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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918793/-workup-and-treatment-of-gastroparesis
#1
Mette Winther Klinge, Jan Bech Pedersen, Birgit Schelde, Sten Lund, Klaus Krogh
Gastroparesis is defined as impaired gastric emptying without mechanical obstruction and cardinal symptoms including vomiting, nausea, early satiety, and upper abdominal pain. Most cases of gastroparesis are diabetic, idiopathic or post-operative. The correlation between symptoms and objective measures of gastroparesis is poor. Basic treatment includes dietary advices and prokinetics. Selected patients not responding to basic treatment can be offered gastric electrical stimulation. In many cases, gastroparesis is present in combination with other motility disorders, especially constipation...
September 18, 2017: Ugeskrift for Laeger
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913883/interactions-between-erythromycin-flunixin-meglumine-levamisole-and-plant-secondary-metabolites-towards-bovine-gastrointestinal-motility-in-vitro-study
#2
M Mendel, M Chłopecka, N Dziekan, W Karlik
Continued ingestion of plant secondary metabolites by ruminants can provoke pharmacological interactions with pharmaceutical agents used in animals. As some drugs and phytocompounds affect smooth muscle activity, the aim of this study was to verify the possible interaction between selected pharmaceutical agents and plant secondary metabolites towards bovine gastrointestinal motility. The interactions between phytocompounds-apigenin, quercetin, hederagenin, medicagenic acid-and medicines-erythromycin, flunixin meglumine and levamisole-were evaluated on bovine isolated abomasal and duodenal specimens obtained from routinely slaughtered cows...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913607/diabetes-and-the-esophagus
#3
REVIEW
Roberto Monreal-Robles, José M Remes-Troche
Chronic hyperglycemia is a well-known cause of gastrointestinal motility disorders extending from the esophagus to the anorectum. Even though little attention has been paid to esophageal disorders in the context of DM, its prevalence is higher compared to gastroparesis. Heartburn, as a typical symptom of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), is the most prevalent symptom and has been found in 25 to 41% of patients with DM. Furthermore, DM has recently been established as possible independent factor for the development of Barrett's esophagus...
September 15, 2017: Current Treatment Options in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887755/prokinetics-in-the-management-of-functional-gastrointestinal-disorders
#4
REVIEW
Eamonn M M Quigley
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The goal of this review is to review the current status of prokinetics and to place it in historical context. Impaired motility and thus propulsion have long been thought to play important roles in the pathogenesis of a number of gastrointestinal disorders including gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), gastroparesis, chronic idiopathic pseudo-obstruction, and constipation. Historically, disordered motility was also thought to contribute to a number of functional gastrointestinal disorders such as functional dyspepsia (FD) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)...
September 8, 2017: Current Gastroenterology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879488/diabetes-and-the-stomach
#5
REVIEW
Allen A Lee, William L Hasler
Longstanding diabetes mellitus (both type 1 and type 2) can impair gastric motor function and cause significant upper gastrointestinal symptoms which significantly degrade quality of life, cause nutritional deficits, and degrade healthcare resource use. The most commonly considered gut complication of diabetes, diabetic gastroparesis, is a syndrome of delayed gastric emptying in the absence of mechanical obstruction which leads to symptoms of nausea, vomiting, postprandial fullness, early satiation, bloating, and upper abdominal pain...
September 6, 2017: Current Treatment Options in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871092/acupuncture-and-related-therapies-used-as-add-on-or-alternative-to-prokinetics-for-functional-dyspepsia-overview-of-systematic-reviews-and-network-meta-analysis
#6
Robin S T Ho, Vincent C H Chung, Charlene H L Wong, Justin C Y Wu, Samuel Y S Wong, Irene X Y Wu
Prokinetics for functional dyspepsia (FD) have relatively higher number needed to treat values. Acupuncture and related therapies could be used as add-on or alternative. An overview of systematic reviews (SRs) and network meta-analyses (NMA) were performed to evaluate the comparative effectiveness of different acupuncture and related therapies. We conducted a comprehensive literature search for SRs of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in eight international and Chinese databases. Data from eligible RCTs were extracted for random effect pairwise meta-analyses...
September 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28839359/mechanism-of-fructus-aurantii-flavonoids-promoting-gastrointestinal-motility-from-organic-and-inorganic-endogenous-substances-combination-point-of-view
#7
Shuai Wang, Yong-Rui Bao, Tian-Jiao Li, Ting Yu, Xin Chang, Guan-Lin Yang, Xian-Sheng Meng
BACKGROUND: Fructus Aurantii (FA) derived from the dried, and unripe fruit of Citrus aurantium L. is one of the commonly used traditional Chinese medicines to treat gastrointestinal motility dysfunction diseases. According to the literature research, FA flavonoids (FAF) are important active ingredients of FA promoting gastrointestinal motility, but the exact material basis and mechanism of action are still not very clear. OBJECTIVE: This experiment was designed to illustrate the material basis of FAF promoting gastrointestinal motility and explore the mechanism of action from an organic and inorganic combination point of view...
