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Large granulocytic leukemia

Uroosa Ibrahim, Sara Parylo, Shiksha Kedia, Shafinaz Hussein, Jean Paul Atallah
Large granular lymphocytic (LGL) leukemia is a rare form of low grade leukemia characterized by large cytotoxic T cells or natural killer cells on morphological examination. Immunosuppressive therapy is employed as first-line therapy. Treatment options in refractory cases include the anti-CD52 antibody alemtuzumab and purine analogues. We report a rare case that responded to the anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody rituximab. A 77-year-old female presented with complaints of fatigue, fever, and chills of 3 months' duration...
2017: Case Reports in Hematology
Qian Fan, Hui Liu, Xinquan Liang, Ting Yang, Zhiping Fan, Fen Huang, Yiwen Ling, Xin Liao, Li Xuan, Na Xu, Xiaojun Xu, Jieyu Ye, Qifa Liu
BACKGROUND: Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF)-mobilized peripheral blood stem cells (G-PBSC) has largely replaced unstimulated bone marrow (un-BM) for allografting because of accelerated engraftment, but with a higher morbidity and mortality of graft-versus-host-disease (GVHD). Recent studies suggested that G-CSF-primed BM (G-BM) had similar engraftment but lower morbidity and mortality of GVHD comparing to G-PBSC. A prospective, randomized, multicenter study was conducted to compare G-BM with G-PBSC as the grafts in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) for acute leukemia in first complete remission (CR1)...
July 4, 2017: Journal of Hematology & Oncology
Eric Solary, Raphael Itzykson
Chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) is a clonal hematopoietic malignancy that may deserve specific management. Defined by a persistent peripheral blood monocytosis ≥1 × 10(9)/L and monocytes accounting for ≥10% of the white blood cells, this aging-associated disease combines cell proliferation as a consequence of myeloid progenitor hypersensitivity to granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor with myeloid cell dysplasia and ineffective hematopoiesis. The only curative option for CMML remains allogeneic stem cell transplantation...
July 13, 2017: Blood
Weili Liu, Ting Li, Pingzhang Wang, Wanchang Liu, Fujun Liu, Xiaoning Mo, Zhengyang Liu, Quansheng Song, Ping Lv, Guorui Ruan, Wenling Han
Leukocyte differentiation antigens (LDAs) play important roles in the immune system, by serving as surface markers and participating in multiple biological activities, such as recognizing pathogens, mediating membrane signals, interacting with other cells or systems, and regulating cell differentiation and activation. Data mining is a powerful tool used to identify novel LDAs from whole genome. LRRC25 (leucine rich repeat-containing 25) was predicted to have a role in the function of myeloid cells by a large-scale "omics" data analysis...
May 23, 2017: Protein & Cell
Anh-Minh Tran, Thanh-Thao Nguyen, Cong-Thuan Nguyen, Xuan-Mai Huynh-Thi, Cao-Tri Nguyen, Minh-Thuong Trinh, Linh-Thuoc Tran, Stephanie P Cartwright, Roslyn M Bill, Hieu Tran-Van
BACKGROUND: Recombinant human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (rhGM-CSF) is a glycoprotein that has been approved by the FDA for the treatment of neutropenia and leukemia in combination with chemotherapies. Recombinant hGM-CSF is produced industrially using the baker's yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, by large-scale fermentation. The methylotrophic yeast, Pichia pastoris, has emerged as an alternative host cell system due to its shorter and less immunogenic glycosylation pattern together with higher cell density growth and higher secreted protein yield than S...
April 4, 2017: BMC Research Notes
Anna C Salzberg, Abigail Harris-Becker, Evgenya Y Popova, Nikki Keasey, Thomas P Loughran, David F Claxton, Sergei A Grigoryev
A facultative heterochromatin mark, histone H3 lysine 9 dimethylation (H3K9me2), which is mediated by histone methyltransferases G9a/GLP (EHMT2/1), undergoes dramatic rearrangements during myeloid cell differentiation as observed by chromatin imaging. To determine whether these structural transitions also involve genomic repositioning of H3K9me2, we used ChIP-sequencing to map genome-wide topography of H3K9me2 in normal human granulocytes, normal CD34+ hematopoietic progenitors, primary myeloblasts from acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients, and a model leukemia cell line K562...
2017: PloS One
Hung N Nguyen, Erika H Noss, Fumitaka Mizoguchi, Christine Huppertz, Kevin S Wei, Gerald F M Watts, Michael B Brenner
Fibroblasts are major contributors to and regulators of inflammation and dominant producers of interleukin-6 (IL-6) in inflammatory diseases like rheumatoid arthritis. Yet, compared to leukocytes, the regulation of inflammatory pathways in fibroblasts is largely unknown. Here, we report that analyses of genes coordinately upregulated with IL-6 pointed to STAT4 and leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) as potentially linked. Gene silencing revealed that STAT4 was required for IL-6 transcription. STAT4 was recruited to the IL-6 promoter after fibroblast activation, and LIF receptor (LIFR) and STAT4 formed a molecular complex that, together with JAK1 and TYK2 kinases, controlled STAT4 activation...
