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Meningitis belt

Fati Sidikou, Maman Zaneidou, Ibrahim Alkassoum, Stephanie Schwartz, Bassira Issaka, Ricardo Obama, Clement Lingani, Ashley Tate, Flavien Ake, Souleymane Sakande, Sani Ousmane, Jibir Zanguina, Issaka Seidou, Innocent Nzeyimana, Didier Mounkoro, Oubote Abodji, Xin Wang, Muhamed-Kheir Taha, Jean Paul Moulia-Pelat, Assimawe Pana, Goumbi Kadade, Olivier Ronveaux, Ryan Novak, Odile Ouwe Missi Oukem-Boyer, Sarah Meyer
BACKGROUND: To combat Neisseria meningitidis serogroup A epidemics in the meningitis belt of sub-Saharan Africa, a meningococcal serogroup A conjugate vaccine (MACV) has been progressively rolled out since 2010. We report the first meningitis epidemic in Niger since the nationwide introduction of MACV. METHODS: We compiled and analysed nationwide case-based meningitis surveillance data in Niger. Cases were confirmed by culture or direct real-time PCR, or both, of cerebrospinal fluid specimens, and whole-genome sequencing was used to characterise isolates...
August 23, 2016: Lancet Infectious Diseases
Stephen I Pelton
Invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) caused by Neisseria meningitidis is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Although IMD incidence is highest in infants, a second peak occurs in adolescents/young adults. The incidence of IMD and the predominant disease-causing meningococcal serogroups vary worldwide. Epidemiologic data have guided the development of meningococcal vaccines to reduce the IMD burden. In Europe, serogroup C IMD has been substantially reduced since the introduction of a serogroup C conjugate vaccine...
August 2016: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
Stephen K Obaro
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2016: Lancet Global Health
Sophie Hanske, Felix Dyrna, Ingo Bechmann, Martin Krueger
The identification of the "paucity of transportation vesicles" and "belt-like" tight junctions (TJs) of endothelial cells as the "morphological correlate of a blood-brain barrier" (BBB) by Reese and Karnovsky (J Cell Biol 34:207-217, 1967) has become textbook knowledge, and countless studies have helped to further define the elements, functions, and dynamics of the BBB. Most work, however, has focused on parenchymal capillaries or less clearly defined "microvessels", while a systematic study on similarities and differences between BBB architecture along the vascular tree within the brain and the meninges has been lacking...
July 19, 2016: Brain Structure & Function
Mable Carole Tevi-Benissan, Edna Moturi, Blanche-Philomene Melanga Anya, Teka Aschalew, Akanmori Barthlomew Dicky, Poy Alain Nyembo, Leon Kinuam Mbulu, Joseph Okeibunor, Richard Mihigo, Felicitas Zawaira
BACKGROUND: Significant progress has been made to increase access to vaccines in Africa since the 1974 launch of the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI). Successes include the introduction of several new vaccines across the continent and likely eradication of polio. We examined the contribution of polio eradication activities (PEI) on new vaccine introduction in the countries of the African Region. METHODS: We reviewed country specific PEI reports to identify best practices relevant to new vaccine introduction (NVI), and analyzed trends in vaccine coverage during 2010-2015 from immunization estimates provided by WHO/UNICEF...
July 5, 2016: Vaccine
Olivier Manigart, Caroline Trotter, Helen Findlow, Abraham Aseffa, Wude Mihret, Tesfaye Moti Demisse, Biruk Yeshitela, Isaac Osei, Abraham Hodgson, Stephen Laryea Quaye, Samba Sow, Mamadou Coulibaly, Kanny Diallo, Awa Traore, Jean-Marc Collard, Rahamatou Moustapha Boukary, Oumarou Djermakoye, Ali Elhaji Mahamane, Jean-François Jusot, Cheikh Sokhna, Serge Alavo, Souleymane Doucoure, El Hadj Ba, Mariétou Dieng, Aldiouma Diallo, Doumagoum Moto Daugla, Babatunji Omotara, Daniel Chandramohan, Musa Hassan-King, Maria Nascimento, Arouna Woukeu, Ray Borrow, James M Stuart, Brian Greenwood
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0147928.].
2016: PloS One
Haoua Tall, Berthe-Marie Njanpop-Lafourcade, Didier Mounkoro, Loukoumane Tidjani, Kodjo Agbenoko, Issifou Alassani, Moussa Amidou, Stanislas Tamekloe, Kenneth G Laing, Adam A Witney, Jason Hinds, Mark P G van der Linden, Bradford D Gessner, Jennifer C Moïsi
During 2010-2014, we enrolled 511 patients with suspected bacterial meningitis into surveillance in 2 districts of northern Togo. We identified 15 persons with Streptococcus suis infection; 10 had occupational contact with pigs, and 12 suffered neurologic sequelae. S. suis testing should be considered in rural areas of the African meningitis belt.
