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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918840/resilience-and-risk-for-alcohol-use-disorders-a-swedish-twin-study
#1
Elizabeth C Long, Sara L Lönn, Jianguang Ji, Paul Lichtenstein, Jan Sundquist, Kristina Sundquist, Kenneth S Kendler
BACKGROUND: Resilience has been shown to be protective against alcohol use disorders (AUDs), but the magnitude and nature of the relationship between these 2 phenotypes are not clear. The aim of this study was to examine the strength of this relationship and the degree to which it results from common genetic or common environmental influences. METHODS: Resilience was assessed on a 9-point scale during a personal interview in 1,653,721 Swedish men aged 17 to 25 years...
December 5, 2016: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892595/the-rate-of-change-in-alcohol-misuse-across-adolescence-is-heritable
#2
Alexis C Edwards, Jon Heron, Vladimir Vladimirov, Aaron R Wolen, Daniel E Adkins, Fazil Aliev, Matthew Hickman, Kenneth S Kendler
BACKGROUND: Alcohol use typically begins during adolescence and escalates into young adulthood. This represents an important period for the establishment of alcohol use and misuse patterns, which can have psychosocial and medical consequences. Although changes in alcohol use during this time have been phenotypically characterized, their genetic nature is poorly understood. METHODS: Participants of the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children completed the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) 4 times from age 16 to 20...
November 28, 2016: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851854/the-future-of-the-dsm-implementing-a-continuous-improvement-model
#3
Michael B First, Kenneth S Kendler, Ellen Leibenluft
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 16, 2016: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849409/gender-and-direction-of-effect-of-alcohol-problems-and-internalizing-symptoms-in-a-longitudinal-sample-of-college-students
#4
Lina E Homman, Alexis C Edwards, Seung Bin Cho, Danielle M Dick, Kenneth S Kendler
BACKGROUND: Alcohol problems and internalizing symptoms are consistently found to be associated but how they relate to each other is unclear. OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to address limitations in the literature of comorbidity of alcohol problems and internalizing symptoms by investigating the direction of effect between the phenotypes and possible gender differences in college students. METHOD: We utilized data from a large longitudinal study of college students from the United States (N = 2607)...
November 16, 2016: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797545/a-population-based-twin-study-of-dsm-5-maladaptive-personality-domains
#5
Susan C South, Robert F Krueger, Gun Peggy Knudsen, Eivind Ystrom, Nikolai Czajkowski, Steven H Aggen, Michael C Neale, Nathan A Gillespie, Kenneth S Kendler, Ted Reichborn-Kjennerud
Personality disorders (PDs) can be partly captured by dimensional traits, a viewpoint reflected in the most recent Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fifth Edition (DSM-5) Alternative (Section III) Model for PD classification. The current study adds to the literature on the Alternative Model by examining the magnitude of genetic and environmental influences on 6 domains of maladaptive personality: negative emotionality, detachment, antagonism, disinhibition, compulsivity, and psychoticism...
October 31, 2016: Personality Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27786512/posttraumatic-stress-disorder-symptoms-anxiety-sensitivity-and-alcohol-use-motives-in-college-students-with-a-history-of-interpersonal-trauma
#6
Erin C Berenz, Salpi Kevorkian, Nadia Chowdhury, Danielle M Dick, Kenneth S Kendler, Ananda B Amstadter
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms are associated with coping-motivated alcohol use in trauma-exposed samples. However, it is unclear which individuals experiencing PTSD symptoms are at greatest risk for alcohol-use problems following trauma exposure. Individuals endorsing high anxiety sensitivity, which is the fear of anxiety and related sensations, may be particularly motivated to use alcohol to cope with PTSD symptoms. In the current study, we examined the moderating role of anxiety sensitivity in the association between PTSD symptoms and coping motives in a sample of 295 young adults with a history of interpersonal trauma and current alcohol use...
November 2016: Psychology of Addictive Behaviors: Journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27754728/drinking-cigarette-smoking-and-employment-among-american-college-freshmen-at-a-four-year-university
#7
Rose S Bono, Andrew J Barnes, Danielle M Dick, Kenneth S Kendler
BACKGROUND: For American college students, alcohol and cigarette use are important health concerns, and employment concurrent with school attendance is on the rise. Given the lifelong importance of employment and substance use trajectories begun in college, parsing out the relationship between the two is meaningful. OBJECTIVES: This study's purpose is to determine whether employment during college is associated with substance use. METHODS: Cross-sectional associations between employment (work hours, earnings) and substance use (drinking frequency, drinking quantity, smoking frequency) were estimated using partial proportional odds models in a sample of N = 1457 freshmen attending a large, public 4-year university in 2011, after accounting for demographics, personality, social environment, and parental influences...
