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Jeanette Flores-Bautista, José Navarrete-Perea, Gladis Fragoso, Ana Flisser, Xavier Soberón, Juan P Laclette
During the study of host-parasite relationships in Taeniid parasite diseases, including cysticercosis and hydatidosis, reports have described the presence of host proteins in the cyst fluid and tissue of metacestodes. However, the fate or role of host elements inside the parasite remains barely explored. After the publication of genomes of four cestode species, it became clear that these organisms possess a limited biosynthetic capability. The initial goal of this study was to determine if uptaken host proteins could be a source of essential amino acids for cysticerci...
June 19, 2018: Bioscience Reports
David C Heins, Kristine N Moody, Sophia Miller
We performed a long-term natural experiment investigating the impact of the diphyllobotriidean cestode Schistocephalus solidus on the body condition and clutch size (CS) of threespine stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus, its second intermediate host, and the growth of larval parasites in host fish. We tested the hypothesis that single S. solidus infections were more virulent than multiple infections. We also asked whether the metrics of mean and total parasite mass (proxies for individual and total volume, respectively) were consistent with predictions of the resource constraints or the life history strategy (LHS) hypothesis for the growth of, hence exploitation by, larval helminths in intermediate hosts...
June 20, 2018: Parasitology
Gérald Umhang, Frédéric Grenouillet, Vanessa Bastid, Selim M'Rad, Benoît Valot, Myriam Oudni-M'Rad, Hamouda Babba, Franck Boué
Cystic echinococcosis is a zoonotic disease with worldwide distribution caused by the larval stage of the Cestode parasite Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato. Due to the predominance or even the exclusive presence of E. granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.) among E. granulosus species in many areas, the genetic diversity needs to be further investigated at the species level to better understand the inter- and intra-focus epidemiological features. Short sequences of mitochondrial or nuclear genes generally lack or have limited discriminatory power, hindering the detection of polymorphisms to reflect geographically based peculiarities and/or any history of infection...
June 18, 2018: Parasitology Research
Martina Bleyer, Tina Risch, Christian Roos, Franz-Josef Kaup, Kerstin Mätz-Rensing
  A captive-born adult female Nilgiri langur ( Semnopithecus johnii) developed an edematous swelling of the left thigh and a firm mass around the right ankle joint. The animal also suffered from lethargy and anorexia and was euthanized because of poor general condition. Necropsy revealed that the skeletal muscle of the left thigh had been replaced by a multilocular cystic mass containing numerous sand-grain-sized whitish structures. Small cysts were also present in the lung and the myocardium. The mass of the right ankle joint was histologically consistent with a myxosarcoma...
June 2018: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
Adnan Hodžić, Amer Alić, Jovana Šupić, Vedad Škapur, Georg Gerhard Duscher
Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato, a dog tapeworm is a species complex causing cystic echinococcosis or hydatid disease in a great variety of mammalian intermediate hosts, including humans. This complex comprises five species including Echinococcus ortleppi (G5 genotype or cattle strain). In the present paper, we report the first case of infection with the larval stage of latter cestode in a captive crested porcupine (Hystrix cristata), molecularly confirmed by PCR and sequencing of the cox1 and nad1 genes...
May 30, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
Hirokazu Kouguchi, Takao Irie, Jun Matsumoto, Hidefumi Furuoka, Kenji Ishiwata, Ryo Nakao, Kinpei Yagi
T he data set presented in this article is related to a previous research article entitled " The timing of worm exclusion in dogs repeatedly infected with the cestode Echinococcus multilocularis " (Kouguchi et al., 2016) [1]. This article describes the genes >2-fold up- or down-regulated in the first- and repeated-infection groups compared to the healthy controls group. The gene expression profiles were generated using the Agilent-021193 Canine (V2) Gene Expression Microarray (GPL15379). The raw and normalized microarray data have been deposited with the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database under accession number GSE105098...
April 2018: Data in Brief
Tomáš Scholz, Alain de Chambrier
The tapeworm Sciadocephalus megalodiscus Diesing, 1850 (Cestoda: Proteocephalidae) is redescribed based on newly collected specimens parasitizing tucunare peacock bass, Cichla monoculus Agassiz, 1831 (Perciformes: Cichlidae), in the Peruvian Amazon. Even though this cestode was redescribed 2 decades ago by Rego et al. (1999), that redescription did not report some of the unique features of this species. The most unusual characteristics of the species are: (i) peculiar formation of the uterus, with fast formation of numerous, tightly packed diverticula protruding ventrally and dorsally, with simultaneous disintegration of the ovary and vitelline follicles in the first pregravid proglottids; (ii) inverted umbrella-shaped scolex with a well-developed apical sucker; (iii) a large-sized, follicular (grape cluster-like) ovary, which occupies most of the central (median) third of proglottids, with the ovarian isthmus situated almost equatorially; (iv) regular alternation of genital pores; (v) a well-developed internal seminal vesicle; and (vi) a small-sized strobila (shorter than 6 mm) consisting of few proglottids (15-20)...