July 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28832359/functional-dyspepsia-and-gastroparesis
#8
Jan Tack, Florencia Carbone
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review summarizes recent progress in the epidemiology, pathophysiology and treatment of functional dyspepsia and gastroparesis. RECENT FINDINGS: The definition of functional dyspepsia and its subgroups has been revised in the recent Rome IV consensus. In gastroparesis, the symptom pattern and its similarities and differences from functional dyspepsia have been a focus of recent research. In functional dyspepsia, pathophysiological research continued to evaluate gastric sensorimotor dysfunctions, but low-grade inflammatory changes and loss of mucosal integrity in the duodenum is a new topic of intense research...
August 21, 2017: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828195/critically-ill-patients-and-gut-motility-are-we-addressing-it
#9
REVIEW
Alfredo Vazquez-Sandoval, Shekhar Ghamande, Salim Surani
Gastrointestinal (GI) dysmotility is a common problem in the critically ill population. It can be a reflection and an early sign of patient deterioration or it can be an independent cause of morbidity and mortality. GI dysmotility can be divided for clinical purposes on upper GI dysmotility and lower GI dysmotility. Upper GI dysmotility manifests by nausea, feeding intolerance and vomiting; its implications include aspiration into the airway of abdominal contents and underfeeding. Several strategies to prevent and treat this condition can be tried and they include prokinetics and post-pyloric feeds...
August 6, 2017: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815345/mosapride-stabilizes-intestinal-microbiota-to-reduce-bacterial-translocation-and-endotoxemia-in-ccl4-induced-cirrhotic-rats
#10
Hong Xu, Jingfang Xiong, Jianjun Xu, Shuiming Li, Yang Zhou, Dongya Chen, Xinjun Cai, Jian Ping, Min Deng, Jianyong Chen
BACKGROUND: Impaired intestinal motility may lead to the disruption of gut microbiota equilibrium, which in turn facilitates bacterial translocation (BT) and endotoxemia in cirrhosis. We evaluated the influence of mosapride, a prokinetic agent, on BT and DNA fingerprints of gut microbiota in cirrhotic rats. METHODS: A rat model of cirrhosis was set up via subcutaneous injection of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). The portal pressure, liver and intestinal damage, plasma endotoxin, BT, and intestinal transit rate (ITR) of cirrhotic rats were determined...
August 16, 2017: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802291/metoclopramide-for-preventing-nosocomial-pneumonia-in-patients-fed-via-nasogastric-tubes-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#11
Yanjin Liu, Xiaofang Dong, Sen Yang, Aixia Wang, Min Wang
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Metoclopramide, a prokinetic agent, has been recommended to reduce incidence of pneumonia, but its efficacy is controversial. Thus, this systematic review aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of metoclopramide for pneumonia in patients fed via nasogastric tube. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, PubMed, EMBASE, and OVID were searched from their inception to March 31th 2015. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of metoclopramide against placebo in patients fed via nasogastric tube were identified...
2017: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799255/synergy-between-5-ht4-receptor-stimulation-and-phosphodiesterase-4-inhibition-in-facilitating-acetylcholine-release-in-human-large-intestinal-circular-muscle
#12
V Pauwelyn, W Ceelen, R A Lefebvre
BACKGROUND: Gastroprokinetic properties of 5-HT4 receptor agonists, such as prucalopride, are attributed to activation of 5-HT4 receptors on cholinergic nerves innervating smooth muscle in the gastrointestinal smooth muscle layer, increasing acetylcholine release and muscle contraction. In porcine stomach and colon, phosphodiesterase (PDE) 4 has been shown to control the signaling pathway of these 5-HT4 receptors. The aim of this study was to investigate the PDE-mediated control of these 5-HT4 receptors in human large intestine...
August 10, 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797793/bpc-157-counteracts-qtc-prolongation-induced-by-haloperidol-fluphenazine-clozapine-olanzapine-quetiapine-sulpiride-and-metoclopramide-in-rats
#13
Dean Strinic, Zeljka Belosic Halle, Kresimir Luetic, Ana Nedic, Igor Petrovic, Mario Sucic, Gordana Zivanovic Posilovic, Dijana Balenovic, Sanja Strbe, Mario Udovicic, Domagoj Drmic, Mirjana Stupnisek, Martina Lovric Bencic, Sven Seiwerth, Predrag Sikiric
AIM: Commonly, neuroleptics and prokinetics induce a prolonged QTc interval. In this study, stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 counteracts the prolongation of the QTc interval in Wistar rats that underwent daily administration of dopamine neuroleptics or prokinetics. Previously, in rats and mice, BPC 157 counteracted neuroleptic-induced catalepsy and gastric ulcers. MAIN METHODS: To counteract neuroleptic- or prokinetic-induced prolongation of the QTc interval, rats were given a BPC 157 regimen once daily over seven days (10μg, 10ng/kg ip) immediately after each administrations of haloperidol (0...