October 18, 2016: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27690547/edward-cowles-1837-1919
#8
Richard Noll, Kenneth S Kendler
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 1, 2016: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27626788/phenomenology-of-schizophrenia-and-the-representativeness-of-modern-diagnostic-criteria
#9
Kenneth S Kendler
Importance: This article aims to determine the degree to which modern operationalized diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia reflect the main clinical features of the disorder as described historically by diagnostic experts. Observations: Amazon.com, the National Library of Medicine, and Forgottenbooks.com were searched for articles written or translated into English from 1900 to 1960. Clinical descriptions of schizophrenia or dementia praecox appearing in 16 textbooks or review articles published between 1899 and 1956 were reviewed and compared with the criteria for schizophrenia from 6 modern US operationalized diagnostic systems...
October 1, 2016: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27539295/criminal-offending-and-the-family-environment-swedish-national-high-risk-home-reared-and-adopted-away-co-sibling-control-study
#10
Kenneth S Kendler, Nancy A Morris, Henrik Ohlsson, Sara Larsson Lönn, Jan Sundquist, Kristina Sundquist
BACKGROUND: Criminal offending is strongly transmitted across generations. AIMS: To clarify the contribution of rearing environment to cross-generational transmission of crime. METHOD: Using Swedish national registries, we identified 1176 full-sibling and 3085 half-sibling sets from high-risk families where at least one sibling was adopted and the other raised by the biological parents. RESULTS: Risk for criminal conviction was substantially lower in the full- and half-siblings who were adopted v...
October 2016: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27538396/does-low-alcohol-use-increase-the-risk-of-sickness-absence-a-discordant-twin-study
#11
Kristian Amundsen Østby, Nikolai Czajkowski, Gun Peggy Knudsen, Eivind Ystrøm, Line C Gjerde, Kenneth S Kendler, Ragnhild E Ørstavik, Ted Reichborn-Kjennerud
BACKGROUND: Results from observational studies suggest that people who drink little or no alcohol are less healthy than medium drinkers. This has been demonstrated for many different measures of health, including sick leave. However, whether these associations are causal or due to confounding remains to be clarified. The aim of this study was to use a discordant twin design to determine whether the increased level of sick leave associated with a low level of alcohol consumption, as compared to those with a medium level of consumption, reflects a causal mechanism or is due to genetic or environmental confounding...
2016: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27523503/kahlbaum-hecker-and-kraepelin-and-the-transition-from-psychiatric-symptom-complexes-to-empirical-disease-forms
#12
Kenneth S Kendler, Eric J Engstrom
The nosology for major psychiatric disorders developed by Emil Kraepelin in the 1890s has substantially shaped psychiatry. His theories, however, did not arise de novo, being strongly influenced by Karl Kahlbaum and Ewald Hecker. From the 1860-1880s, they articulated a paradigm shift in the conceptualization of psychiatric diagnosis, from symptom-based syndromes, popular since the late 18th century, to proto-disease entities. This effort was influenced by parallel developments in general medicine, especially the rise of bacterial theories of disease where different syndromes had distinctive symptoms, courses, and etiologies...
August 13, 2016: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27515133/a-national-swedish-twin-sibling-study-of-alcohol-use-disorders
#13
Kenneth S Kendler, MirNabi PirouziFard, Sara Lönn, Alexis C Edwards, Hermine H Maes, Paul Lichtenstein, Jan Sundquist, Kristina Sundquist
The relationship between the genetic and environmental risk factors for alcohol use disorders (AUD) detected in Swedish medical, pharmacy, and criminal registries has not been hitherto examined. Prior twin studies have varied with regard to the detection of shared environmental effects and sex differences in the etiology of AUD. In this report, structural equation modeling in OpenMx was applied to (1) the three types of alcohol registration in a population-based sample of male-male twins and reared-together full and half siblings (total 208,810 pairs), and (2) AUD, as a single diagnosis, in male-male, female-female, and opposite-sex (OS) twins and reared-together full and half siblings (total 787,916 pairs)...
October 2016: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27436053/the-genetic-and-environmental-association-between-parental-monitoring-and-risk-of-cannabis-stimulants-and-cocaine-initiation-in-a-sample-of-male-twins-does-parenting-matter
#14
Emily L Olivares, Kenneth S Kendler, Michael C Neale, Nathan A Gillespie
Our aim was to test the direction of causation between self-report parental monitoring (PM) and the liability to illicit drug initiation (DI) as indicated by cannabis, cocaine, and stimulants. We fitted a multiple indicator model to test causal and non-causal models based on a large, genetically informative cross-sectional sample of male twins. The sample comprised 1,778 males aged 24-62 years from the Virginia Adult Twin Study of Psychiatric and Substance Use Disorders. Data came from self-report measures of lifetime cannabis, stimulants, and cocaine initiation, and retrospective assessment of PM between ages 8-17 years...
