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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205508/global-dynamics-of-non-equilibrium-gliding-in-animals
#1
Isaac Yeaton, Jake Socha, Shane Ross
Gliding flight - moving horizontally downward through the air without power - has evolved in a broad diversity of taxa and serves numerous ecologically relevant functions such as predator escape, expanding foraging locations, and finding mates, and has been suggested as an evolutionary pathway to powered flight. Historically, gliding has been conceptualized using the idealized conditions of equilibrium, in which the net aerodynamic force on the glider balances its weight. While this assumption is appealing for its simplicity, recent studies of glide trajectories have shown that equilibrium gliding is not the norm for most species...
February 16, 2017: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192127/long-term-treatment-with-nandrolone-decanoate-impairs-mesenteric-vascular-relaxation-in-both-sedentary-and-exercised-female-rats
#2
Izabela F Caliman, Cristian S Bernabe, Antônio F de Melo, Girlândia A Brasil, Andrews M do Nascimento, Ewelyne M de Lima, Suely G Figueiredo, Tadeu U de Andrade, Nazaré S Bissoli
Nandrolone Decanoate (ND) is an Anabolic Androgenic Steroid (AAS) that under abusive regimen can lead to multiple physiological adverse effects. Studies of AAS-mediated cardiovascular (CV) alterations were mostly taken from male subjects, even though women are also susceptible to the effects of AAS and gender-specific differences in susceptibility to vascular diseases exist. Here we investigate ND-induced vascular reactivity alterations in both sedentary and exercised female rats and whether these alterations depend on endothelium-derived factors...
February 9, 2017: Steroids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182514/assessment-of-impact-and-recovery-needs-in-communities-affected-by-the-elk-river-chemical-spill-west-virginia-april-2014
#3
Sherry L Burrer, Ethan Fechter-Leggett, Tesfaye Bayleyegn, Miguella Mark-Carew, Carrie Thomas, Danae Bixler, Rebecca S Noe, Joy Hsu, Loretta Haddy, Amy Wolkin
OBJECTIVES: In January 2014, 4-methylcyclohexanemethanol spilled into the Elk River near Charleston, West Virginia, contaminating the water supply for about 120 000 households. The West Virginia American Water Company (WVAWC) issued a "do not use" water order for 9 counties. After the order was lifted (10 days after the spill), the communities' use of public water systems, information sources, alternative sources of water, and perceived impact of the spill on households were unclear to public health officials...
January 1, 2017: Public Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182500/validity-of-various-methods-for-determining-velocity-force-and-power-in-the-back-squat
#4
Harry G Banyard, Ken Nosaka, Kimitake Sato, G Gregory Haff
PURPOSE: This investigation examined the validity of two kinematic systems for assessing mean velocity (MV), peak velocity (PV), mean force (MF), peak force (PF), mean power (MP), and peak power (PP) during the full depth free-weight back squat performed with maximal concentric effort. METHODS: Ten strength-trained men (26.1±3.0 y; 1.81±0.07 m; 82.0±10.6 kg) performed three 1-repetition maximum (1RM) trials on three separate days, encompassing lifts performed at six relative intensities including 20, 40, 60, 80, 90, and 100% of 1RM...
February 9, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169153/effects-of-light-load-maximal-lifting-velocity-weight-training-vs-combined-weight-training-and-plyometrics-on-sprint-vertical-jump-and-strength-performance-in-adult-soccer-players
#5
David Rodríguez-Rosell, Julio Torres-Torrelo, Felipe Franco-Márquez, José Manuel González-Suárez, Juan José González-Badillo
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of combined light-load maximal lifting velocity weight training (WT) and plyometric training (PT) with WT alone on strength, jump and sprint performance in semiprofessional soccer players. DESIGN: Experimental, pre-post tests measures. METHODS: Thirty adult soccer players were randomly assigned into three groups: WT alone (FSG, n=10), WT combined to jump and sprint exercises (COM, n=10) and control group (CG, n=10)...
January 24, 2017: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166186/between-session-reliability-of-isometric-mid-thigh-pull-kinetics-and-maximal-power-clean-performance-in-male-youth-soccer-players
#6
Thomas Dos'Santos, Christopher Thomas, Paul Comfort, John J McMahon, Paul A Jones, Nick P Oakley, Ashley L Young
The aim of the study was to determine the between-session reliability of isometric mid-thigh pull (IMTP) kinetics and maximal weight lifted during the power clean (PC) in male youth soccer players, and to identify the smallest detectable differences between sessions. Thirteen male youth soccer players (age: 16.7 ± 0.5 years, height: 1.80 ± 0.08 m, mass: 70.5 ± 9.4 kg) performed three IMTP trials, while only ten soccer players performed maximal power cleans. These were performed twice, separated by 48 hours to examine the between-session reliability...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164055/proximal-tibial-epiphysis-injury-flexion-type-salter-harris-type-1
#7
Pratik Israni, Mangesh Panat
INTRODUCTION: Fractures of the proximal tibial epiphysis rare. It has been estimated that fractures of the upper tibial epiphysis account for 0.5-3.1% of all epiphyseal injuries. Who had no neurovascular deficit, with fixed extension deformity at the left knee was treated early with closed reduction techniques. CASE REPORT: We present a case of a 16-year-old boy who while playing cricket on the road was hit by a car. The patient presented in emergency room with extremely swollen knee and soft tissue swelling (hemarthrosis), he was unable to lift his leg actively due to severe pain because of hamstrings spasm, and he had no wound over his left knee and had no other associated injuries...