October 1, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781034/evidence-based-advances-in-rodent-medicine
#14
REVIEW
Vladimir Jekl, Karel Hauptman, Zdenek Knotek
The number of exotic companion pet rodents seen in veterinary practices is growing very rapidly. According to the American Veterinary Medical Association's surveys, more than 2,093,000 pet rodents were kept in US households in 2007 and in 2012 it was more than 2,349,000 animals. This article summarizes the most important evidence-based knowledge in exotic pet rodents (diagnostics of the hyperadrenocorticism in guinea pigs, pituitary tumors in rats, urolithiasis in guinea pigs, use of itopride as prokinetics, use of deslorelin acetate in rodents, cause of dental disease, and prevention of mammary gland tumors in rats)...
September 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Exotic Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768370/efficacy-and-safety-of-nortriptyline-in-functional-dyspepsia-in-asians-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial
#15
Uayporn Kaosombatwattana, Supot Pongprasobchai, Julajak Limsrivilai, Monthira Maneerattanaporn, Somchai Leelakusolvong, Tawesak Tanwandee
AIMS: Current treatments of functional dyspepsia (FD) are unsatisfied. Tricyclic antidepressants alter visceral hypersensitivity and brain-gut interaction. We assessed the efficacy and safety of nortriptyline in patients with FD. METHODS: Patients diagnosed functional dyspepsia according to Rome III criteria who failed to respond to proton pump inhibitor and prokinetic treatment were randomly assigned to either once daily 10-mg nortriptyline or placebo. The primary endpoint was the rate of responders defined as a > 50% reduction in dyspepsia symptom score(DSS) after 8 weeks of treatment...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768356/-singultus-diagnostic-workup-and-therapy
#16
Ohlrich Marcus, Georg Royl
A hiccup is a reflex movement with diffusely distributed afferents and efferents in the thorax; its functional relevance is controversial. In its physiological form, it is mostly a minor complaint that stops spontaneously and rarely leads to medical consultation. However, prolonged agonizing hiccups represent serious deterioration of quality of life. Chronic hiccups by definition last for more than 48 h, with gastroesophageal reflux being the frequent underlying disease. Various other causes affect multiple organ systems, some with serious underlying diseases...
July 2017: Laryngo- Rhino- Otologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761578/esophageal-motility-and-rikkunshito-treatment-for-proton-pump-inhibitor-refractory-nonerosive-reflux-disease-a-prospective-uncontrolled-open-label-pilot-study-trial
#17
Takeo Odaka, Shigeru Yamato, Osamu Yokosuka
BACKGROUND: Only a few reports focused on esophageal motility in patients with proton pump inhibitor (PPI)-refractory nonerosive reflux disease (NERD) and there has been no established strategy for treatment. OBJECTIVE: To clarify the characteristics of esophageal motility in patients with PPI-refractory NERD, we evaluated esophageal function using combined multichannel intraluminal impedance and esophageal manometry (MII-EM). In addition, we evaluated the efficacy of rikkunshito (RKT), which is a gastrointestinal prokinetic agent...
2017: Current Therapeutic Research, Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760384/efficacy-and-safety-of-relamorelin-in-diabetics-with-symptoms-of-gastroparesis-a-randomized-placebo-controlled-study
#18
Michael Camilleri, Richard W McCallum, Jan Tack, Sharon C Spence, Keith Gottesdiener, Fred T Fiedorek
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Gastroparesis is a complication of diabetes with few treatment options. Relamorelin (also called RM-131) is a selective, prokinetic agonist of ghrelin. We aimed to evaluate efficacy of relamorelin on symptoms and gastric emptying (GE) in a 12-week, phase 2B study of diabetic patients with moderate to severe gastroparesis symptoms (DG). METHODS: We performed a study of 393 patients with DG (37.7% male; 9.9% with type 1 diabetes; median age, 58...
July 28, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754071/a-review-of-pharmacotherapy-for-treating-gastroesophageal-reflux-disease-gerd
#19
Edoardo Savarino, Patrizia Zentilin, Elisa Marabotto, Giorgia Bodini, Marco Della Coletta, Marzio Frazzoni, Nicola de Bortoli, Irene Martinucci, Salvatore Tolone, Gaia Pellegatta, Vincenzo Savarino
Medical therapy of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is based on the use of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) as first choice treatment. Despite their effectiveness, about 20-30% of patients report an inadequate response and alternative drugs are required. Areas covered: This review provides an overview of current pharmacotherapy for treating GERD by showing the results of PPIs, reflux inhibitors, antidepressants and mucosa protective medications. Expert opinion: Medical therapy of GERD does not definitely cure the disease, because even PPIs are not able to change the key factors responsible for it...
August 7, 2017: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724176/myo-inositol-as-a-male-fertility-molecule-speed-them-up
#20
R A Condorelli, S La Vignera, L M Mongioì, S G Vitale, A S Laganà, L Cimino, A E Calogero
Myo-inositol (MYO) usually represents a therapeutic option for female infertility associated with insulin resistance. Recently, several evidences are accumulating about the potential use of MYO for the treatment of male infertility. This article summarizes the rationale for MYO in the treatment of male infertility. In particular, it illustrates the potential antioxidant and prokinetic role of MYO, and its importance for the modulation of hormonal regulation. In the final part of the manuscript has been added a proposal for a clinical algorithm reserved for patients with asthenozoospermia, where probably MYO could exert specific pharmacological effects...
June 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
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