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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748143/the-investigation-and-treatment-of-diabetic-gastroparesis
#1
REVIEW
Mohit Kumar, Adam Chapman, Saad Javed, Uazman Alam, Rayaz A Malik, Shazli Azmi
PURPOSE: This review provides an update on the investigations and treatment options for gastroparesis. METHODS: A comprehensive literature search of Medline, PubMed, Embase and OVID was conducted which included all systematic reviews and research articles that focused on the diagnosis, investigations and management diabetic gastroparesis. FINDINGS: Dietary modifications and pharmacologic treatment with prokinetics to increase gastric motility form the mainstay of treatment...
May 7, 2018: Clinical Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717197/effects-of-ngm282-an-fgf19-variant-on-colonic-transit-and-bowel-function-in-functional-constipation-a-randomized-phase-2-trial
#2
Ibironke Oduyebo, Michael Camilleri, Alfred D Nelson, Disha Khemani, Sara Linker Nord, Irene Busciglio, Duane Burton, Deborah Rhoten, Michael Ryks, Paula Carlson, Leslie Donato, Alan Lueke, Kathline Kim, Stephen J Rossi, Alan R Zinsmeister
OBJECTIVE: NGM282 is an analog of fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19), a potent inhibitor of bile acid (BA) synthesis in animals and humans. In phase 2 trials in type 2 diabetes and primary biliary cholangitis, NGM282 was associated with dose-related abdominal cramping and diarrhea. We aimed to examine effects of NGM282 on colonic transit, stool frequency and consistency, hepatic BA synthesis (fasting serum C4), fecal fat, and BA in functional constipation (FC). METHODS: Two-dose NGM282 (1 and 6 mg, subcutaneously daily), parallel-group, randomized, placebo-controlled, 14-day study in patients with FC (Rome III criteria) and baseline colonic transit 24 h geometric center (GC) <3...
May 2, 2018: American Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29707856/enteric-neural-stem-cell-therapies-for-enteric-neuropathies
#3
REVIEW
C J McCann, N Thapar
BACKGROUND: Enteric neuropathies exist as a wide range of human disorders which impact on gastrointestinal motility. Current standard therapies for enteric neuropathies are limited to surgical resection or manipulation (eg, myotomy) of affected gut segments or medical management including both therapy (eg, prokinetic pharmacotherapy) and support such as parenteral nutrition. However, such treatments often result in poor prognosis and significant morbidity. The current limitations in treatment options for enteric neuropathies underline the need for alternative approaches to treat these devastating diseases...
April 29, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705555/da-9701-on-gastric-motility-in-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#4
Cheol Min Shin, Yoon Jin Lee, Jong-Min Kim, Jee Young Lee, Kyung-Joon Kim, Yoon Jin Choi, Nayoung Kim, Dong Ho Lee
INTRODUCTION: To evaluate the effect of DA-9701, a novel prokinetic drug, on gastric motility evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). METHODS: Forty PD patients were randomly allocated to receive either domperidone or DA-9701. Their gastric functions were evaluated using magnetic resonance imaging before and after 4-week treatment period. Information on levodopa daily dose, disease duration, and Unified PD Rating Scale scores was collected...
April 21, 2018: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29701877/nutrition-therapy-in-australia-and-new-zealand-intensive-care-units-an-international-comparison-study
#5
Emma J Ridley, Sandra L Peake, Matthew Jarvis, Adam M Deane, Kylie Lange, Andrew R Davies, Marianne Chapman, Daren Heyland
BACKGROUND: The Augmented Versus Routine Approach to Giving Energy Trial (TARGET) is the largest blinded enteral nutrition (EN) intervention trial evaluating energy delivery to be conducted in the critically ill. To determine the external validity of TARGET results, nutrition practices in intensive care units (ICUs) in Australia and New Zealand (ANZ) are described and compared with international practices. METHODS: This was a retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data for the International Nutrition Surveys, 2007-2013...
April 27, 2018: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687693/emerging-from-gastroesophageal-reflux-emerge-an-italian-survey-i-the-viewpoint-of-the-gastroenterologist
#6
M Bianchetti, S Peralta, R Nicita, S E Aragona, G Ciprandi
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is defined as a “disease that develops when the reflux of stomach contents induces troublesome symptoms and/or complications”. From a therapeutic point of view, many options have been proposed, including proton pump inhibitors (PPI), antihistamines (H2- receptor antagonists), antacid chemical compounds, antireflux barrier (using alginates), prokinetics, inhibitors of gastric sphincters, protection of mucosal tissue, neuromodulators, nociceptor antagonists, lifestyle modification, and surgery...
April 26, 2018: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678362/bowel-symptoms-in-patients-that-receive-proton-pump-inhibitors-results-of-a-multicenter-survey-in-mexico
#7
M J Schmulson, A C Frati-Munari
INTRODUCTION: Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) have been associated with small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO), which increases with prolonged PPI use, and SIBO has been associated with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to study the prevalence of bowel symptoms in patients treated with PPIs in Mexico. METHODS: Gastroenterologists in 36 cities surveyed patients treated with PPIs, utilizing an ad hoc questionnaire to determine the presence of bowel symptoms and IBS...