June 4, 2018: Journal of Parasitology
André Mota Alves, Geza Thais Rangel E Souza, Ricardo Massato Takemoto, Luiz Eduardo Roland Tavares, Cláudia Moura de Melo, Rubens Riscala Madi, Verónica de Lourdes Sierpe Jeraldo
Three species of snappers from artisanal, small-scale fisheries were examined for the presence of parasites. A total of 139 lutjanid fish were collected: 69 specimens of Lutjanus analis, 47 specimens of Lutjanus vivanus, and 23 specimens of Lutjanus synagris. Encysted plerocercoid of trypanorhynch cestodes found at necropsy in the viscera of snappers were sampled for parasitological analysis. These plerocercoid larvae belong to the genera Floriceps, Pseudogrillotia , and Oncomegas. Although these parasites do not have any zoonotic potential, fish with heavy loads of plerocercoids are rejected during inspection as they compromise meat hygiene...
May 24, 2018: Revista Brasileira de Parasitologia Veterinária, Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Parasitology
V Tandon, B Das
Genistein (4',5,7-trihydroxyisoflavone) is naturally present in plants of the soy family and is known to have various pharmacological activities, such as anti-cancer, anti-diabetic, anti-oxidant, etc. The phytoestrogen is one of the major isoflavones found in some medicinal plants having anthelmintic properties. This review describes the putative role of genistein as an anthelmintic, which has been tested on some helminth parasites in vitro. Genistein has been shown to cause paralysis and alterations in the tegument and tegumental enzymes (acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase, adenosine triphosphatase, and 5'-nucleotidase) of helminth parasites...
June 2018: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
M Ondračková, Y Kvach, A Martens, P Jurajda
Metazoan parasite communities of Lepomis gibbosus (Centrarchidae), one of the most successfully introduced fish species in Europe, were studied at two isolated ponds (Knielingen, Tropfen) along the Upper Rhine in Germany. Nine parasite taxa were observed, including North American species co-introduced to Europe (ancyrocephalid monogeneans, diplostomid trematodes), circumpolar species infecting L. gibbosus in both their native and non-native ranges (bothriocephalid cestodes) and locally acquired parasitic nematodes...
May 29, 2018: Journal of Helminthology
Solomon Ngutor Karshima, Beatty-Viv Maikai, Jacob Kwada Paghi Kwaga
BACKGROUND: The livestock industry plays a vital role in the economy of Nigeria. It serves as a major source of income and livelihood for majority of Nigerians who are rural settlers and contributes about 5.2% to the National Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Helminths however, cause economic losses due to reductions in milk production, weight gain, fertility and carcass quality. Zoonotic helminths of livestock origin cause health problems in humans. METHODS: Using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guidelines, the prevalence and distribution of helminths of veterinary and zoonotic importance in Nigerian ruminants were determined in a meta-analysis of data published between 1970 and 2016...
May 29, 2018: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
Mizanur Rahman, Shariful Islam, Md Masuduzzaman, Mahabub Alam, Mohammad Nizam Uddin Chawdhury, Jinnat Ferdous, Md Nurul Islam, Mohammad Mahmudul Hassan, Mohammad Alamgir Hossain, Ariful Islam
Background and Aim: Asian house shrew ( Suncus murinus ), a widely distributed small mammal in the South Asian region, can carry helminths of zoonotic importance. The aim of the study was to know the prevalence and diversity of gastrointestinal (GI) helminths in free-ranging Asian house shrew ( S. murinus ) in Bangladesh. Materials and Methods: A total of 86 Asian house shrews were captured from forest areas and other habitats of Bangladesh in 2015. Gross examination of the whole GI tract was performed for gross helminth detection, and coproscopy was done for identification of specific eggs or larvae...
April 2018: Veterinary World
Liudmila A Ishigenova, Olga G Berezina, Arseny A Makarikov
The development of the metacestode stages of Arostrilepis microtis (Eucestoda: Hymenolepididae) studied on the basis of an experimental infection of springtails (Collembola: Entomobryidae) is described for the first time. A complete description of the ontogeny from oncosphere to fully a developed metacestode is given. The postembryonic development within the intermediate host includes one invagination. Cysts are without an anterior invagination pore, and the cercomer does not separate after the full maturation of larva...
