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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349356/qt-interval-prolongation-due-to-medication-found-in-the-preoperative-evaluation
#1
Mika Seto, Sayo Koga, Ryosuke Kita, Toshihiro Kikuta
QT prolongation is an electrocardiographic change that can lead to lethal arrhythmia. Acquired QT prolongation is known to be caused by drugs and electrolyte abnormalities. We report three cases in which the prolonged QT interval was improved at the time of operation by briefly discontinuing the drugs suspected to have caused the QT prolongation observed on preoperative electrocardiography. The QTc of cases 1, 2, and 3 improved from 518 to 429 ms, 463 to 441 ms, and 473 to 443 ms on discontinuing the use of a gastrointestinal prokinetic agent, a proton pump inhibitor, and a molecular targeted drug, respectively...
December 2017: Journal of Dental Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344328/management-of-functional-dyspepsia-state-of-the-art-and-emerging-therapies
#2
REVIEW
Hiroshi Yamawaki, Seiji Futagami, Mako Wakabayashi, Noriko Sakasegawa, Shuhei Agawa, Kazutoshi Higuchi, Yasuhiro Kodaka, Katsuhiko Iwakiri
Patients with functional dyspepsia, defined in the 2016 Rome IV criteria as bothersome clinical dyspepsia symptoms, experience markedly reduced quality of life. Several etiologies have been associated with the disorder. In the Rome IV criteria, the brain-gut axis was acknowledged as an important factor in the etiology of functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorders. The distinct subgroups of functional dyspepsia, epigastric pain syndrome (EPS) and postprandial distress syndrome (PDS), are treated differently: acid secretion inhibitors are recommended with patients with EPS, whereas prokinetic drugs as mosapride and acotiamide are recommended for patients with PDS...
January 2018: Therapeutic Advances in Chronic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330976/ranitidine-can-potentiate-the-prokinetic-effect-of-itopride-at-low-doses-an-in-vitro-study
#3
Aroosa Ishtiaq Butt, Bushra Tayyaba Khan, Asma Khan, Qamar-Uz-Zaman Khan
BACKGROUND: Gastroparesis and GERD occur concomitantly in 40 percent of the cases. Prokinetic drugs and acid blockers are employed as the main treatment modality. Ranitidine is an acid blocker with additional prokinetic activity and Itopride is a known prokinetic drug. This study was designed to observe the synergistic potentiating prokinetic effect of Ranitidine on itopride on isolated duodenum of rabbits. METHODS: Ranitidine (10-5-10-3) and itopride (10-6-10-5) were added in increasing concentrations to isolated duodenum of rabbits and contractions were recorded on PowerLab Data acquisition unit AHK/214...
October 2017: Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad: JAMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29296567/carthami-flos-regulates-gastrointestinal-motility-functions
#4
Iksung Kim, Jinsoo Bae, Byung Joo Kim
Background: Gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms are common in the general population. This investigation studied the effects of Carthami flos (CF), a natural product, on GI motility. Methods: We checked the intestinal transit rates (ITRs) or gastric emptying in normal and in GI-motility-dysfunction (GMD) mice in vivo. The GMD mice were made by acetic acid or streptozotocin. Results: Both ITRs and gastric emptying were increased by CF (0.0025-0...
December 2017: Integrative Medicine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250842/phytotherapeutic-effects-of-the-fruits-of-poncirus-trifoliata-l-raf-on-cancer-inflammation-and-digestive-dysfunction
#5
REVIEW
Yongwoo Jang, Eun-Kyung Kim, Won-Sik Shim
Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf. belongs to the family Rutaceae in the genus Poncirus. Its fruits are widely used to alleviate symptoms of various disorders. The mature fruit (MF) possesses anticancer and antiinflammatory activities. Extracts of the dried, immature fruit, Poncirus fructus (PF) are widely used as a traditional medicine for ameliorating symptoms of digestive dysfunction in East Asia. Molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the effects of MF and PF extracts on cancer, inflammation, and gastrointestinal disorders have been extensively studied in the past decade...
December 18, 2017: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237540/prokinetic-effects-of-neurokinin-2-receptor-agonists-on-the-bladder-and-rectum-of-rats-with-acute-spinal-cord-transection
#6
Lesley Marson, Karl B Thor, Mary Katofiasc, Edward C Burgard, Nadia M J Rupniak
The suitability of various neurokinin-2 (NK2) receptor agonists and routes of administration to elicit on-demand voiding of the bladder and bowel, as future therapy for individuals with spinal cord injury, was examined using a rat model. The current study examined the feasibility of alternative routes of administration, which are more practical for clinical use than intravenous (IV) administration. Voiding and isovolumetric cystometry were recorded in anesthetized, acutely spinalized, female rats after IV, subcutaneous (SC), intramuscular (IM), intranasal (IN), or sublingual (SL) administration of [Lys5,MeLeu9,Nle10]-NKA(4-10] (LMN-NKA)...
