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Plasmodium falciparum

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775852/biomimetic-magnetoelectric-nanocrystals-synthesized-by-polymerization-of-heme-as-advanced-nanomaterials-for-biosensing-application
#1
Jeong Eun Hyeon, Da Woon Jeong, Young Jin Ko, Seung Wook Kim, Chulhwan Park, Sung Ok Han
Regardless of the malaria disease risk, the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum has an interesting mechanism. During its growth within the red blood cell, toxic free heme is converted into an insoluble crystalline form called the malaria pigment, or hemozoin. In particular, natural hemozoin nanocrystals can provide multiple applications in biosensing fields for health care and diagnosis as similar to artificial metal nanoparticles. In this study, the heme was biologically synthesized and polymerized by Corynebacterium glutamicum and final polymer was applied as a biomimetic conductive biopolymer...
May 10, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775797/functional-screening-of-selective-mitochondrial-inhibitors-of-plasmodium
#2
Maria G Gomez-Lorenzo, Ane Rodríguez-Alejandre, Sonia Moliner-Cubel, María Martínez-Hoyos, Noemí Bahamontes-Rosa, Rubén Gonzalez Del Rio, Carolina Ródenas, Jesús de la Fuente, Jose Luis Lavandera, Jose F García-Bustos, Alfonso Mendoza-Losana
Phenotypic screening has produced most of the new chemical entities currently in clinical development for malaria, plus many lead compounds active against Plasmodium falciparum asexual stages. However, lack of knowledge about the mode of action of these compounds delays and may even hamper their future development. Identifying the mode of action of the inhibitors greatly helps to prioritise compounds for further development as novel antimalarials. Here we describe a whole-cell method to detect inhibitors of the mitochondrial electron transport chain, using oxygen consumption as high throughput readout in 384-well plate format...
May 9, 2018: International Journal for Parasitology, Drugs and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775485/plasmodium-parasite-exploits-host-aquaporin-3-during-liver-stage-malaria-infection
#3
Dora Posfai, Kayla Sylvester, Anupama Reddy, Jack G Ganley, Johannes Wirth, Quinlan E Cullen, Tushar Dave, Nobutaka Kato, Sandeep S Dave, Emily R Derbyshire
Within the liver a single Plasmodium parasite transforms into thousands of blood-infective forms to cause malaria. Here, we use RNA-sequencing to identify host genes that are upregulated upon Plasmodium berghei infection of hepatocytes with the hypothesis that host pathways are hijacked to benefit parasite development. We found that expression of aquaporin-3 (AQP3), a water and glycerol channel, is significantly induced in Plasmodium-infected hepatocytes compared to uninfected cells. This aquaglyceroporin localizes to the parasitophorous vacuole membrane, the compartmental interface between the host and pathogen, with a temporal pattern that correlates with the parasite's expansion in the liver...
May 18, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774074/placenta-specific-drug-delivery-by-trophoblast-targeted-nanoparticles-in-mice
#4
Baozhen Zhang, Lunbo Tan, Yan Yu, Baobei Wang, Zhilong Chen, Jinyu Han, Mengxia Li, Jie Chen, Tianxia Xiao, Balamurali K Ambati, Lintao Cai, Qing Yang, Nihar R Nayak, Jian Zhang, Xiujun Fan
Rationale: The availability of therapeutics to treat pregnancy complications is severely lacking, mainly due to the risk of harm to the fetus. In placental malaria, Plasmodium falciparum- infected erythrocytes (IEs) accumulate in the placenta by adhering to chondroitin sulfate A (CSA) on the surfaces of trophoblasts. Based on this principle, we have developed a method for targeted delivery of payloads to the placenta using a synthetic placental CSA-binding peptide (plCSA-BP) derived from VAR2CSA, a CSA-binding protein expressed on IEs...
2018: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773818/predicting-transmission-blocking-potential-of-anti-malarial-compounds-in-the-mosquito-feeding-assay-using-plasmodium-falciparum-male-gamete-inhibition-assay
#5
Gonzalo Colmenarejo, Sonia Lozano, Carolina González-Cortés, David Calvo, Juliana Sanchez-Garcia, Jesús-Luís Presa Matilla, Didier Leroy, Janneth Rodrigues
Plasmodium falciparum Standard Membrane Feeding Assay (PfSMFA) is the current gold standard mosquito based confirmatory transmission blocking (TrB) assay for human malaria. However, owing to its complexity only selected gametocytocidal molecules are progressed into SMFA. Predictive tools for evaluation of TrB behavior of compounds in SMFA would be extremely beneficial, but lack of substantially large data sets from many mosquito feeds preempts the ability to perform correlations between outcomes from in vitro assays and SMFA...