February 21, 2017: Immunity
N Nakagawa, H Yamazaki, G Aoki, Y Kondo, S Nakao
BACKGROUND: Large granular lymphocyte (LGL) expansion occasionally occurs after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT), and is thought to be a good prognostic sign that is associated with a lower relapse rate. However, there have been no reports of late graft failure (LGF) due to graft rejection in association with oligoclonal LGL expansion. We herein report a case of LGF associated with the transient expansion of recipient-derived T-LGL after allo-SCT. CASE REPORT: A 65-year-old man underwent peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT) from his human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-haploidentical son for the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia, which had evolved from a myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS)...
November 2016: Transplantation Proceedings
W Liu, M Wu, Z Huang, J Lian, J Chen, T Wang, A Y H Leung, Y Liao, Z Zhang, Q Liu, K Yen, S Lin, L I Zon, Z Wen, Y Zhang, W Zhang
The c-MYB transcription factor is a key regulator of hematopoietic cell proliferation and differentiation, and dysregulation of c-MYB activity often associates with various hematological disorders. Yet, its pathogenic role remains largely unknown due to lack of suitable animal models. Here, we report a detail characterization of a c-myb-gfp transgenic zebrafish harboring c-Myb hyperactivity (named c-myb(hyper)). This line exhibits abnormal granulocyte expansion that resembles human myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) from embryonic stage to adulthood...
January 2017: Leukemia: Official Journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K
Imane Azzaoui, Fabrice Uhel, Delphine Rossille, Celine Pangault, Joelle Dulong, Jerome Le Priol, Thierry Lamy, Roch Houot, Steven Le Gouill, Guillaume Cartron, Pascal Godmer, Krimo Bouabdallah, Noel Milpied, Gandhi Damaj, Karin Tarte, Thierry Fest, Mikael Roussel
In diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), the number of circulating monocytes and neutrophils represents an independent prognostic factor. These cell subsets include monocytic and granulocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells (M- and G-MDSCs) defined by their ability to suppress T-cell responses. MDSCs are a heterogeneous population described in inflammatory and infectious diseases and in numerous tumors including multiple myeloma, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, and DLBCL. However, their mechanisms of action remain unclear...
August 25, 2016: Blood
A C Herman, D A Monlish, M P Romine, S T Bhatt, S Zippel, L G Schuettpelz
Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) is a member of the TLR family of receptors that play a central role in innate immunity. In addition to regulating effector immune cells, where it recognizes a wide variety of pathogen-associated and nonpathogen-associated endogenous ligands, TLR2 is expressed in hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). Its role in HSCs, however, is not well understood. Furthermore, augmented TLR2 signaling is associated with myelodysplastic syndrome, an HSC disorder characterized by ineffective hematopoiesis and a high risk of transformation to leukemia, suggesting that aberrant signaling through this receptor may have clinically significant effects on HSCs...
June 17, 2016: Blood Cancer Journal
Nathan Gossai, Rachel Cafferty, Brenda Weigel
Granulocytic sarcoma (GS) is a rare manifestation of myeloid proliferation, characterized by formation of a mass comprised of immature cells of myeloid origin. Orbital granulocytic sarcoma is rarer still, with only a small fraction of GS patients having orbital involvement. Given the rarity of orbital GS, no unified therapy plan has been identified, as large prospective trials are not feasible, but it is widely accepted that patients with GS ought to be treated with systemic intensive chemotherapy consistent with standard of care regimens for acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) or chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML)...
July 2016: Current Treatment Options in Oncology
Maksim Klimiankou, Sabine Mellor-Heineke, Cornelia Zeidler, Karl Welte, Julia Skokowa
Acquired mutations in the intracellular part of CSF3R (colony stimulating factor 3 receptor, granulocyte) have been detected with a frequency of more than 30% in severe congenital neutropenia (CN) patients. CN is a preleukemic syndrome with a risk of approximately 20% to develop leukemia. More than 80% of CN patients who develop acute myeloid leukemia or myelodysplastic syndrome reveal CSF3R mutations, suggesting that they are involved in leukemogenesis. Using deep-sequencing technology, we were able to analyze large cohorts of CN patients for the entire CSF3R sequence as well as to identify cell clones carrying mutations in the intracellular part of CSF3R with very high sensitivity...
