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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751133/the-threat-of-meningococcal-disease-during-the-hajj-and-umrah-mass-gatherings-a-comprehensive-review
#1
REVIEW
Saber Yezli
The Hajj and Umrah mass gatherings represent many of the risk factors for meningococcal disease and have historically been associated with both local and international outbreaks of the disease. The implementation of strict preventative measures including mandatory meningococcal vaccination with the quadrivalent (A,C,Y,W) vaccine has prevented pilgrimage-associated meningococcal outbreaks and significantly reduced the incidence of the disease at these events. However, meningococcal disease remains an important public health threat at the Hajj and Umrah due in part to the evolving nature of the disease, characterized with diverse and varying geographic trends, fluctuations in incidence and shifts in serogroups and genotypes...
May 8, 2018: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735685/acquisition-of-virulence-genes-by-a-carrier-strain-gave-rise-to-the-ongoing-epidemics-of-meningococcal-disease-in-west-africa
#2
Ola Brønstad Brynildsrud, Vegard Eldholm, Jon Bohlin, Kennedy Uadiale, Stephen Obaro, Dominique A Caugant
In the African meningitis belt, a region of sub-Saharan Africa comprising 22 countries from Senegal in the west to Ethiopia in the east, large epidemics of serogroup A meningococcal meningitis have occurred periodically. After gradual introduction from 2010 of mass vaccination with a monovalent meningococcal A conjugate vaccine, serogroup A epidemics have been eliminated. Starting in 2013, the northwestern part of Nigeria has been affected by yearly outbreaks of meningitis caused by a novel strain of serogroup C Neisseria meningitidis (NmC)...
May 7, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725170/changing-pattern-of-childhood-epidemic-cerebrospinal-meningitis-in-north-western-nigeria
#3
Sani Mado, Ibrahim Aliyu, Rabiu Murtala
Introduction: Nigeria lies within the meningitis belt which extends from the Gambia, Senegal through Nigeria to Eritrea; however, outbreaks have been shown to extend further south involving countries such as Angola and Namibia. Epidemic outbreaks are often recorded every 8-12 years averaging in a 10 yearly circle however endemic cases still occurs. Materials and Methods: The study was retrospective; all results of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples of children with cases of meningitis from January 2010 to December 2010 were collected from the register of the microbiology laboratory of General Hospital Gusau...
April 2018: Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622828/uncommon-mixed-outbreak-of-pneumococcal-and-meningococcal-meningitis-in-jirapa-district-upper-west-region-ghana-2016
#4
Nuoh R Domo, Culbert Nuolabong, Kofi M Nyarko, Ernest Kenu, Phoebe Balagumyetime, Godfrey Konnyebal, Charles L Noora, Kofi D Ameme, Fred Wurapa, Edwin Afari
Objective: The Jirapa District in Ghana falls within the African meningitis belt where over 500 million people are at risk of epidemic meningitis. The district suffered an outbreak of Neisseria meningitides, W (NMW) in 2012 and a mixed outbreak of Streptococcus pneumonia and NMW in early 2016. We investigated the outbreak to identify the source, causative agents, and magnitude and assess health facility preparedness and propose control measures. Design and Setting: We conducted a descriptive study in all sub-districts of Jirapa, between 28th February to 10th April 2016...
December 2017: Ghana Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408359/meningitis-epidemics-shift-in-sub-saharan-belt
#5
Shi Zhao, Qianying Lin, Daihai He, Lewi Stone
Meningococcal meningitis (MCM) poses a serious threat to public health in Africa. Epidemics appear irregularly every 5-12 years, especially in the regions across sub-Saharan 'meningitis belt'. This study investigated the long-term spatiotemporal dynamics of MCM. It appears that dominant epidemic outbreaks in the meningitis belt spread from west to east over the study period 2006-2016.
March 2018: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29371015/reactive-vaccination-as-a-control-strategy-for-pneumococcal-meningitis-outbreaks-in-the-african-meningitis-belt-analysis-of-outbreak-data-from-ghana
#6
Laura V Cooper, James M Stuart, Charles Okot, Franklin Asiedu-Bekoe, Osei Kuffour Afreh, Katya Fernandez, Olivier Ronveaux, Caroline L Trotter
Streptococcus pneumoniae is increasingly recognised as an important cause of bacterial meningitis in the African meningitis belt. The World Health Organization sets guidelines for response to outbreaks of meningococcal meningitis, but there are no current guidelines for outbreaks where S. pneumoniae is implicated. We aimed to evaluate the impact of using a similar response to target outbreaks of vaccine-preventable pneumococcal meningitis in the meningitis belt. Here, we adapt a previous model of reactive vaccination for meningococcal outbreaks to estimate the potential impact of reactive vaccination in a recent pneumococcal meningitis outbreak in the Brong-Ahafo region of central Ghana using weekly line list data on all suspected cases over a period of five months...
January 20, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29364884/the-cost-effectiveness-of-alternative-vaccination-strategies-for-polyvalent-meningococcal-vaccines-in-burkina-faso-a-transmission-dynamic-modeling-study
#7
Reza Yaesoubi, Caroline Trotter, Caroline Colijn, Maziar Yaesoubi, Anaïs Colombini, Stephen Resch, Paul A Kristiansen, F Marc LaForce, Ted Cohen
BACKGROUND: The introduction of a conjugate vaccine for serogroup A Neisseria meningitidis has dramatically reduced disease in the African meningitis belt. In this context, important questions remain about the performance of different vaccine policies that target remaining serogroups. Here, we estimate the health impact and cost associated with several alternative vaccination policies in Burkina Faso. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We developed and calibrated a mathematical model of meningococcal transmission to project the disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) averted and costs associated with the current Base policy (serogroup A conjugate vaccination at 9 months, as part of the Expanded Program on Immunization [EPI], plus district-specific reactive vaccination campaigns using polyvalent meningococcal polysaccharide [PMP] vaccine in response to outbreaks) and three alternative policies: (1) Base Prime: novel polyvalent meningococcal conjugate (PMC) vaccine replaces the serogroup A conjugate in EPI and is also used in reactive campaigns; (2) Prevention 1: PMC used in EPI and in a nationwide catch-up campaign for 1-18-year-olds; and (3) Prevention 2: Prevention 1, except the nationwide campaign includes individuals up to 29 years old...