May 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771281/high-risk-of-plasmodium-vivax-malaria-following-splenectomy-in-papua-indonesia
#6
Steven Kho, Benediktus Andries, Jeanne R Poespoprodjo, Robert J Commons, Putu A I Shanti, Enny Kenangalem, Nicholas M Douglas, Julie A Simpson, Paulus Sugiarto, Nicholas M Anstey, Ric N Price
Background: Splenectomy increase the risk of severe and fatal infections, however the risk of Plasmodium vivax malaria is unknown. We quantified the Plasmodium species-specific risks of malaria and other outcomes following splenectomy in patients attending a hospital in Papua, Indonesia. Methods: Records of all patients attending Mitra-Masyarakat Hospital 2004-2013 were reviewed, identifying those who underwent splenectomy. Subsequent risks of specific clinical outcomes within 12 months for splenectomized patients were compared to non-splenectomized patients from their first recorded hospital admission...
May 16, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770278/-2tm-proteins-an-antigenically-diverse-superfamily-with-variable-functions-and-export-pathways
#7
Jasweer Kaur, Rachna Hora
Malaria is a disease that affects millions of people annually. An intracellular habitat and lack of protein synthesizing machinery in erythrocytes pose numerous difficulties for survival of the human pathogen Plasmodium falciparum . The parasite refurbishes the infected red blood cell (iRBC) by synthesis and export of several proteins in an attempt to suffice its metabolic needs and evade the host immune response. Immune evasion is largely mediated by surface display of highly polymorphic protein families known as variable surface antigens...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769448/tlr-adjuvanted-nanoparticle-vaccines-differentially-influence-the-quality-and-longevity-of-responses-to-malaria-antigen-pfs25
#8
Elizabeth A Thompson, Sebastian Ols, Kazutoyo Miura, Kelly Rausch, David L Narum, Mats Spångberg, Michal Juraska, Ulrike Wille-Reece, Amy Weiner, Randall F Howard, Carole A Long, Patrick E Duffy, Lloyd Johnston, Conlin P O'Neil, Karin Loré
Transmission-blocking vaccines (TBVs) are considered an integral element of malaria eradication efforts. Despite promising evaluations of Plasmodium falciparum Pfs25-based TBVs in mice, clinical trials have failed to induce robust and long-lived Ab titers, in part due to the poorly immunogenic nature of Pfs25. Using nonhuman primates, we demonstrate that multiple aspects of Pfs25 immunity were enhanced by antigen encapsulation in poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)-based [(PLGA)-based] synthetic vaccine particles (SVP[Pfs25]) and potent TLR-based adjuvants...
May 17, 2018: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769075/microclimate-variables-of-the-ambient-environment-deliver-the-actual-estimates-of-the-extrinsic-incubation-period-of-plasmodium-vivax-and-plasmodium-falciparum-a-study-from-a-malaria-endemic-urban-setting-chennai-in-india
#9
Shalu Thomas, Sangamithra Ravishankaran, N A Johnson Amala Justin, Aswin Asokan, T Maria Jusler Kalsingh, Manu Thomas Mathai, Neena Valecha, Jacqui Montgomery, Matthew B Thomas, Alex Eapen
BACKGROUND: Environmental factors such as temperature, relative humidity and their daily variation influence a range of mosquito life history traits and hence, malaria transmission. The standard way of characterizing environmental factors with meteorological station data need not be the actual microclimates experienced by mosquitoes within local transmission settings. METHODS: A year-long study was conducted in Chennai, India to characterize local temperature and relative humidity (RH)...
