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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417130/the-origin-of-spousal-resemblance-for-alcohol-use-disorder
#1
Kenneth S Kendler, Sara Larsson Lönn, Jessica Salvatore, Jan Sundquist, Kristina Sundquist
Importance: Although spouses strongly resemble one another in their risk for alcohol use disorder (AUD), the causes of this association remain unclear. Objectives: To examine longitudinally, in first marriages, the association of a first registration for AUD in one spouse with risk of registration in his or her partner and to explore changes in the risk for AUD registration in individuals with multiple marriages as they transition from a spouse with AUD to one without or vice versa...
February 7, 2018: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29405876/effects-of-social-support-on-the-association-between-pre-college-sexual-assault-and-college-onset-victimization
#2
Sage E Hawn, Mackenzie J Lind, Abigail Conley, Cassie M Overstreet, Kenneth S Kendler, Danielle M Dick, Ananda B Amstadter
OBJECTIVE: This study examined the moderating and mediating effects of perceived social support on the association between pre-college sexual assault (SA) and college-onset SA. PARTICIPANTS: A representative sample of 6,132 undergraduates. METHODS: The PLUM procedure in SPSS was used to test the moderation model, with individual regressions conducted in a hierarchical fashion. A weighted least squared mean and variance adjusted (WLSMV) mediation model was used to examine the mediating effect of social support...
February 6, 2018: Journal of American College Health: J of ACH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29405378/polygenic-risk-score-prediction-of-alcohol-dependence-symptoms-across-population-based-and-clinically-ascertained-samples
#3
Jeanne E Savage, Jessica E Salvatore, Fazil Aliev, Alexis C Edwards, Matthew Hickman, Kenneth S Kendler, John Macleod, Antti Latvala, Anu Loukola, Jaakko Kaprio, Richard J Rose, Grace Chan, Victor Hesselbrock, Bradley T Webb, Amy Adkins, Tim B Bigdeli, Brien P Riley, Danielle M Dick
BACKGROUND: Despite consistent evidence of the heritability of alcohol use disorders (AUDs), few specific genes with an etiological role have been identified. It is likely that AUDs are highly polygenic; however, the etiological pathways and genetic variants involved may differ between populations. The aim of this study was thus to evaluate whether aggregate genetic risk for AUDs differed between clinically ascertained and population-based epidemiological samples. METHODS: Four independent samples were obtained: 2 from unselected birth cohorts (Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children [ALSPAC], N = 4,304; FinnTwin12 [FT12], N = 1,135) and 2 from families densely affected with AUDs, identified from treatment-seeking patients (Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism, N = 2,097; Irish Affected Sib Pair Study of Alcohol Dependence, N = 706)...
February 5, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29369040/testing-genetic-and-environmental-associations-between-personality-disorders-and-cocaine-use-a-population-based-twin-study
#4
Nathan A Gillespie, Steven H Aggen, Amanda E Gentry, Michael C Neale, Gun P Knudsen, Robert F Krueger, Susan C South, Nikolai Czajkowski, Ragnar Nesvåg, Eivind Ystrom, Tom H Rosenström, Fartein A Torvik, Ted Reichborn-Kjennerud, Kenneth S Kendler
Until now, data have not been available to elucidate the genetic and environmental sources of comorbidity between all 10 DSM-IV personality disorders (PDs) and cocaine use. Our aim was to determine which PD traits are linked phenotypically and genetically to cocaine use. Cross-sectional data were obtained in a face-to-face interview between 1999 and 2004. Subjects were 1,419 twins (µage = 28.2 years, range = 19-36) from the Norwegian Institute of Public Health Twin Panel, with complete lifetime cocaine use and criteria for all 10 DSM-IV PDs...