September 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163885/flies-compensate-for-unilateral-wing-damage-through-modular-adjustments-of-wing-and-body-kinematics
#8
Florian T Muijres, Nicole A Iwasaki, Michael J Elzinga, Johan M Melis, Michael H Dickinson
Using high-speed videography, we investigated how fruit flies compensate for unilateral wing damage, in which loss of area on one wing compromises both weight support and roll torque equilibrium. Our results show that flies control for unilateral damage by rolling their body towards the damaged wing and by adjusting the kinematics of both the intact and damaged wings. To compensate for the reduction in vertical lift force due to damage, flies elevate wingbeat frequency. Because this rise in frequency increases the flapping velocity of both wings, it has the undesired consequence of further increasing roll torque...
February 6, 2017: Interface Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163873/wake-analysis-of-drag-components-in-gliding-flight-of-a-jackdaw-corvus-monedula-during-moult
#9
Marco KleinHeerenbrink, Anders Hedenström
To maintain the quality of the feathers, birds regularly undergo moult. It is widely accepted that moult affects flight performance, but the specific aerodynamic consequences have received relatively little attention. Here we measured the components of aerodynamic drag from the wake behind a gliding jackdaw (Corvus monedula) at different stages of its natural wing moult. We found that span efficiency was reduced (lift induced drag increased) and the wing profile drag coefficient was increased. Both effects best correlated with the corresponding reduction in spanwise camber...
February 6, 2017: Interface Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135227/systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-predictors-of-military-task-performance-maximal-lift-capacity
#10
Jay R Hydren, Alexander S Borges, Marilyn A Sharp
Physical performance tests (e.g., physical employment tests, return-to-duty tests) are commonly used to predict occupational task performance to assess the ability of individuals to do a job. The purpose of this systematic review was to identify predictive tests that correlate well with maximal lifting capacity in military personnel. Three databases were searched and experts in the field were contacted, resulting in the identification of nine reports confined to military personnel that presented correlations between predictor tests and job tasks that measured maximal lift capacity...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134956/long-thoracic-nerve-injury-caused-by-overhead-weight-lifting-leading-to-scapular-dyskinesis-and-medial-scapular-winging
#11
Justin B Berthold, Timothy M Burg, Ryan Paul Nussbaum
Scapular winging represents a rare phenomenon that most commonly results from nerve damage to either the long thoracic nerve, spinal accessory nerve, or, less commonly, the dorsal scapular nerve. This injury results in an abnormal scapulohumeral interaction during kinetic motion known as scapular dyskinesis. In this case report, the patient presented with scapular dyskinesis and medial scapular winging caused by overhead weight-lifting exercises, and a long thoracic nerve injury was diagnosed. Physicians are encouraged to consider long thoracic nerve damage in a patient with a history of repetitive overhead movements who presents with scapular dyskinesis and the corresponding restriction of overhead arm motions...
February 1, 2017: Journal of the American Osteopathic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131329/a-cross-sectional-study-investigating-weight-management-motivations-methods-and-perceived-healthy-eating-and-physical-activity-influences-in-women-up-to-five-years-following-childbirth
#12
Lisa Vincze, Megan E Rollo, Melinda J Hutchesson, Tracy L Burrows, Lesley MacDonald-Wicks, Michelle Blumfield, Clare E Collins
OBJECTIVE: to explore motivations for weight change, weight loss methods used and factors perceived to influence healthy eating and physical activity for weight management following childbirth, and to evaluate differences by socio-demographic, weight status and pregnancy characteristics. DESIGN: cross-sectional online survey completed from May to August 2013. PARTICIPANTS: Australian women (n=874, aged 32.8±4.5 years, pre-pregnancy Body Mass Index 25...
January 14, 2017: Midwifery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129170/scaled-jump-in-gravity-reduced-virtual-environments
#13
MyoungGon Kim, SungIk Cho, Tanh Tran, Seong-Pil Kim, Ohung Kwon, JungHyun Han
The reduced gravity experienced in lunar or Martian surfaces can be simulated on the earth using a cable-driven system, where the cable lifts a person to reduce his or her weight. This paper presents a novel cable-driven system designed for the purpose. It is integrated with a head-mounted display and a motion capture system. Focusing on jump motion within the system, this paper proposes to scale the jump and reports the experiments made for quantifying the extent to which a jump can be scaled without the discrepancy between physical and virtual jumps being noticed by the user...