May 16, 2018: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768491/plasmodium-falciparum-dipeptidyl-aminopeptidase-3-activity-is-important-for-efficient-erythrocyte-invasion-by-the-malaria-parasite
#10
Christine Lehmann, Michele Ser Ying Tan, Laura E de Vries, Ilaria Russo, Mateo Isidrio Sanchez, Daniel E Goldberg, Edgar Deu
Parasite egress from infected erythrocytes and invasion of new red blood cells are essential processes for the exponential asexual replication of the malaria parasite. These two tightly coordinated events take place in less than a minute and are in part regulated and mediated by proteases. Dipeptidyl aminopeptidases (DPAPs) are papain-fold cysteine proteases that cleave dipeptides from the N-terminus of protein substrates. DPAP3 was previously suggested to play an essential role in parasite egress. However, little is known about its enzymatic activity, intracellular localization, or biological function...
May 16, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768173/peek-peak-pique-repeating-motifs-of-subtle-variance-are-targets-for-potent-malaria-antibodies
#11
Stephen W Scally, Jean-Philippe Julien
Biomedical interventions to curb malaria-causing Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) infections are critically needed. Two studies in Nature Medicine,Kisalu et al. (2018) and Tan et al. (2018), report the isolation of potent human antibodies that target a new epitope on Pf sporozoites and mediate effective parasite inhibition in pre-clinical models.
May 15, 2018: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767625/correction-quantifying-the-contribution-of-plasmodium-falciparum-malaria-to-febrile-illness-amongst-african-children
#12
Ursula Dalrymple, Ewan Cameron, Samir Bhatt, Daniel J Weiss, Sunetra Gupta, Peter W Gething
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 16, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765991/immune-response-and-evasion-mechanisms-of-plasmodium-falciparum-parasites
#13
REVIEW
Esmael Besufikad Belachew
Malaria causes approximately 212 million cases and 429 thousand deaths annually. Plasmodium falciparum is responsible for the vast majority of deaths (99%) than others. The virulence of P. falciparum is mostly associated with immune response-evading ability. It has different mechanisms to evade both Anopheles mosquito and human host immune responses. Immune-evading mechanisms in mosquito depend mainly on the Pfs47 gene that inhibits Janus kinase-mediated activation. Host complement factor also protects human complement immune attack of extracellular gametes in Anopheles mosquito midgut...
2018: Journal of Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765020/changes-in-genome-organization-of-parasite-specific-gene-families-during-the-plasmodium-transmission-stages
#14
Evelien M Bunnik, Kate B Cook, Nelle Varoquaux, Gayani Batugedara, Jacques Prudhomme, Anthony Cort, Lirong Shi, Chiara Andolina, Leila S Ross, Declan Brady, David A Fidock, Francois Nosten, Rita Tewari, Photini Sinnis, Ferhat Ay, Jean-Philippe Vert, William Stafford Noble, Karine G Le Roch
The development of malaria parasites throughout their various life cycle stages is coordinated by changes in gene expression. We previously showed that the three-dimensional organization of the Plasmodium falciparum genome is strongly associated with gene expression during its replication cycle inside red blood cells. Here, we analyze genome organization in the P. falciparum and P. vivax transmission stages. Major changes occur in the localization and interactions of genes involved in pathogenesis and immune evasion, host cell invasion, sexual differentiation, and master regulation of gene expression...
May 15, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764843/poorly-cytotoxic-terminally-differentiated-cd56-neg-cd16-pos-nk-cells-accumulate-in-kenyan-children-with-burkitt-lymphomas
#15
Catherine S Forconi, Cormac P Cosgrove, Pryia Saikumar-Lakshmi, Christina E Nixon, Joslyn Foley, John Michael Ong'echa, Juliana A Otieno, Galit Alter, Christian Münz, Ann M Moormann
Natural killer (NK) cells are critical for restricting viral infections and mediating tumor immunosurveillance. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and Plasmodium falciparum malaria are known risk factors for endemic Burkitt lymphoma (eBL), the most common childhood cancer in equatorial Africa. To date, the composition and function of NK cells have not been evaluated in eBL etiology or pathogenesis. Therefore, using multiparameter flow cytometry and in vitro killing assays, we compared NK cells from healthy children and children diagnosed with eBL in Kenya...