April 17, 2018: Revista de Gastroenterología de México
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672308/modulation-of-pacemaker-potentials-in-murine-small-intestinal-interstitial-cells-of-cajal-by-gamisoyo-san-a-traditional-chinese-herbal-medicine
#8
Doeun Kim, Jung Nam Kim, Joo Hyun Nam, Jong Rok Lee, Sang Chan Kim, Byung Joo Kim
BACKGROUND: The Gamisoyo-san (GSS) has been used for -improving the gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of GSS, a traditional Chinese herbal medicine, on the pacemaker potentials of mouse small intestinal interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs). METHODS: ICCs from the small intestines were dissociated and cultured. Whole-cell patch-clamp configuration was used to record pacemaker potentials and membrane currents. RESULTS: GSS depolarized ICC pacemaker potentials in a dose-dependent manner...
April 19, 2018: Digestion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660852/etiology-and-functional-validation-of-gastrointestinal-motility-dysfunction-in-a-zebrafish-model-of-charge-syndrome
#9
Kellie Cloney, Shelby L Steele, Matthew R Stoyek, Roger P Croll, Frank M Smith, Sergey V Prykhozhij, Mary M Brown, Craig Midgen, Kim Blake, Jason N Berman
CHARGE syndrome is linked to autosomal dominant mutations in the CHD7 gene and results in a number of physiological and structural abnormalities, including heart defects, hearing and vision loss and gastrointestinal (GI) problems. Of these challenges, GI problems have a profound impact throughout an individual's life, resulting in increased morbidity and mortality. A homologue of CHD7 has been identified in the zebrafish, the loss of which recapitulates many of the features of the human disease. Using a morpholino chd7 knockdown model complemented by a chd7 null mutant zebrafish line, we examined GI structure, innervation, and motility in larval zebrafish...
April 16, 2018: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655862/influence-of-percutaneous-endoscopic-gastrostomy-on-gastroesophageal-reflux-disease-in-children
#10
Madeleine Aumar, Arnaud Lalanne, Dominique Guimber, Stéphanie Coopman, Dominique Turck, Laurent Michaud, Frédéric Gottrand
OBJECTIVE: To determine if gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is present at long-term follow-up after percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG), and to identify factors associated with the occurrence or aggravation of GERD after PEG placement. STUDY DESIGN: This prospective, observational study was conducted in our single tertiary center over a 13-year period (gastrostomy performed from 1990 to 2003 and follow-up to 2015). Every child who underwent PEG in our center (N = 368) from 1990 to 2003 was eligible...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29606884/proton-pump-inhibitor-refractory-gastroesophageal-reflux-disease-challenges-and-solutions
#11
REVIEW
Joseph Mermelstein, Alanna Chait Mermelstein, Maxwell M Chait
A significant percentage of patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) will not respond to proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy. The causes of PPI-refractory GERD are numerous and diverse, and include adherence, persistent acid, functional disorders, nonacid reflux, and PPI bioavailability. The evaluation should start with a symptom assessment and may progress to imaging, endoscopy, and monitoring of esophageal pH, impedance, and bilirubin. There are a variety of pharmacologic and procedural interventions that should be selected based on the underlying mechanism of PPI failure...
2018: Clinical and Experimental Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605979/acotiamide-has-no-effects-on-esophageal-motor-activity-or-esophagogastric-junction-compliance
#12
Hironobu Mikami, Norihisa Ishimura, Mayumi Okada, Daisuke Izumi, Eiko Okimoto, Shunji Ishihara, Yoshikazu Kinoshita
Background/Aims: The novel prokinetic drug acotiamide is used for treatment of functional dyspepsia. It is still unclear how acotiamide has effects on esophageal motor function. Esophageal peristalsis and esophagogastric junction (EGJ) compliance has an important role for prevention of esophageal mucosal damage caused by gastroesophageal reflux, however, few studies have analyzed the effects of acotiamide on those former activities and none have investigated its effects on EGJ compliance...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29552087/herbal-formula-modified-buzhong-yiqi-tang-for-functional-constipation-in-adults-a-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#13
REVIEW
Hanlin Gong, Feng Qin, Hongbo He
Background: Herbal formula Modified Buzhong-Yiqi-Tang (MBYT) has been widely used for the treatment of functional constipation in East Asia, but its efficacy and safety are unclear. Methods: The study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of MBYT for adult patients with functional constipation. Randomized clinical trials were selected according to predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Results: In total, twenty-five randomized controlled clinical trials were included with 2089 patients...
2018: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29550791/relamorelin-and-other-ghrelin-receptor-agonists-future-options-for-gastroparesis-functional-dyspepsia-and-proton-pump-inhibitors-resistant-non-erosive-reflux-disease
#14
H Zatorski, P Mosinska, M Storr, J Fichna
There is an unmet need for effective pharmacological therapies for the treatment of gastroparesis and other upper gastrointestinal (GI) motility disorders, which reduce patients' quality of life and are a burden to the healthcare system. Ghrelin is an endogenous growth hormone secretagogue receptor ligand and has been shown to exert prokinetic effects on GI motility. Nevertheless, considering the short half-life of ghrelin its use in clinical practice is limited. Thus, ghrelin receptor agonists with enhanced pharmacokinetics were developed; they accelerate gastric emptying and improve symptoms of gastroparesis in animal models and humans...
