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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689834/towards-a-robust-systematic-baseline-of-neotropical-fish-tapeworms-cestoda-proteocephalidae-amended-diagnoses-of-two-genera-from-the-redtail-catfish-phractocephalus-hemioliopterus
#1
Philippe V Alves, Alain de Chambrier, JosÉ L Luque, TomÁŠ Scholz
Species of two monotypic genera, Ephedrocephalus Diesing, 1850 and Zygobothrium Diesing, 1850 (Cestoda: Proteocephalidae), parasites of one of the most basal members of the catfish family Pimelodidae, the redtail catfish, Phractocephalus hemioliopterus, in the Neotropical Region, are redescribed based on the evaluation of type specimens and newly collected material. Generic diagnoses are amended to provide a robust baseline for the future re-arrangement of the classification of proteocephalid cestodes. Ephedrocephalus is typified by the medullary position of the ovary and uterus, the cortical distribution of vitelline follicles (dispersed throughout almost the entire ventral cortex) and the testes in one dorsal field...
January 12, 2018: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677189/progress-in-the-pharmacological-treatment-of-human-cystic-and-alveolar-echinococcosis-compounds-and-therapeutic-targets
#2
Mar Siles-Lucas, Adriano Casulli, Roberto Cirilli, David Carmena
Human cystic and alveolar echinococcosis are helmintic zoonotic diseases caused by infections with the larval stages of the cestode parasites Echinococcus granulosus and E. multilocularis, respectively. Both diseases are progressive and chronic, and often fatal if left unattended for E. multilocularis. As a treatment approach, chemotherapy against these orphan and neglected diseases has been available for more than 40 years. However, drug options were limited to the benzimidazoles albendazole and mebendazole, the only chemical compounds currently licensed for treatment in humans...
April 20, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649563/isolation-and-characterization-of-a-novel-serine-protease-inhibitor-sjspi-from-schistosoma-japonicum
#3
Ying Zhang, Jin Guo, Li He, Hong-Ying Zong, Guo-Bin Cai
Serine proteinase inhibitor (Serpin, SPI) is a vital superfamily of endogenous inhibitors that monitor proteolytic events active in a number of biological functions. In this study, we isolated a full length gene encoding a novel serine protease inhibitor of Schistosoma japonicum (SjSPI) and characterized its molecular properties. Our result showed that SjSPI contained an open reading frame of 1,218 bp, which encoded 405 amino acid residues. Chromosomal structure analysis showed that SjSPI gene was comprised of six exons separated by five introns...
April 9, 2018: Parasitology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615530/a-edna-qpcr-assay-to-detect-the-presence-of-the-parasite-schistocephalus-solidus-inside-its-threespine-stickleback-host
#4
Chloé Suzanne Berger, Nadia Aubin-Horth
Detecting the presence of a parasite within its host is crucial to the study of host-parasite interactions. The Schistocephalus solidus - threespine stickleback pair has been studied extensively to investigate host phenotypic alterations associated with a parasite with a complex life cycle. This cestode is localized inside the stickleback's abdominal cavity and can be visually detected only once it passes a mass threshold. We present a non-lethal quantitative PCR approach based on detection of environmental DNA from the worm (eDNA), sampled in the fish abdominal cavity...
April 3, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29595890/risk-factors-associated-with-mortality-of-age-0-smallmouth-bass-in-the-susquehanna-river-basin-pennsylvania
#5
Heather L Walsh, Vicki S Blazer, Geoffrey D Smith, Michael Lookenbill, David A Alvarez, Kelly L Smalling
Evidence of disease and mortalities of young of the year (age-0) Smallmouth Bass Micropterus dolomieu has occurred during the late spring and summer in many parts of the Susquehanna River watershed since 2005. To better understand contributing factors, fish collected from multiple areas throughout the watershed as well as out-of-basin reference populations (Allegheny and Delaware River basins; experimental ponds, Kearneysville, West Virginia) were examined grossly and histologically for abnormalities. Tissue contaminant concentrations were determined from whole-body homogenates, and water contaminant concentrations were estimated using time-integrated passive samplers at selected sites...