July 2016: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Juliette Paireau, Angelica Chen, Helene Broutin, Bryan Grenfell, Nicole E Basta
BACKGROUND: Bacterial meningitis, which is caused mainly by Neisseria meningitidis, Haemophilus influenzae, and Streptococcus pneumoniae, inflicts a substantial burden of disease worldwide. Yet, the temporal dynamics of this disease are poorly characterised and many questions remain about the ecology of the disease. We aimed to comprehensively assess seasonal trends in bacterial meningitis on a global scale. METHODS: We developed the first bacterial meningitis global database by compiling monthly incidence data as reported by country-level surveillance systems...
June 2016: Lancet Global Health
Jerome Ateudjieu, Beat Stoll, Georges Nguefack-Tsague, Martin Ndinakie Yakum, Marcellin Nimpa Mengouo, Blaise Genton
PURPOSE: A new vaccine against meningitis A was introduced in Africa meningitis belt in 2010. This study was planned to describe the incidence and types of adverse events following immunization (AEFIs) with a new conjugate vaccine against meningitis A (MenAfrivac™) in a Cameroonian vaccination campaign. METHODS: The campaign was conducted in Adamawa and North West regions in December 2012 and the AEFIs enhanced surveillance from December 2012 to January 2013. Incidence rates (IR) of overall and serious AEFIs were estimated as well as AEFI incidence rates by type, age group and region...
May 13, 2016: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 22, 2016: Relevé épidémiologique Hebdomadaire
Nancy Crum-Cianflone, Eva Sullivan
Neisseria meningitidis, a gram-negative diplococcal bacterium, is a common asymptomatic nasopharyngeal colonizer that may infrequently lead to invasive disease in the form of meningitis or bacteremia. Six serogroups (A, B, C, W, X and Y) are responsible for the majority of invasive infections. Increased risk of disease occurs in specific population groups including infants, adolescents, those with asplenia or complement deficiencies, and those residing in crowded living conditions such as in college dormitories...
June 2016: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
Saber Yezli, Abdullah M Assiri, Rafat F Alhakeem, Abdulhafiz M Turkistani, Badriah Alotaibi
The Hajj and Umrah religious mass gatherings hosted by the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia can facilitate the transmission of infectious diseases. The pilgrimages have been associated with a number of local and international outbreaks of meningococcal disease. These include serogroup A disease outbreaks in 1987 and throughout the 1990s and two international serogroup W135 outbreaks in 2000 and 2001. The implementation of strict preventative measures including mandatory quadrivalent meningococcal vaccination and antibiotic chemoprophylaxis for pilgrims from the African meningitis belt has prevented pilgrimage-associated meningococcal outbreaks since 2001...
June 2016: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
Jean-Marie Milleliri
He would have celebrated his 100th birthday in 2015, but finally, it doesn't matter, since by leaving his name to African meningitis belt, that isohyetal band in sub-Saharan Africa where epidemics of cerebrospinal meningitis are rife, Lapeyssonnie, the trailblazer at the end of his trail, has gone straight into the textbooks of tropical medicine. There was probably nothing he enjoyed more than wandering the lateritic paths and Sudano-Sahelian bush in that zone. His first job, in the Mossi country in Upper Volta that had not yet become Burkina Faso, was of course an initiation...
January 2016: Médecine et Santé Tropicales
Stephen K Obaro, Abdulrazaq G Habib
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2016: Lancet Infectious Diseases
Kanny Diallo, Caroline Trotter, Youssouf Timbine, Boubou Tamboura, Samba O Sow, Bassira Issaka, Ibrahim D Dano, Jean-Marc Collard, Marietou Dieng, Aldiouma Diallo, Adane Mihret, Oumer A Ali, Abraham Aseffa, Stephen L Quaye, Akalifa Bugri, Isaac Osei, Kadidja Gamougam, Lodoum Mbainadji, Doumagoum M Daugla, Galadima Gadzama, Zailani B Sambo, Babatunji A Omotara, Julia S Bennett, Lisa S Rebbetts, Eleanor R Watkins, Maria Nascimento, Arouna Woukeu, Olivier Manigart, Ray Borrow, James M Stuart, Brian M Greenwood, Martin C J Maiden
OBJECTIVES: Neisseria meningitidis, together with the non-pathogenic Neisseria species (NPNs), are members of the complex microbiota of the human pharynx. This paper investigates the influence of NPNs on the epidemiology of meningococcal infection. METHODS: Neisseria isolates were collected during 18 surveys conducted in six countries in the African meningitis belt between 2010 and 2012 and characterized at the rplF locus to determine species and at the variable region of the fetA antigen gene...