August 2016: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27431873/genetic-and-environmental-contributions-to-the-association-between-cannabis-use-and-psychotic-like-experiences-in-young-adult-twins
#15
Ragnar Nesvåg, Ted Reichborn-Kjennerud, Nathan A Gillespie, Gun Peggy Knudsen, Jørgen G Bramness, Kenneth S Kendler, Eivind Ystrom
To investigate contributions of genetic and environmental risk factors and possible direction of causation for the relationship between symptoms of cannabis use disorders (CUD) and psychotic-like experiences (PLEs), a population-based sample of 2793 young adult twins (63.5% female, mean [range] age 28.2 [19-36] y) were assessed for symptoms of CUD and PLEs using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Latent risk of having symptoms of CUD or PLEs was modeled using Item Response Theory. Co-twin control analysis was performed to investigate effect of familiar confounding for the association between symptoms of CUD and PLEs...
July 18, 2016: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27427414/racial-differences-in-heritability-of-cigarette-smoking-in-adolescents-and-young-adults
#16
Cristina B Bares, Kenneth S Kendler, Hermine H M Maes
INTRODUCTION: Although epidemiologic studies suggest low levels of cigarette use among African American adolescents relative to White U.S. adolescents, it is not known whether this may be due to racial differences in the relative contribution of genes and environment to cigarette use initiation and progression to regular use. METHODS: Using data from White (n=2665) and African American (n=809) twins and full siblings sampled in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescents, we fitted age-, sex- and race-specific variance decomposition models to estimate the magnitude of genetic and environmental effects on cigarette use initiation and cigarette use quantity in Whites and African Americans across adolescence and adulthood...
September 1, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27416013/neighborhood-linking-social-capital-as-a-predictor-of-drug-abuse-a-swedish-national-cohort-study
#17
Jan Sundquist, Cecilia Sjöstedt, Marilyn Winkleby, Xinjun Li, Kenneth S Kendler, Kristina Sundquist
AIMS: This study examines the association between the incidence of drug abuse (DA) and linking (communal) social capital, a theoretical concept describing the amount of trust between individuals and societal institutions. METHODS: We present results from an 8-year population-based cohort study that followed all residents in Sweden, aged 15-44, from 2003 through 2010, for a total of 1,700,896 men and 1,642,798 women. Linking social capital was conceptualized as the proportion of people in a geographically defined neighborhood who voted in local government elections...
December 2016: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27348066/potentially-traumatic-events-personality-and-risky-sexual-behavior-in-undergraduate-college-students
#18
Ashlee A Moore, Cassie Overstreet, Kenneth S Kendler, Danielle M Dick, Amy Adkins, Ananda B Amstadter
OBJECTIVE: Impulsivity and extraversion have demonstrated associations with risky sexual behavior (RSB) and potentially traumatic events (PTEs). In addition, interpersonal trauma appears to be associated with RSB, but research on the relationship between RSB and noninterpersonal PTEs (e.g., accidental) is lacking. The current study aims to investigate the relationships between personality (i.e., impulsivity, extraversion), RSB and multiple types of PTEs (i.e., accidental, physical, or sexual)...
June 27, 2016: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27338995/predicting-tobacco-use-across-the-first-year-of-college
#19
Megan E Cooke, Aashir Nasim, Seung Bin Cho, Kenneth S Kendler, Shaunna L Clark, Danielle M Dick
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess patterns of tobacco use across the first year of college, transitions in use, and associated predictors. METHODS: The frequency of tobacco use (cigarettes, cigars, smokeless tobacco, and hookah) during the fall and spring of 4073 college students' first year at college were used as indicators in latent class (LCA) and latent transition analyses (LTA). RESULTS: The LCA yielded 3 classes that represent levels of use frequency and not specific tobacco product classes: non-using, experimenting, and frequent using...
July 2016: American Journal of Health Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27338758/evaluating-the-dopamine-hypothesis-of-schizophrenia-in-a-large-scale-genome-wide-association-study
#20
Alexis C Edwards, Silviu-Alin Bacanu, Tim B Bigdeli, Arden Moscati, Kenneth S Kendler
BACKGROUND: The dopamine hypothesis, which posits that dysregulation of the dopaminergic system is etiologic for schizophrenia, is among the most enduring biological theories in psychiatry. Although variation within genes related to dopaminergic functioning has been associated with schizophrenia, an aggregate test of variation, using the largest publicly available schizophrenia dataset, has not previously been conducted. METHODS: We first identified a core set of 11 genes involved in the synthesis, metabolism, and neurotransmission of dopamine...
October 2016: Schizophrenia Research
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