March 2018: Journal of Aquatic Animal Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29552487/helminth-communities-of-two-populations-of-myotis-chiloensis-chiroptera-vespertilionidae-from-argentinean-patagonia
#6
Antonella C Falconaro, Rocío M Vega, Gustavo P Viozzi
Most of the studies on chiropteran endoparasites in Argentina come from the Central and Northeast regions of the country, and there is only one parasitological study of bats from the Argentinean Patagonia. The aim of this study is to describe the helminth fauna of 42 Myotis chiloensis, comparing the composition and the structure of the endoparasite communities between two populations, inhabiting different environments in Andean humid forest and the ecotone between forest and Patagonian steppe. A total of 697 helminths were recovered from 33 bats: five species of trematodes, Ochoterenatrema sp...
April 2018: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29538487/a-new-species-of-acanthobothrium-eucestoda-onchobothriidae-in-aetobatus-cf-narinari-myliobatidae-from-campeche-m%C3%A3-xico
#7
Erick Rodríguez-Ibarra, Griselda Pulido-Flores, Juan Violante-González, Scott Monks
The helminthological examination of nine individuals of Aetobatus cf. narinari (spotted eagle ray; raya pinta; arraia pintada) revealed the presence of an undescribed species of cestode of the genus Acanthobothrium. The stingrays were collected from four locations in México: Laguna Términos, south of Isla del Carmen and the marine waters north of Isla del Carmen and Champotón, in the State of Campeche, and Isla Holbox, State of Quintana Roo. The new species, nominated Acanthobothrium marquesi, is a category 3 species (i...
March 12, 2018: Revista Brasileira de Parasitologia Veterinária, Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29528298/tapeworm-chromosomes-their-value-in-systematics-with-instructions-for-cytogenetic-study
#8
Martina Orosova, Marta Spakulova
The history and value of cytogenetic features for addressing questions of the evolution and systematics of tapeworms (Cestoda) are briefly reviewed along with instructions for collecting karyological data. As a supplement to worm morphology, chromosome number and morphology have been helpful in determining the systematic status of some genera in the Diphyllobothriidae and species in the Bothriocephallidea. In addition, many new techniques for chromosome analysis have been recently applied in morphological and molecular studies of invertebrates, including tapeworms...
February 23, 2018: Folia Parasitologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29524898/ecotoxicoparasitology-of-the-gastrointestinal-tracts-of-pinnipeds-the-effect-of-parasites-on-the-potential-bioavailability-of-total-mercury-thg
#9
Ashley K McGrew, Todd M O'Hara, Craig A Stricker, Mo D Salman, William Van Bonn, Frances M D Gulland, Alex Whiting, Lora R Ballweber
Acanthocephalans, cestodes, and some species of nematodes acquire nutrients from the lumen contents in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of their definitive host. These parasites are exposed to toxicants, such as mercury (Hg), through passive or active feeding mechanisms; therefore, the focus of this study was to determine if there is an effect of parasites on the dietary availability of total mercury (THg) within piscivorous pinniped hosts. THg concentrations ([THg]) in selected host tissues, parasites, and GI lumen contents from 22 California sea lions (Zalophus californianus), 15 ringed seals (Phoca hispida), and 4 spotted seals (Phoca largha) were determined...
March 7, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29518254/granulomatous-responses-in-larval-taeniid-infections
#10
Álvaro Díaz, Camila Sagasti, Cecilia Casaravilla
Granulomas are responses to persistent nonliving bodies or pathogens, centrally featuring specialized macrophage forms called epithelioid and multinucleated giant cells. The larval stages of the cestode parasites of the taeniidae family (Taenia, Echinococcus) develop for years in fixed tissue sites in mammals. In consequence, they are targets of granulomatous responses. The information on tissue responses to larval taeniids is fragmented among host and parasite species, and scattered over many decades. We attempt to draw an integrated picture of these responses in solid tissues...
