least squared mean and variance adjusted (WLSMV) mediation model was used to examine the mediating effect of social support...
February 6, 2018: Journal of American College Health: J of ACH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29405378/polygenic-risk-score-prediction-of-alcohol-dependence-symptoms-across-population-based-and-clinically-ascertained-samples
#11
Jeanne E Savage, Jessica E Salvatore, Fazil Aliev, Alexis C Edwards, Matthew Hickman, Kenneth S Kendler, John Macleod, Antti Latvala, Anu Loukola, Jaakko Kaprio, Richard J Rose, Grace Chan, Victor Hesselbrock, Bradley T Webb, Amy Adkins, Tim B Bigdeli, Brien P Riley, Danielle M Dick
BACKGROUND: Despite consistent evidence of the heritability of alcohol use disorders (AUDs), few specific genes with an etiological role have been identified. It is likely that AUDs are highly polygenic; however, the etiological pathways and genetic variants involved may differ between populations. The aim of this study was thus to evaluate whether aggregate genetic risk for AUDs differed between clinically ascertained and population-based epidemiological samples. METHODS: Four independent samples were obtained: 2 from unselected birth cohorts (Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children [ALSPAC], N = 4,304; FinnTwin12 [FT12], N = 1,135) and 2 from families densely affected with AUDs, identified from treatment-seeking patients (Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism, N = 2,097; Irish Affected Sib Pair Study of Alcohol Dependence, N = 706)...
February 5, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29369040/testing-genetic-and-environmental-associations-between-personality-disorders-and-cocaine-use-a-population-based-twin-study
#12
Nathan A Gillespie, Steven H Aggen, Amanda E Gentry, Michael C Neale, Gun P Knudsen, Robert F Krueger, Susan C South, Nikolai Czajkowski, Ragnar Nesvåg, Eivind Ystrom, Tom H Rosenström, Fartein A Torvik, Ted Reichborn-Kjennerud, Kenneth S Kendler
Until now, data have not been available to elucidate the genetic and environmental sources of comorbidity between all 10 DSM-IV personality disorders (PDs) and cocaine use. Our aim was to determine which PD traits are linked phenotypically and genetically to cocaine use. Cross-sectional data were obtained in a face-to-face interview between 1999 and 2004. Subjects were 1,419 twins (µage = 28.2 years, range = 19-36) from the Norwegian Institute of Public Health Twin Panel, with complete lifetime cocaine use and criteria for all 10 DSM-IV PDs...
February 2018: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346036/genetics-the-rearing-environment-and-the-intergenerational-transmission-of-divorce-a-swedish-national-adoption-study
#13
Jessica E Salvatore, Sara Larsson Lönn, Jan Sundquist, Kristina Sundquist, Kenneth S Kendler
We used classical and extended adoption designs in Swedish registries to disentangle genetic and rearing-environment influences on the intergenerational transmission of divorce. In classical adoption analyses, adoptees ( n = 19,715) resembled their biological parents, rather than their adoptive parents, in their history of divorce. In extended adoption analyses, offspring ( n = 82,698) resembled their not-lived-with fathers and their lived-with mothers. There was stronger resemblance to lived-with mothers, providing indirect evidence of rearing-environment influences on the intergenerational transmission of divorce...
March 2018: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334617/chains-of-risk-for-alcohol-use-disorder-mediators-of-exposure-to-neighborhood-deprivation-in-early-and-middle-childhood
#14
Katherine J Karriker-Jaffe, Sara L Lönn, Won K Cook, Kenneth S Kendler, Kristina Sundquist
Our goal was to test a cascade model to identify developmental pathways, or chains of risk, from neighborhood deprivation in childhood to alcohol use disorder (AUD) in young adulthood. Using Swedish general population data, we examined whether exposure to neighborhood deprivation during early and middle childhood was associated with indicators of social functioning in adolescence and emerging adulthood, and whether these were predictive of AUD. Structural equation models showed exposure to neighborhood deprivation was associated with lower school achievement during adolescence, poor social functioning during emerging adulthood, and the development of AUD for both males and females...
March 2018: Health & Place
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317742/psychiatric-genetics-and-the-structure-of-psychopathology
#15
REVIEW
Jordan W Smoller, Ole A Andreassen, Howard J Edenberg, Stephen V Faraone, Stephen J Glatt, Kenneth S Kendler
For over a century, psychiatric disorders have been defined by expert opinion and clinical observation. The modern DSM has relied on a consensus of experts to define categorical syndromes based on clusters of symptoms and signs, and, to some extent, external validators, such as longitudinal course and response to treatment. In the absence of an established etiology, psychiatry has struggled to validate these descriptive syndromes, and to define the boundaries between disorders and between normal and pathologic variation...