April 2016: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Taghreed Hirz, Charles Dumontet
Neutrophils are the most abundant (40% to 75%) type of white blood cells and among the first inflammatory cells to migrate towards the site of inflammation. They are key players in the innate immune system and play major roles in cancer biology. Neutrophils have been proposed as key mediators of malignant transformation, tumor progression, angiogenesis and in the modulation of the antitumor immunity; through their release of soluble factors or their interaction with tumor cells. To characterize the specific functions of neutrophils, a fast and reliable method is coveted for in vitro isolation of neutrophils from human blood...
March 25, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Li-Fen Huang, Chia-Chun Tan, Ju-Fang Yeh, Hsin-Yi Liu, Yu-Kuo Liu, Shin-Lon Ho, Chung-An Lu
Plant-based expression systems have emerged as a competitive platform in the large-scale production of recombinant proteins. By adding a signal peptide, αAmy3sp, the desired recombinant proteins can be secreted outside transgenic rice cells, making them easy to harvest. In this work, to improve the secretion efficiency of recombinant proteins in rice expression systems, various signal peptides including αAmy3sp, CIN1sp, and 33KDsp have been fused to the N-terminus of green fluorescent protein (GFP) and introduced into rice cells to explore the efficiency of secretion of foreign proteins...
2015: PloS One
Wasithep Limvorapitak, Thana Khawcharoenporn
A 6-year retrospective cohort study was conducted among Thai hematologic malignancy (HM) patients receiving intensive chemotherapy. Of the 145 eligible patients receiving 893 chemotherapy sessions, 46.9% were female, median age was 52 years, and the most common HM diagnosis was diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (46.2%). Febrile neutropenia (FN) occurred in 14.9% of chemotherapy sessions with an incidence of 24.8 per 1,000 chemotherapy cycles per year. Independent factors associated with FN were receiving the first chemotherapy cycle [adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) 4...
2015: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
Xiaobang Hu, Imran Shahab, Isador H Lieberman
Study Design Case report. Objective Myeloid sarcoma (also known as chloroma) is a rare, extramedullary tumor composed of immature granulocytic cells. It may occur early in the course of acute or chronic leukemia or myeloproliferative disorders. Spinal cord invasion by myeloid sarcoma is rare. The authors report a rare case of spinal myeloid sarcoma presenting as cervical radiculopathy. Methods A previously healthy 43-year-old man presented with progressive neck, right shoulder, and arm pain. Cervical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a very large enhancing extradural soft tissue mass extending from C7 through T1, with severe narrowing of the thecal sac at the T1 level...
June 2015: Global Spine Journal
Xiao-Rong Ma, Jin Wang, Wang-Gang Zhang, Yin-Xia Chen, Xing-Mei Cao, Ai-Li He, Jie Liu, Jian-Li Wang, Liu-Fang Gu, Bo Lei, Peng-Yu Zhang, Wan-Hong Zhao, Yun Yang, Fang-Xia Wang, Yan Xu
OBJECTIVE: To explore the clinical efficacy and adverse effects of GHA(G-CSF+homoharringtonin+cytarabine C) and new combined priming chemotherapeutic regimens(GHAA/GHTA) with high efficacy and low toxicity for treatment of relapsed and refractory acute myeloid leukemia(AML) and myelodysplastic syndrome(MDS), and to analyze the relation of above-mentioned regimens with the expression of co-stimuolating molecule B7.1. METHODS: Standard GHA regimen consisting of G-CSF: 100 µg/(m2·d) subcutaneous injection, d 0-14; homoharringtonine: 1...
April 2015: Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue za Zhi
R F Olsson, B R Logan, S Chaudhury, X Zhu, G Akpek, B J Bolwell, C N Bredeson, C C Dvorak, V Gupta, V T Ho, H M Lazarus, D I Marks, O T H Ringdén, M C Pasquini, J R Schriber, K R Cooke
Clinical outcomes after primary graft failure (PGF) remain poor. Here we present a large retrospective analysis (n=23,272) which investigates means to prevent PGF and early detection of patients at high risk. In patients with hematologic malignancies, who underwent their first myeloablative allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation, PGF was reported in 1278 (5.5%), and there was a marked difference in PGFs using peripheral blood stem cell compared with bone marrow grafts (2.5 vs 7.3%; P<0.001). A fourfold increase of PGF was observed in myeloproliferative disorders compared with acute leukemia (P<0...
August 2015: Leukemia: Official Journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K
Sunyoung Lee, Pouya Khankhanian, Carlos Salama, Maritza Brown, Joseph Lieber
Pseudo-Pelger-Huët anomaly (PHA) refers to mono- or bi-lobed granulocytes, reportedly observed in patients with severe infections and inflammation or hematological malignancies including myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) or acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Dysplastic changes in granulocytes are typical manifestations in MDS and granulocytic leukemias. Here, we report the unique case of a patient found to have human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA), a tick-borne disease caused by Anaplasma phagocytophilum, a Gram-negative coccobacillus...
July 2015: International Journal of Hematology
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