May 22, 2018: Parasitology Research
Abdullah İnci, Mehmet Doğanay, Aykut Özdarendeli, Önder Düzlü, Alparslan Yıldırım
Zoonotic infections are globally important diseases and lead to huge economic losses in both low- and middle-income and high-income countries. Global warming, environmental and ecological changes, illegal movement of animals and humans, regional civil wars, and poverty are predisposing factors for the emergence of zoonotic infections and their distribution worldwide; they are also a big threat for the future. In addition, environmental pollution and antimicrobial resistance are immense serious threats and dangers to prevent and control zoonotic infections...
March 2018: Türkiye Parazitolojii Dergisi
Felipe Corrêa, Caroll Stoore, Pamina Horlacher, Mauricio Jiménez, Christian Hidalgo, Cristian A Alvarez Rojas, Guilherme Figueiredo Barros, Henrique Bunselmeyer Ferreira, Marcela Hernández, Gonzalo Cabrera, Rodolfo Paredes
Cystic echinococcosis (CE), a parasitic disease caused by the cestode Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato (s.l.), is a worldwide zoonotic infection. Although endemic in Chile, information on the molecular characteristics of CE in livestock remains scarce. Therefore we aimed to describe the status of infection with E. granulosus s.l. in cattle from central Chile and also to contribute to the study of the molecular epidemiology of this parasite. According to our results, the prevalence of CE is 18.84% in cattle, similar to previous reports from Chile, suggesting that the prevalence in Santiago Metropolitan area has not changed in the last 30 years...
2018: PloS One
Nilza N Felizardo, Marcelo Knoff, Jessica B Diniz, Eduardo J L Torres, Flávia A A Calixto, Sérgio C São Clemente
From September 2014 to November 2015, 30 Paralichthys orbignyanus specimens were obtained from Sepetiba Bay in the municipality of Rio de Janeiro, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The fishes were necropsied and cestode larvae were recovered from the abdominal cavity, mesentery, and serosas of the stomach, intestine, spleen, liver, kidney and gonads. Nineteen fish were parasitized by a total of 90 trypanorhynch plerocerci. Based on morphological characters, these were identified as Pterobothrium crassicolle...
May 14, 2018: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
Nelson Siukei Lam, Xinxin Long, Xin-Zhuan Su, Fangli Lu
The World Health Organization estimated that more than 1.5 billion people are infected with soil-transmitted helminths globally, and foodborne trematodiases in humans cause ∼2 million life-years lost to disability and death worldwide every year. Investment in prevention, treatment, and awareness of helminth infections and discovery of new, safe, effective, and affordable anti-helminth drugs are urgently needed. Artemisinin (ART) and its derivatives have been widely used to treat malaria and other protozoan infections; they also possess activities against helminths...
May 1, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
Pei-Jen L Shaner, Ai-Yun Yu, Shou-Hsien Li, Ching-Ho Hou
Food and parasitism can have complex effects on small mammal reproduction. In this study, we tested the effects of sex, food, and parasitism on reproductive performance of the Taiwan field mouse ( Apodemus semotus ). In a field experiment, we increased food availability for a portion of the mice in the population by providing sorghum seeds to a set of food stations. We reduced parasite intensity of randomly chosen mice through ivermectin treatment. We determined the number and quality of offspring for the mice using paternity analysis...
April 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Muhammad Mazhar Ayaz, Muhammad Sajid, Sanjota Nirmal Das, Muhammad Hanif
Detection of various molecules of drugs remained a prime issue especially in tissues of animals, humans and in their target parasites. The cestode/tapeworms pose a dilemma because of their weird body composition and uptake pattern of nutrients and medicines especially through absorption by tegument. We selected levamisole; thought to be potent antiparasitic/ani-cestodal drug. The uptake of levamisole (LEV) through cestodeal tissues is studied through HPCL in this paper. High performance liquid chromatography technique has been utilized to know the uptake of levamisole in tissues of cestodes of Goat (Monezia expensa) in small ruminants...
May 2018: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Bajpai Trupti, Nandedkar Shirish, Pandey Maneesha, Agrawal Santosh
Spirometra is a genus of pseudophyllidean cestode that reproduces in canines and felines but can cause pathology in humans. When humans harbour plerocercoids of these tapeworms outside the intestine, it can cause sparganosis. We report a case of urinary sparganosis in a young woman, passing multiple spargana worms in her urine. The worm was identified as the plerocercoid larvae of Spirometra spp., and the case was managed successfully.
April 2018: Indian Journal of Urology: IJU: Journal of the Urological Society of India
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