January 9, 2018: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284197/the-associations-between-psychotic-experiences-and-substance-use-and-substance-use-disorders-findings-from-the-world-health-organization-world-mental-health-surveys
#16
Louisa Degenhardt, Sukanta Saha, Carmen C W Lim, Sergio Aguilar-Gaxiola, Ali Al-Hamzawi, Jordi Alonso, Laura H Andrade, Evelyn J Bromet, Ronny Bruffaerts, José Miguel Caldas-de-Almeida, Giovanni de Girolamo, Silvia Florescu, Oye Gureje, Josep M Haro, Elie G Karam, Georges Karam, Viviane Kovess-Masfety, Sing Lee, Jean-Pierre Lepine, Victor Makanjuola, Maria E Medina-Mora, Zeina Mneimneh, Fernando Navarro-Mateu, Marina Piazza, José Posada-Villa, Nancy A Sampson, Kate M Scott, Juan Carlos Stagnaro, Margreet Ten Have, Kenneth S Kendler, Ronald C Kessler, John J McGrath
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Prior research has found bidirectional associations between psychotic experiences (PEs) and selected substance use disorders. We aimed to extend this research by examining the bidirectional association between PEs and various types of substance use (SU) and substance use disorders (SUDs), and the influence of antecedent mental disorders on these associations. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS AND MEASUREMENTS: We used data from the World Health Organization World Mental Health surveys...
December 28, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248900/karl-jaspers-the-icon-of-modern-psychiatry
#17
Michael A Schwartz, Marcin Moskalewicz, Osborne P Wiggins
December 2015 and March 2016 issues of the American Journal of Psychiatry contain a debate focusing on the legacy of Emil Kraepelin, widely considered one of the founders if not the iconic founder of modern scientific psychiatry. The authors, Eric J. Engstrom and Kenneth S. Kendler, challenge the so-called neo-Kraepelinian view of Kraepelin and argue that the true, historical Kraepelin was far more inclined towards scientific psychology, less reductionist and brain-centric, and more skeptical nosologically than his later followers apparently believe...
2017: Israel Journal of Psychiatry and related Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243876/familial-transmission-of-externalizing-syndromes-in-extended-swedish-families
#18
Kenneth S Kendler, Henrik Ohlsson, Jan Sundquist, Kristina Sundquist
Risk for criminal behavior (CB), alcohol use disorder (AUD), and drug abuse (DA) are known to be familial. We know less about their transmission across three generations. We examined 844,109 probands born in Sweden 1980-1990, their parents, aunts/uncles, and grandparents for registration in population-based registers for CB, AUD, and DA. Mean tetrachoric relative-proband correlations (95% CIs) were highest for DA (+0.24, 0.24-0.25), followed by CB (+0.23,0.22-0.23) and AUD (+0.17, 0.16-0.17). AUD and CB were relatively stably transmitted across generations, while DA resemblance among relatives was stronger in the younger generations...
April 2018: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241358/criticisms-of-kraepelin-s-psychiatric-nosology-1896-1927
#19
Kenneth S Kendler, Eric J Engstrom
Emil Kraepelin's psychiatric nosology, proposed in the 5th and 6th editions of his textbook published in 1896 and 1899, did not quickly gain worldwide acceptance, but was instead met with substantial and sustained criticism. The authors review critiques of Kraepelin's work published in his lifetime by Adolf Meyer, Friedrich Jolly, Eugenio Tanzi, Alfred Hoche, Karl Jaspers, and Willy Hellpach. These critics made six major points. First, Kraepelin's new categories of dementia praecox and manic-depressive insanity were too broad and too heterogeneous...
December 15, 2017: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238796/sources-of-parent-offspring-resemblance-for-major-depression-in-a-national-swedish-extended-adoption-study
#20
Kenneth S Kendler, Henrik Ohlsson, Kristina Sundquist, Jan Sundquist
Importance: Twin studies have assessed sibling resemblance for major depression (MD) but cannot address sources of resemblance across generations. Objective: To clarify the relative importance of genetic and rearing effects on the parent-offspring resemblance for MD. Design: This Swedish population register-based study examined parents and children from the following 5 family types: intact (2 041 816 offspring), adoptive (14 104 offspring), not-lived-with (NLW) father (116 601 offspring), stepfather (67 826 offspring), and triparental (29 205 offspring)...
February 1, 2018: JAMA Psychiatry
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