March 8, 2018: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29517437/gastrointestinal-parasites-in-captive-and-free-ranging-birds-and-potential-cross-transmission-in-a-zoo-environment
#11
Patricio D Carrera-Játiva, Eric R Morgan, Michelle Barrows, Torsten Wronski
Gastrointestinal parasites are commonly reported in wild birds, but transmission amongst avifauna in zoological settings, and between these captive birds and wild birds in surrounding areas, remains poorly understood. A survey was undertaken to investigate the occurrence of gastrointestinal parasites in captive and free-ranging birds at Bristol Zoo Gardens between May and July 2016. A total of 348 fecal samples from 32 avian species were examined using the Mini-FLOTAC flotation method. Parasites were detected in 31% (45/145) of samples from captive birds and in 65...
March 2018: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29502552/helminths-of-zoonotic-importance-in-slaughtered-food-animals-in-nigeria-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#12
S N Karshima
Knowledge of endemic helminths in a resource-limited country such as Nigeria is essential for their diagnosis, treatment and cost-effective control. In the present study, the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis) guideline was employed to determine the prevalence and geographical distribution of zoonotic helminths in food animals slaughtered in Nigerian abattoirs between 1970 and 2016. Pooled prevalence estimate (PPE) was determined by the random-effects model while heterogeneity was evaluated using the Cochran's Q-test...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Helminthology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462133/clinical-characteristics-and-epidemiology-of-intestinal-tapeworm-infections-over-the-last-decade-in-tokyo-japan-a-retrospective-review
#13
Motoyuki Tsuboi, Kayoko Hayakawa, Hiroshi Yamasaki, Yuichi Katanami, Kei Yamamoto, Satoshi Kutsuna, Nozomi Takeshita, Shuzo Kanagawa, Norio Ohmagari, Yasuyuki Kato
BACKGROUND: Tapeworm (cestode) infections occur worldwide even in developed countries and globalization has further complicated the epidemiology of such infections. Nonetheless, recent epidemiological data on cestode infections are limited. Our objectives were to elucidate the clinical characteristics and epidemiology of diphyllobothriosis and taeniosis in Tokyo, Japan. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We retrospectively reviewed 24 cases of human intestinal cestode infection from January 2006 to December 2015 at a tertiary referral hospital in Tokyo, Japan...
February 20, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458421/epidemiology-of-canine-gastrointestinal-helminths-in-sub-saharan-africa
#14
Nozyechi Ngulube Chidumayo
BACKGROUND: Dogs have a close association with humans providing companionship, security and a source of dietary protein. However, dogs are also potential carriers of zoonotic pathogens. Dogs, therefore, pose a public health risk and a good understanding of canine diseases is important for planning and implementing control measures. The aim of this study was to characterise canine helminthiasis in sub-Saharan Africa using a systematic approach. METHODS: Pubmed and Google Scholar were searched for relevant primary studies published from 2000...
February 20, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448016/intestinal-immunity-suppresses-carrying-capacity-of-rats-for-the-model-tapeworm-hymenolepis-diminuta
#15
Tamio Ohno, Takuya Kai, Yuki Miyasaka, Haruhiko Maruyama, Akira Ishih, Hideto Kino
Hymenolepis diminuta is a parasitic tapeworm of the rat small intestine and is recognized as a useful model for the analysis of cestode-host interactions. In this study, we analyzed factors affecting the biomass of the tapeworm through use of rat strains carrying genetic mutations, namely X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (xscid; T, B and NK cells deficiency), nude (rnu; T cell deficiency), and mast cell deficient rats. The worm biomass of F344-xscid rats after infection with 5 cysticercoids was much larger than control F344 rats from 3 to 8 weeks...