June 2016: Journal of Infection
Mustapha M Mustapha, Jane W Marsh, Lee H Harrison
Following an outbreak in Mecca Saudi Arabia in 2000, meningococcal strains expressing capsular group W (W) emerged as a major cause of invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) worldwide. The Saudi Arabian outbreak strain (Hajj clone) belonging to the ST-11 clonal complex (cc11) is similar to W cc11 causing occasional sporadic disease before 2000. Since 2000, W cc11 has caused large meningococcal disease epidemics in the African meningitis belt and endemic disease in South America, Europe and China. Traditional molecular epidemiologic typing suggested that a majority of current W cc11 burden represented global spread of the Hajj clone...
March 18, 2016: Vaccine
Olivier Manigart, Caroline Trotter, Helen Findlow, Abraham Assefa, Wude Mihret, Tesfaye Moti Demisse, Biruk Yeshitela, Isaac Osei, Abraham Hodgson, Stephen Laryea Quaye, Samba Sow, Mamadou Coulibaly, Kanny Diallo, Awa Traore, Jean-Marc Collard, Rahamatou Moustapha Boukary, Oumarou Djermakoye, Ali Elhaji Mahamane, Jean-François Jusot, Cheikh Sokhna, Serge Alavo, Souleymane Doucoure, El Hadj Ba, Mariétou Dieng, Aldiouma Diallo, Doumagoum Moto Daugla, Babatunji Omotara, Daniel Chandramohan, Musa Hassan-King, Maria Nascimento, Arouna Woukeu, Ray Borrow, James M Stuart, Brian Greenwood
The pattern of epidemic meningococcal disease in the African meningitis belt may be influenced by the background level of population immunity but this has been measured infrequently. A standardised enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for measuring meningococcal serogroup A IgG antibodies was established at five centres within the meningitis belt. Antibody concentrations were then measured in 3930 individuals stratified by age and residence from six countries. Seroprevalence by age was used in a catalytic model to determine the force of infection...
2016: PloS One
Saber Yezli, Abdulaziz A Bin Saeed, Abdullah M Assiri, Rafat F Alhakeem, Muslim A Yunus, Abdulhafiz M Turkistani, Robert Booy, Badriah M Alotaibi
The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) has a long history of instituting preventative measures against meningococcal disease (MD). KSA is at risk of outbreaks of MD due to its geographic location, demography, and especially because it hosts the annual Hajj and Umrah mass gatherings. Preventative measures for Hajj and Umrah include vaccination, targeted chemoprophylaxis, health awareness and educational campaigns, as well as an active disease surveillance and response system. Preventative measures have been introduced and updated in accordance with changes in the epidemiology of MD and available preventative tools...
June 2016: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
Wude Mihret, Tsehaynesh Lema, Yared Merid, Afework Kassu, Workeabeba Abebe, Beyene Moges, Admasu Tenna, Fitsum Woldegebriel, Melaku Yidnekachew, Wondale Mekonnen, Arslan Ahmed, Lawrence Yamuah, Mezgebu Silamsaw, Beyene Petros, Jan Oksnes, Einar Rosenqvist, Samuel Ayele, Abraham Aseffa, Dominique A Caugant, Gunnstein Norheim
Among 139 patients with suspected bacterial meningitis in Ethiopia, 2012-2013, meningococci (19.4%) and pneumococci (12.9%) were the major disease-causing organisms. Meningococcal serogroups detected were A (n = 11), W (n = 7), C (n = 1), and X (n = 1). Affordable, multivalent meningitis vaccines for the African meningitis belt are urgently needed.
January 2016: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Mustapha M Mustapha, Jane W Marsh, Mary G Krauland, Jorge O Fernandez, Ana Paula S de Lemos, Julie C Dunning Hotopp, Xin Wang, Leonard W Mayer, Jeffrey G Lawrence, N Luisa Hiller, Lee H Harrison
Neisseria meningitidis is a leading bacterial cause of sepsis and meningitis globally with dynamic strain distribution over time. Beginning with an epidemic among Hajj pilgrims in 2000, serogroup W (W) sequence type (ST) 11 emerged as a leading cause of epidemic meningitis in the African 'meningitis belt' and endemic cases in South America, Europe, Middle East and China. Previous genotyping studies were unable to reliably discriminate sporadic W ST-11 strains in circulation since 1970 from the Hajj outbreak strain (Hajj clone)...
October 2015: EBioMedicine
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