December 10, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224457/treatment-of-vincristine-induced-ileus-with-metoclopramide-a-case-report
#7
Hamidreza T Masoumi, Molouk Hadjibabaie, Morvarid Zarif-Yeganeh, Behrouz Khajeh, Ardeshir Ghavamzadeh
Introduction Acute lymphoblastic leukemia is an invasive malignancy which ought to be treated with several cytotoxic medications. Vincristine-based regimen is among the most commonly used regimens for the treatment of adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Peripheral neuropathy caused by vincristine provides a limitation in dose administration and can influence the treatment outcome and patient's quality of life. Case presentation Ileus and constipation occurred as a result of autonomic neuropathy in a 58-year-old man who underwent vincristine-based regimen for acute lymphoblastic leukemia treatment...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Oncology Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222714/domperidone-prolongs-oral-to-duodenal-transit-time-in-video-capsule-endoscopy
#8
Michael Mcfarlane, B Liu, C Nwokolo
PURPOSE: Domperidone is thought to accelerate gastric emptying via D2 receptor antagonism at the gastro-oesophageal and gastro-duodenal junctions. Listed in the BNF as a prokinetic anti-emetic, it has been used in video capsule endoscopy (VCE) to accelerate capsule delivery to the small intestine. We audited VCEs performed at UHCW from 2011, when as standard practice, domperidone was given pre-VCE, to 2012, after its discontinuation due to doubts about its effectiveness. METHODS: Thirty-one patients received oral domperidone 20 mg pre-VCE...
December 8, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205695/diminished-gastric-prokinetic-response-to-ghrelin-in-a-rat-model-of-spinal-cord-injury
#9
E M Besecker, A R White, G M Holmes
BACKGROUND: Patients with cervical or high-thoracic spinal cord injury (SCI) often present reduced gastric emptying and early satiety. Ghrelin provokes motility via gastric vagal neurocircuitry and ghrelin receptor agonists offer a therapeutic option for gastroparesis. We have previously shown that experimental high-thoracic injury (T3-SCI) diminishes sensitivity to another gastrointestinal peptide, cholecystokinin. This study tests the hypothesis that T3-SCI impairs the vagally mediated response to ghrelin...
December 5, 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183233/complex-dynamics-in-the-basal-ganglia-health-and-disease-beyond-the-motor-system
#10
Daniela S Andres, Olivier Darbin
The rate and oscillatory hypotheses are the two main current frameworks of basal ganglia pathophysiology. Both hypotheses have emerged from research on movement disorders sharing similar conceptualizations. These pathological conditions are classified either as hypokinetic or hyperkinetic, and the electrophysiological hallmarks of basal ganglia dysfunction are categorized as prokinetic or antikinetic. Although nonmotor symptoms, including neurobehavioral symptoms, are a key manifestation of basal ganglia dysfunction, they are uncommonly accounted for in these models...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161458/proton-pump-inhibitors-for-functional-dyspepsia
#11
REVIEW
Maria Ines Pinto-Sanchez, Yuhong Yuan, Ahmed Hassan, Premysl Bercik, Paul Moayyedi
BACKGROUND: Functional dyspepsia (FD or non-ulcer dyspepsia) is defined as continuous or frequently recurring epigastric pain or discomfort for which no organic cause can be found. Acid suppressive therapy, including proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), has been proposed as a therapeutic option in FD, but its efficacy remains controversial. While PPIs are generally considered safe and well tolerated, they have been associated with adverse events, especially in the long term. For this reason, decisions on whether to initiate or continue PPI therapy should be made based on an appropriate clinical indication...
November 21, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157021/gastroparesis-pharmacotherapy-and-cardiac-risk
#12
Per M Hellström, Ahmad Al-Saffar
BACKGROUND: Gastroparesis is characterized by abnormal gastric motility and delayed emptying with symptoms of early satiety, postprandial fullness, bloating, nausea, vomiting and abdominal pain. Pharmacological discovery has been lagging because potential drugs often are associated with abnormalities of electrical conduction of the myocardium due to interaction with cardiac ion channels leading to limited pharmaceutical options for development of new drugs. OBJECTIVE: Addresses the safety of drugs for gastroparesis in terms of cardiotoxicity related to the clinical use of prokinetics and antiemetics...
November 20, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147138/an-update-on-prucalopride-in-the-treatment-of-chronic-constipation
#13
REVIEW
Anam Omer, Eamonn M M Quigley
Chronic constipation (CC) is a highly prevalent and often under-appreciated gastrointestinal disorder associated with significant impairment in quality of life. Symptoms of constipation are typically present for a number of years prior to a patient seeking help. Lifestyle modifications followed by, or coupled with, over-the-counter laxatives represent the initial treatment option; however, relief for many is limited and dissatisfaction rates for these approaches remain high. Over recent years, therefore, considerable effort has been exerted on the development of novel pharmacological approaches...
November 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143891/in-search-of-the-ideal-promotility-agent-optimal-use-of-currently-available-promotility-agents-for-nutrition-therapy-of-the-critically-ill-patient
#14
REVIEW
Sarah J Diamond, Endashaw Omer, Laszlo Kiraly
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Enteral nutrition therapy is essential in the management of critically ill patients. Prokinetic agents have been used successfully to aid in the delivery of nutrition and improve feeding tolerance in patients in the intensive care unit (ICU). The aim of this report is to review the existing promotility agents available for use in the critically ill as well as outline the role of potential investigative drugs in order to provide a guide to the management of this difficult and important clinical dilemma...