January 23, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124711/direct-visualization-of-particle-attachment-to-a-pendant-drop
#14
C Li, J A Simmons, M Moradiafrapoli, J O Marston
An experimental investigation is carried out into the attachment of a single particle to a liquid drop. High-speed videography is used to directly visualize the so-called 'snap-in' effect which occurs rapidly over sub-millisecond timescales. Using high-magnification, the evolution of the contact line around the particle is tracked and dynamic features such as the contact angle, wetted radius and force are extracted from these images to help build a fundamental understanding of the process. By examining the wetted length in terms of an arc angle, ϕ, it is shown that the early wetting stage is an inertial-dominated process and best described by a power law relation, i...
January 26, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121261/occupational-injuries-and-exposures-among-emergency-medical-services-workers
#15
Audrey A Reichard, Suzanne M Marsh, Theresa R Tonozzi, Srinivas Konda, Mirinda A Gormley
OBJECTIVE: Emergency medical services (EMS) workers incur occupational injuries at a higher rate than the general worker population. This study describes the circumstances of occupational injuries and exposures among EMS workers to guide injury prevention efforts. METHODS: The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health collaborated with the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration to conduct a follow-back survey of injured EMS workers identified from a national sample of hospital emergency departments (EDs) from July 2010 through June 2014...
January 25, 2017: Prehospital Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120805/behavioural-adaptations-to-flight-into-thin-air
#16
Sherub Sherub, Gil Bohrer, Martin Wikelski, Rolf Weinzierl
Soaring raptors can fly at high altitudes of up to 9000 m. The behavioural adjustments to high-altitude flights are largely unknown. We studied thermalling flights of Himalayan vultures (Gyps himalayensis) from 50 to 6500 m above sea level, a twofold range of air densities. To create the necessary lift to support the same weight and maintain soaring flight in thin air birds might modify lift coefficient by biophysical changes, such as wing posture and increasing the power expenditure. Alternatively, they can change their flight characteristics...
October 2016: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118307/neuromuscular-and-cardiovascular-adaptations-in-response-to-high-intensity-interval-power-training
#17
Salvador Romero-Arenas, Rubén Ruiz, Antonio Vera, David Colomer-Poveda, Amelia Guadalupe Grau, Gonzalo Márquez
The aim of the present study was to determine the efficacy of a high-intensity power training (HIPT) program, and to compare the effects of HIPT to traditional power training (TPT) on the aerobic and power performance. For this purpose, 29 healthy men (23.1±2.7 years) were recruited and randomly distributed into three different groups. One group performed traditional power training (TPT n=10), the second group performed power training organized as a circuit (HIPT; n=10) and the third group served as control (CG; n=9)...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28113306/a-3-rsr-haptic-wearable-device-for-rendering-fingertip-contact-forces
#18
Daniele Leonardis, Massimiliano Solazzi, Ilaria Bortone, Antonio Frisoli
A novel wearable haptic device for modulating contact forces at the fingertip is presented. Rendering of forces by skin deformation in 3 degrees of freedom (DoF), with contact - no contact capabilities, was implemented through rigid parallel kinematics. The novel asymmetrical three revolute-spherical-revolute (3-RSR) configuration allowed compact dimensions with minimum encumbrance of the hand workspace. The device was designed to render constant to low frequency deformation of the fingerpad in 3 DoF, combining light weight with relatively high output forces...
December 15, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Haptics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107658/validation-of-a-personalized-curved-muscle-model-of-the-lumbar-spine-during-complex-dynamic-exertions
#19
Jaejin Hwang, Gregory G Knapik, Jonathan S Dufour, Thomas M Best, Safdar N Khan, Ehud Mendel, William S Marras
Previous curved muscle models have typically examined their robustness only under simple, single-plane static exertions. In addition, the empirical validation of curved muscle models through an entire lumbar spine has not been fully realized. The objective of this study was to empirically validate a personalized biologically-assisted curved muscle model during complex dynamic exertions. Twelve subjects performed a variety of complex lifting tasks as a function of load weight, load origin, and load height. Both a personalized curved muscle model as well as a straight-line muscle model were used to evaluate the model's fidelity and prediction of three-dimensional spine tissue loads under different lifting conditions...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099278/recurrent-median-nerve-injury-in-a-weight-lifter
#20
Michael A Worobel, Bobby Alexander, Mark Hirsch, Vu Nguyen
Recurrent median neuropathy is an uncommon injury that can be commonly mistaken for other pathological causes. It is important to be aware of the potential causes and symptoms of injury as delay in diagnosis can lead to permanent decrease in hand function and disability. This case is a description of a 33-year-old male patient who previously presented with radicular symptoms and had complete resolution of his pain after a C7 selective nerve root block. Several months after presentation, he developed significant thenar atrophy, localized pain, and weakness associated with weight lifting activities...
February 2017: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
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