February 2018: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346036/genetics-the-rearing-environment-and-the-intergenerational-transmission-of-divorce-a-swedish-national-adoption-study
#5
Jessica E Salvatore, Sara Larsson Lönn, Jan Sundquist, Kristina Sundquist, Kenneth S Kendler
We used classical and extended adoption designs in Swedish registries to disentangle genetic and rearing-environment influences on the intergenerational transmission of divorce. In classical adoption analyses, adoptees ( n = 19,715) resembled their biological parents, rather than their adoptive parents, in their history of divorce. In extended adoption analyses, offspring ( n = 82,698) resembled their not-lived-with fathers and their lived-with mothers. There was stronger resemblance to lived-with mothers, providing indirect evidence of rearing-environment influences on the intergenerational transmission of divorce...
January 1, 2018: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334617/chains-of-risk-for-alcohol-use-disorder-mediators-of-exposure-to-neighborhood-deprivation-in-early-and-middle-childhood
#6
Katherine J Karriker-Jaffe, Sara L Lönn, Won K Cook, Kenneth S Kendler, Kristina Sundquist
Our goal was to test a cascade model to identify developmental pathways, or chains of risk, from neighborhood deprivation in childhood to alcohol use disorder (AUD) in young adulthood. Using Swedish general population data, we examined whether exposure to neighborhood deprivation during early and middle childhood was associated with indicators of social functioning in adolescence and emerging adulthood, and whether these were predictive of AUD. Structural equation models showed exposure to neighborhood deprivation was associated with lower school achievement during adolescence, poor social functioning during emerging adulthood, and the development of AUD for both males and females...
January 12, 2018: Health & Place
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317742/psychiatric-genetics-and-the-structure-of-psychopathology
#7
REVIEW
Jordan W Smoller, Ole A Andreassen, Howard J Edenberg, Stephen V Faraone, Stephen J Glatt, Kenneth S Kendler
For over a century, psychiatric disorders have been defined by expert opinion and clinical observation. The modern DSM has relied on a consensus of experts to define categorical syndromes based on clusters of symptoms and signs, and, to some extent, external validators, such as longitudinal course and response to treatment. In the absence of an established etiology, psychiatry has struggled to validate these descriptive syndromes, and to define the boundaries between disorders and between normal and pathologic variation...
January 9, 2018: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284197/the-associations-between-psychotic-experiences-and-substance-use-and-substance-use-disorders-findings-from-the-world-health-organisation-world-mental-health-surveys
#8
Louisa Degenhardt, Sukanta Saha, Carmen C W Lim, Sergio Aguilar-Gaxiola, Ali Al-Hamzawi, Jordi Alonso, Laura H Andrade, Evelyn J Bromet, Ronny Bruffaerts, José M Caldas-de-Almeida, Giovanni de Girolamo, Silvia Florescu, Oye Gureje, Josep M Haro, Elie G Karam, Georges Karam, Viviane Kovess-Masfety, Sing Lee, Jean-Pierre Lepine, Victor Makanjuola, Maria E Medina-Mora, Zeina Mneimneh, Fernando Navarro-Mateu, Marina Piazza, José Posada-Villa, Nancy A Sampson, Kate M Scott, Juan C Stagnaro, Margreet Ten Have, Kenneth S Kendler, Ronald C Kessler, John J McGrath
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Prior research has found bidirectional associations between psychotic experiences (PEs), and selected substance use disorders. We aimed to extend this research by examining the bidirectional association between PEs, and various types of substance use (SU), and substance use disorders (SUDs), and the influence of antecedent mental disorders on these associations. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS AND MEASUREMENTS: We used data from the World Health Organisation World Mental Health surveys...
December 28, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248900/karl-jaspers-the-icon-of-modern-psychiatry
#9
Michael A Schwartz, Marcin Moskalewicz, Osborne P Wiggins
December 2015 and March 2016 issues of the American Journal of Psychiatry contain a debate focusing on the legacy of Emil Kraepelin, widely considered one of the founders if not the iconic founder of modern scientific psychiatry. The authors, Eric J. Engstrom and Kenneth S. Kendler, challenge the so-called neo-Kraepelinian view of Kraepelin and argue that the true, historical Kraepelin was far more inclined towards scientific psychology, less reductionist and brain-centric, and more skeptical nosologically than his later followers apparently believe...