December 2017: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29507463/evaluation-and-management-of-esophageal-manifestations-in-systemic-sclerosis
#15
REVIEW
Konstantinos Denaxas, Spyros D Ladas, George P Karamanolis
Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a multisystemic autoimmune connective tissue disorder; in the gastrointestinal tract, the esophagus is the most commonly affected organ. Symptoms of esophageal disease are due to gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and esophageal motor dysfunction. Since the development of high-resolution manometry (HRM), this method has been preferred for the study of SSc patients with esophageal involvement. Using HRM, classic scleroderma esophagus, defined as absent or ineffective peristalsis of the distal esophagus in combination with a hypotensive lower esophageal sphincter, was found in as many as 55% of SSc patients...
March 2018: Annals of Gastroenterology: Quarterly Publication of the Hellenic Society of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29505136/establishing-decision-trees-for-predicting-successful-postpyloric-nasoenteric-tube-placement-in-critically-ill-patients
#16
Weisheng Chen, Cheng Sun, Ru Wei, Yanlin Zhang, Heng Ye, Ruibin Chi, Yichen Zhang, Bei Hu, Bo Lv, Lifang Chen, Xiunong Zhang, Huilan Lan, Chunbo Chen
BACKGROUND: Despite the use of prokinetic agents, the overall success rate for postpyloric placement via a self-propelled spiral nasoenteric tube is quite low. METHODS: This retrospective study was conducted in the intensive care units of 11 university hospitals from 2006 to 2016 among adult patients who underwent self-propelled spiral nasoenteric tube insertion. Success was defined as postpyloric nasoenteric tube placement confirmed by abdominal x-ray scan 24 hours after tube insertion...
January 2018: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29501863/the-in-vitro-pharmacology-and-non-clinical-cardiovascular-safety-studies-of-a-novel-5-ht-4-receptor-agonist-dsp-6952
#17
Tadashi Tsubouchi, Takeshi Kunimatsu, Shinji Tsujimoto, Akihiko Kiyoshi, Yasunori Katsura, Seiko Oku, Kazuhiro Chihara, Yukiko Mine, Toru Yamada, Isao Shimizu, Kiyoko Bando
The pharmacological activity of DSP-6952, a novel compound was investigated, compared to that of clinically efficacious gastrointestinal (GI) prokinetic 5-hydroxytryptamine4 (5-HT4 ) receptor agonists. DSP-6952 had a strong affinity of Ki = 51.9 nM for 5-HT4(b) receptor, and produced contraction in the isolated guinea pig colon with EC50 of 271.6 nM and low intrinsic activity of 57%, similar to tegaserod and mosapride. In the development of the 5-HT4 receptor agonists, cardiovascular risk was deliberately evaluated, because some related prokinetics were reported to cause with cardiovascular adverse events, such as ventricular arrhythmias or ischemia...
May 5, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473423/implementation-of-proton-pump-inhibitor-deprescription-protocol-in-geriatric-residents
#18
Ovadyah Avraham, Michael Biglow
BACKGROUND: Deprescribing is a recommended intervention to reduce morbidity and mortality caused by polypharmacy in older residents. However, a lack of definite deprescription guidelines and evidence of clinically meaningful outcomes complicates or precludes the practicality of such an approach. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the present pilot study is to establish and implement a stepwise taper protocol that can potentially minimize overuse of proton pump inhibitors in a safe, effective, and feasible manner in the nursing home...
February 1, 2018: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441683/cardiovascular-safety-of-prokinetic-agents-a-focus-on-drug-induced-arrhythmias
#19
REVIEW
J R Giudicessi, M J Ackerman, M Camilleri
BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal sensorimotor dysfunction underlies a wide range of esophageal, gastric, and intestinal motility and functional disorders that collectively constitute nearly half of all referrals to gastroenterologists. As a result, substantial effort has been dedicated toward the development of prokinetic agents intended to augment or restore normal gastrointestinal motility. However, the use of several clinically efficacious gastroprokinetic agents, such as cisapride, domperidone, erythromycin, and tegaserod, is associated with unfavorable cardiovascular safety profiles, leading to restrictions in their use...
February 14, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429379/formulation-development-and-evaluation-of-nifedipine-as-pylorospasm-inhibitor
#20
Shaheen Sultana, Sushma Talegaonkar, Bhaskar Ray, Harvinder Singh, F J Ahmad, Gaurav Mittal, Aseem Bhatnagar
INTRODUCTION: In this study, different nifedipine-loaded formulations were prepared to treat pylorospasm, a sphincter muscle disorder characterized by delayed gastric emptying process. The efficacy of formulation was evaluated in patients by subjective assessment, gamma scintigraphic approaches, and confocal microscopy. METHODS: Nifedipine-loaded different formulations such as sucrose bead, pellets, and microparticles (slugging method, ionotropic gelation, and chemical denaturation) were designed...
July 2018: Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy
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