November 16, 2017: Current Gastroenterology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143474/chronic-intestinal-pseudo-obstruction-progress-in-management
#15
REVIEW
G Di Nardo, T B Karunaratne, S Frediani, R De Giorgio
Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction (CIPO) is a severe form of gastrointestinal dysmotility (often due to derangement of the innervation/smooth muscle/interstitial cells of Cajal) with recurrent episodes of intestinal subocclusion mimicking a mechanical obstruction. Because of its complexity and heterogeneity, CIPO is often misdiagnosed or remains unrecognized until advanced stages. Management is a critical aspect in CIPO patient care. So far, most prokinetic drugs have not proven efficacy in restoring intestinal propulsion, thus nutritional support, fluid/electrolyte replacement, and antibiotics are the mainstay of treatment...
December 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139561/the-novel-potent-and-highly-selective-5-ht4-receptor-agonist-yh12852-significantly-improves-both-upper-and-lower-gastrointestinal-motility
#16
Eun Jeong Jeong, Soo Yong Chung, Han Na Hong, Se-Woong Oh, Jae Young Sim
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: 5-HT4 receptor agonists have been shown to be effective to treat various gastrointestinal tract disorders. However, a lack of selectivity against off-targets has been a limiting factor. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: The binding affinity and selectivity of YH12852 for human 5-HT4(a) receptor in CHO-K1 cells were evaluated using radioligand binding assays, and agonistic activity was assessed using a beta-lactamase reporter system. Contractile activity and propulsive motility were measured in isolated guinea pig distal colon...
November 15, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115144/antidiarrhoeic-effect-and-dereplication-of-the-aqueous-extract-of-annona-crassiflora-annonaceae
#17
Camila Rodrigues Ferraz, Denise Brentan Silva, Ligia Carolina da Silva Prado, Hudson Armando Nunes Canabrava, Luiz Borges Bispo-da-Silva
We investigated the antidiarrhoeic effect of the aqueous extract of Annona crassiflora leaves (AEAC). The AEAC decreased the diarrhoeic stools and enteropooling induced by castor oil, without altering total faecal output; moreover, the distance travelled by charcoal meal in the intestine was increased. Twenty-eight compounds were identified by LC-DAD-MS in the AEAC, including flavonoids, alkaloids and proanthocyanidins. In addition, two oligomeric series of condensed tannins of up to nine flavan-3-ol units were characterised by MALDI-MS...
November 8, 2017: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110162/recent-advances-in-the-pharmacological-management-of-gastroesophageal-reflux-disease
#18
REVIEW
Yu-Min Kung, Wen-Hung Hsu, Meng-Chieh Wu, Jiunn-Wei Wang, Chung-Jung Liu, Yu-Chung Su, Chao-Hung Kuo, Fu-Chen Kuo, Deng-Chyang Wu, Yao-Kuang Wang
The management of proton pump inhibitor-refractory GERD (rGERD) is a challenge in clinical practice. Since up to one-third of patients with typical GERD symptoms (heartburn and/or acid regurgitation) are not satisfied with proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy, new drug development targeting different pathophysiologies of GERD is imperative. At present, no other drugs serve as a more potent acid suppression agent than PPIs. As an add-on therapy, histamine type-2 receptor antagonists, alginates, prokinetics and transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxation inhibitors have some impact on the subgroups of rGERD, but greater effectiveness and fewer adverse effects for widespread use are required...
December 2017: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099093/functional-dyspepsia
#19
REVIEW
Paul Enck, Fernando Azpiroz, Guy Boeckxstaens, Sigrid Elsenbruch, Christine Feinle-Bisset, Gerald Holtmann, Jeffrey M Lackner, Jukka Ronkainen, Michael Schemann, Andreas Stengel, Jan Tack, Stephan Zipfel, Nicholas J Talley
Functional dyspepsia is one of the most prevalent functional gastrointestinal disorders. Functional dyspepsia comprises three subtypes with presumed different pathophysiology and aetiology: postprandial distress syndrome (PDS), epigastric pain syndrome (EPS) and a subtype with overlapping PDS and EPS features. Functional dyspepsia symptoms can be caused by disturbed gastric motility (for example, inadequate fundic accommodation or delayed gastric emptying), gastric sensation (for example, sensations associated with hypersensitivity to gas and bloating) or gastric and duodenal inflammation...
November 3, 2017: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064929/highly-concentrated-preterm-formula-as-an-alternative-to-powdered-human-milk-fortifier-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#20
Andrea Willeitner, Michael Anderson, Jami Lewis
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to assess clinical feasibility and tolerance of concentrated preterm formula at 30 kcal/oz (CPF30) to fortify human milk to a caloric density of 24 kcal/oz, compared to conventional powdered human milk fortifier (PHMF). STUDY DESIGN: Very low birth weight neonates were stratified by birth weight and randomized to receive human milk fortification using CPF30 or PHMF. Infants were monitored from first introduction of human milk fortification, until fortified feeds were well tolerated...
November 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
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