2017: Israel Journal of Psychiatry and related Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243876/familial-transmission-of-externalizing-syndromes-in-extended-swedish-families
#10
Kenneth S Kendler, Henrik Ohlsson, Jan Sundquist, Kristina Sundquist
Risk for criminal behavior (CB), alcohol use disorder (AUD), and drug abuse (DA) are known to be familial. We know less about their transmission across three generations. We examined 844,109 probands born in Sweden 1980-1990, their parents, aunts/uncles, and grandparents for registration in population-based registers for CB, AUD, and DA. Mean tetrachoric relative-proband correlations (95% CIs) were highest for DA (+0.24, 0.24-0.25), followed by CB (+0.23,0.22-0.23) and AUD (+0.17, 0.16-0.17). AUD and CB were relatively stably transmitted across generations, while DA resemblance among relatives was stronger in the younger generations...
December 15, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241358/criticisms-of-kraepelin-s-psychiatric-nosology-1896-1927
#11
Kenneth S Kendler, Eric J Engstrom
Emil Kraepelin's psychiatric nosology, proposed in the 5th and 6th editions of his textbook published in 1896 and 1899, did not quickly gain worldwide acceptance, but was instead met with substantial and sustained criticism. The authors review critiques of Kraepelin's work published in his lifetime by Adolf Meyer, Friedrich Jolly, Eugenio Tanzi, Alfred Hoche, Karl Jaspers, and Willy Hellpach. These critics made six major points. First, Kraepelin's new categories of dementia praecox and manic-depressive insanity were too broad and too heterogeneous...
December 15, 2017: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238796/sources-of-parent-offspring-resemblance-for-major-depression-in-a-national-swedish-extended-adoption-study
#12
Kenneth S Kendler, Henrik Ohlsson, Kristina Sundquist, Jan Sundquist
Importance: Twin studies have assessed sibling resemblance for major depression (MD) but cannot address sources of resemblance across generations. Objective: To clarify the relative importance of genetic and rearing effects on the parent-offspring resemblance for MD. Design: This Swedish population register-based study examined parents and children from the following 5 family types: intact (2 041 816 offspring), adoptive (14 104 offspring), not-lived-with (NLW) father (116 601 offspring), stepfather (67 826 offspring), and triparental (29 205 offspring)...
December 13, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179144/the-centrality-of-dsm-and-non-dsm-depressive-symptoms-in-han-chinese-women-with-major-depression
#13
Kenneth S Kendler, Steven H Aggen, Jonathan Flint, Denny Borsboom, Eiko I Fried
INTRODUCTION: We compared DSM-IV criteria for major depression (MD) with clinically selected non-DSM criteria in their ability to represent clinical features of depression. METHOD: We conducted network analyses of 19 DSM and non-DSM symptoms of MD assessed at personal interview in 5952 Han Chinese women meeting DSM-IV criteria for recurrent MD. We estimated an Ising model (the state-of-the-art network model for binary data), compared the centrality (interconnectedness) of DSM-IV and non-DSM symptoms, and investigated the community structure (symptoms strongly clustered together)...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173194/sex-similarities-and-differences-in-risk-factors-for-recurrence-of-major-depression
#14
Hanna M van Loo, Steven H Aggen, Charles O Gardner, Kenneth S Kendler
BACKGROUND: Major depression (MD) occurs about twice as often in women as in men, but it is unclear whether sex differences subsist after disease onset. This study aims to elucidate potential sex differences in rates and risk factors for MD recurrence, in order to improve prediction of course of illness and understanding of its underlying mechanisms. METHODS: We used prospective data from a general population sample (n = 653) that experienced a recent episode of MD...