February 12, 2018: Parasitology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444843/testing-the-parasite-mass-burden-effect-on-host-behaviour-alteration-in-the-schistocephalus-stickleback-system
#16
Lucie Grécias, Julie Valentin, Nadia Aubin-Horth
Many parasites with complex life cycles modify their intermediate host's behaviour, which has been proposed to increase transmission to their definitive host. This behavioural change could result from the parasite actively manipulating its host, but could also be explained by a mechanical effect, where the parasite's physical presence affects host behaviour. We created an artificial internal parasite using silicone injections in the body cavity to test this mechanical effect hypothesis. We used the Schistocephalus solidus - threespine stickleback ( Gasterosteus aculeatus ) system, as this cestode can reach up to 92% of its fish host mass...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441842/crowding-in-the-first-intermediate-host-does-not-affect-infection-probability-in-the-second-host-in-two-helminths
#17
D P Benesh
When many worms co-infect the same host, their average size is often reduced. This negative density-dependent growth is called the crowding effect. Crowding has been reported many times for worms in their intermediate hosts, but rarely have the fitness consequences of crowding been examined. This study tested whether larval crowding reduces establishment success in the next host for two parasites with complex life cycles, the nematode Camallanus lacustris and the cestode Schistocephalus solidus. Infected copepods, the first host, were fed to sticklebacks, the second host...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Helminthology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434034/influence-of-alternative-husbandry-systems-on-postmortem-findings-and-prevalence-of-important-bacteria-and-parasites-in-layers-monitored-from-end-of-rearing-until-slaughter
#18
Angelika Zloch, Sabrina Kuchling, Michael Hess, Claudia Hess
In the present study 66 layer flocks housed in different alternative husbandry systems were monitored from placement of birds on the farm until slaughter to evaluate a possible influence on the occurrence of selected non-infectious as well as infectious diseases. Postmortems were performed and the occurrence of extraintestinal Escherichia coli and Gallibacterium anatis was investigated. No specific postmortem findings were seen in pullets. Non-infectious diseases were mainly found in layers. Most prominent postmortem findings in layers were reproductive tract lesions and the presence of intestinal helminths...
February 6, 2018: Veterinary Record
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426469/implications-of-zoonotic-and-vector-borne-parasites-to-free-roaming-cats-in-central-spain
#19
A Montoya, M García, R Gálvez, R Checa, V Marino, J Sarquis, J P Barrera, C Rupérez, L Caballero, C Chicharro, I Cruz, G Miró
Cats are definitive hosts and reservoirs for several parasites, some of which are responsible for serious zoonotic diseases. We conducted a case-control study of data from a trap-neuter-return (TNR) programme (years 2014-2017) designed to examine the prevalence of zoonotic parasites in free-roaming cats living in urban areas of central Spain. In the animal population tested (n = 263), we detected a 29.2% prevalence of endoparasites, including high rates of cestodes (12.9%) and Toxocara cati (11.7%). While faecal samples showed no Toxoplasma gondii oocysts, the seroprevalence of T...
February 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425245/unique-pharmacological-properties-of-serotonergic-g-protein-coupled-receptors-from-cestodes
#20
Federico Camicia, Ana M Celentano, Malcolm E Johns, John D Chan, Lucas Maldonado, Hugo Vaca, Nicolás Di Siervi, Laura Kamentezky, Ana M Gamo, Silvia Ortega-Gutierrez, Mar Martin-Fontecha, Carlos Davio, Jonathan S Marchant, Mara C Rosenzvit
BACKGROUND: Cestodes are a diverse group of parasites, some of them being agents of neglected diseases. In cestodes, little is known about the functional properties of G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) which have proved to be highly druggable targets in other organisms. Notably, serotonergic G-protein coupled receptors (5-HT GPCRs) play major roles in key functions like movement, development and reproduction in parasites. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Three 5-HT GPCRs from Echinococcus granulosus and Mesocestoides corti were cloned, sequenced, bioinformatically analyzed and functionally characterized...
February 9, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
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