May 22, 2018: Blood Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764451/phenotypic-and-genotypic-characterization-of-thai-isolates-of-plasmodium-falciparum-after-an-artemisinin-resistance-containment-project
#16
Thunyapit Thita, Pimrat Jadsri, Jarupatr Thamkhantho, Toon Ruang-Areerate, Nantana Suwandittakul, Naruemon Sitthichot, Kittiya Mahotorn, Peerapan Tan-Ariya, Mathirut Mungthin
BACKGROUND: In Thailand, artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) has been used to treat uncomplicated falciparum malaria since 1995. Unfortunately, artemisinin resistance has been reported from Thailand and other Southeast Asian countries since 2003. Malarone® , a combination of atovaquone-proguanil (ATQ-PG), has been used to cease artemisinin pressure in some areas along Thai-Cambodia border, as part of an artemisinin resistance containment project since 2009. This study aimed to determine genotypes and phenotypes of Plasmodium falciparum isolates collected from the Thai-Cambodia border after the artemisinin resistance containment project compared with those collected before...
May 15, 2018: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764433/detection-of-anopheles-rivulorum-like-a-member-of-the-anopheles-funestus-group-in-south-africa
#17
Joel Mouatcho, Anthony J Cornel, Yael Dahan-Moss, Lizette L Koekemoer, Maureen Coetzee, Leo Braack
BACKGROUND: The Anopheles gambiae sensu lato (s.l.) and Anopheles funestus s.l. species complexes contain the most important malaria vectors in Africa. Within the An. funestus group of at least 11 African species, the vector status of all but the nominal species An. funestus appears poorly investigated, although evidence exists that Anopheles rivulorum and Anopheles vaneedeni may play minor roles. A new species, An. rivulorum-like, was described from Burkina Faso in 2000 and subsequently also found in Cameroon and Zambia...
May 15, 2018: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764422/hmmibd-software-to-infer-pairwise-identity-by-descent-between-haploid-genotypes
#18
Stephen F Schaffner, Aimee R Taylor, Wesley Wong, Dyann F Wirth, Daniel E Neafsey
BACKGROUND: A number of recent malaria studies have used identity by descent (IBD) to study epidemiological processes relevant to malaria control. In this paper, a software package, hmmIBD, is introduced for estimating pairwise IBD between haploid genomes, such as those of the malaria parasite, sampled from one or two populations. Source code is freely available. METHODS: The performance of hmmIBD was verified using simulated data and benchmarked against an existing method for detecting IBD within populations...
May 15, 2018: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764419/pyronaridine-artesunate-and-artemether-lumefantrine-for-the-treatment-of-uncomplicated-plasmodium-falciparum-malaria-in-kenyan-children-a-randomized-controlled-non-inferiority-trial
#19
Johanna M Roth, Patrick Sawa, Nicodemus Makio, George Omweri, Victor Osoti, Selpha Okach, Felix Choy, Henk D F H Schallig, Pètra Mens
BACKGROUND: Pyronaridine-artesunate is a novel artemisinin-based combination therapy. The efficacy and safety of pyronaridine-artesunate were compared with artemether-lumefantrine for the treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in children. METHODS: This phase III open-label randomized controlled non-inferiority trial was conducted in Western Kenya. Children aged 6 months to ≤ 12 years with a bodyweight > 5 kg and microscopically confirmed P...
May 15, 2018: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761766/factors-associated-with-the-rapid-and-durable-decline-in-malaria-incidence-in-el-salvador-1980-2017
#20
Robert A Burton, José Eduardo Romero Chévez, Mauricio Sauerbrey, Caterina Guinovart, Angela Hartley, Geoffrey Kirkwood, Matthew Boslego, Mirna Elizabeth Gavidia, Jaime Enrique Alemán Escobar, Rachel Turkel, Richard W Steketee, Laurence Slutsker, Kammerle Schneider, Carlos C Kent Campbell
A decade after the Global Malaria Eradication Program, El Salvador had the highest burden of malaria in Mesoamerica, with approximately 20% due to Plasmodium falciparum . A resurgence of malaria in the 1970s led El Salvador to alter its national malaria control strategy. By 1995, El Salvador recorded its last autochthonous P. falciparum case with fewer than 20 Plasmodium vivax cases annually since 2011. By contrast, its immediate neighbors continue to have the highest incidences of malaria in the region. We reviewed and evaluated the policies and interventions implemented by the Salvadoran National Malaria Program that likely contributed to this progress toward malaria elimination...
May 14, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
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