November 27, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173193/polygenic-prediction-of-the-phenome-across-ancestry-in-emerging-adulthood
#15
Anna R Docherty, Arden Moscati, Danielle Dick, Jeanne E Savage, Jessica E Salvatore, Megan Cooke, Fazil Aliev, Ashlee A Moore, Alexis C Edwards, Brien P Riley, Daniel E Adkins, Roseann Peterson, Bradley T Webb, Silviu A Bacanu, Kenneth S Kendler
BACKGROUND: Identifying genetic relationships between complex traits in emerging adulthood can provide useful etiological insights into risk for psychopathology. College-age individuals are under-represented in genomic analyses thus far, and the majority of work has focused on the clinical disorder or cognitive abilities rather than normal-range behavioral outcomes. METHODS: This study examined a sample of emerging adults 18-22 years of age (N = 5947) to construct an atlas of polygenic risk for 33 traits predicting relevant phenotypic outcomes...
November 27, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172241/the-impact-of-resilience-and-subsequent-stressful-life-events-on-mdd-and-gad
#16
Christina M Sheerin, Mackenzie J Lind, Emily A Brown, Charles O Gardner, Kenneth S Kendler, Ananda B Amstadter
BACKGROUND: There remains a dearth of research examining the "buffering" effect of resilience, wherein resilience at one point in time would be expected to protect an individual against development of psychopathology following future adverse life events. METHODS: Using longitudinal data from an epidemiological twin sample (N = 7463), this study tested whether resilience would act as a buffer for stressful life events (SLEs) against risk for major depressive disorder (MDD) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD)...
November 24, 2017: Depression and Anxiety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165678/the-genealogy-of-dementia-praecox-i-signs-and-symptoms-of-delusional-psychoses-from-1880-to-1900
#17
Kenneth S Kendler
We can trace, with high congruence, the clinical syndromes of depression and mania as described over the 20th century in psychiatric textbooks back to 1880 and to the earliest writing of Kraepelin published in 1883. However, this is not the case for Kraepelin's 2 delusional syndromes central to his overall nosology: Dementia Paranoides (later paranoid schizophrenia) and Paranoia. A detailed examination of 28 textbook descriptions of delusional psychoses from 1880 to 1900 reveals a diverse and partially overlapping set of syndromes with an admixture of symptoms and signs that would later be considered indicative of Dementia Paranoides and Paranoia...
November 19, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155917/associations-between-divorce-and-onset-of-drug-abuse-in-a-swedish-national-sample
#18
Alexis C Edwards, Sara Larsson Lönn, Jan Sundquist, Kenneth S Kendler, Kristina Sundquist
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 16, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097400/trauma-and-psychotic-experiences-transnational-data-from-the-world-mental-health-survey
#19
John J McGrath, Sukanta Saha, Carmen C W Lim, Sergio Aguilar-Gaxiola, Jordi Alonso, Laura H Andrade, Evelyn J Bromet, Ronny Bruffaerts, José M Caldas de Almeida, Graça Cardoso, Giovanni de Girolamo, John Fayyad, Silvia Florescu, Oye Gureje, Josep M Haro, Norito Kawakami, Karestan C Koenen, Viviane Kovess-Masfety, Sing Lee, Jean-Pierre Lepine, Katie A McLaughlin, Maria E Medina-Mora, Fernando Navarro-Mateu, Akin Ojagbemi, Jose Posada-Villa, Nancy Sampson, Kate M Scott, Hisateru Tachimori, Margreet Ten Have, Kenneth S Kendler, Ronald C Kessler
BackgroundTraumatic events are associated with increased risk of psychotic experiences, but it is unclear whether this association is explained by mental disorders prior to psychotic experience onset.AimsTo investigate the associations between traumatic events and subsequent psychotic experience onset after adjusting for post-traumatic stress disorder and other mental disorders.MethodWe assessed 29 traumatic event types and psychotic experiences from the World Mental Health surveys and examined the associations of traumatic events with subsequent psychotic experience onset with and without adjustments for mental disorders...
December 2017: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28979972/causal-and-noncausal-processes-underlying-being-bullied
#20
Judy Silberg, Kenneth S Kendler
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 1, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
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