January 2018: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29261797/correction-identifying-optimal-vaccination-strategies-for-serogroup-a-neisseria-meningitidis-conjugate-vaccine-in-the-african-meningitis-belt
#8
Sara Tartof, Amanda Cohn, Félix Tarbangdo, Mamoudou H Djingarey, Nancy Messonnier, Thomas A Clark, Jean Ludovic Kambou, Ryan Novak, Fabien V K Diomandé, Isaïe Medah, Michael L Jackson
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0063605.].
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211624/vaccine-prevention-of-meningococcal-disease-in-africa-major-advances-remaining-challenges
#9
Mustapha M Mustapha, Lee H Harrison
Africa historically has had the highest incidence of meningococcal disease with high endemic rates and periodic epidemics. The meningitis belt, a region of sub-Saharan Africa extending from Senegal to Ethiopia, has experienced large, devastating epidemics. However, dramatic shifts in the epidemiology of meningococcal disease have occurred recently. For instance, meningococcal capsular group A (NmA) epidemics in the meningitis belt have essentially been eliminated by use of conjugate vaccine. However, NmW epidemics have emerged and spread across the continent since 2000; NmX epidemics have occurred sporadically, and NmC recently emerged in Nigeria and Niger...
December 6, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197599/meningococcal-carriage-within-households-in-the-african-meningitis-belt-a-longitudinal-pilot-study
#10
Nicole E Basta, Abdoulaye Berthe, Mahamadou Keita, Uma Onwuchekwa, Boubou Tamboura, Awa Traore, Musa Hassan-King, Olivier Manigart, Maria Nascimento, James M Stuart, Caroline Trotter, Jayne Blake, Anthony D Carr, Stephen J Gray, Lynne S Newbold, Yangqing Deng, Julian Wolfson, M Elizabeth Halloran, Brian Greenwood, Ray Borrow, Samba O Sow
OBJECTIVES: Carriers of Neisseria meningitidis are a key source of transmission. In the African meningitis belt, where risk of meningococcal disease is highest, a greater understanding of meningococcal carriage dynamics is needed. METHODS: We randomly selected an age-stratified sample of 400 residents from 116 households in Bamako, Mali, and collected pharyngeal swabs in May 2010. A month later, we enrolled all 202 residents of 20 of these households (6 with known carriers) and collected swabs monthly for 6 months prior to MenAfriVac vaccine introduction and returned 10 months later to collect swabs monthly for 3 months...
February 2018: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194010/impact-of-serogroup-a-meningococcal-conjugate-vaccine-for-africa
#11
James M Stuart
The introduction of a serogroup A meningococcal conjugate vaccine in the African meningitis belt has been a remarkable success. Meningitis due to the serogroup A meningococcus, previously responsible for most epidemics, has fallen by 99% in vaccinated countries. Success must, however, not distract from the continuing burden of meningitis in this region of Africa. The number of all meningitis epidemics at health district level has fallen by 60% following vaccination, but epidemics due to other meningococcal serogroups continue and may be increasing...
January 16, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190699/cost-effectiveness-of-expanding-childhood-routine-immunization-against-neisseria-meningitidis-serogroups-c-w-and-y-with-a-quadrivalent-conjugate-vaccine-in-the-african-meningitis-belt
#12
Andreas Kuznik, Garba Iliyasu, Mohammed Lamorde, Mustapha Mahmud, Baba M Musa, Ibrahim Nashabaru, Stephen Obaro, Idris Mohammed, Abdulrazaq G Habib
BACKGROUND: Neisseria meningitidis constitutes a major public health problem among countries in the African meningitis belt. Following regional vaccination campaigns for serogroup A and subsequent increases in protection against this serogroup, non-A serogroups such as C and W now pose significant epidemic threats, particularly in young children. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of broadening coverage from conjugate serogroup A to quadrivalent ACWY vaccination...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187601/efficient-solid-phase-synthesis-of-meningococcal-capsular-oligosaccharides-enables-simple-and-fast-chemoenzymatic-vaccine-production
#13
Timm Fiebig, Christa Litschko, Friedrich Freiberger, Andrea Bethe, Monika Berger, Rita Gerardy-Schahn
Neisseria meningitidis serogroups A and X are among the leading causes of bacterial meningitis in the African meningitis belt. Glycoconjugate vaccines, consisting of an antigenic carrier protein coupled to the capsular polysaccharide of the bacterial pathogen, are the most effective strategy for prevention of meningococcal disease. However, the distribution of effective glycoconjugate vaccines in this region is limited by the high cost of cultivating pathogens and purification of their capsular polysaccharides...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176349/epidemiology-of-community-acquired-bacterial-meningitis
#14
Matthijs C Brouwer, Diederik van de Beek
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The epidemiology of bacterial meningitis has been dynamic in the past 30 years following introduction of conjugated vaccines against Haemophilus influenzae type B, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Neisseria meningitidis. The purpose of this review is to describe recent developments in bacterial meningitis epidemiology. RECENT FINDINGS: The incidence of bacterial meningitis in Western countries (Finland, Netherlands, and the United States) gradually declined by 3-4% per year to 0...
February 2018: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037978/expected-immunizations-and-health-protection-for-hajj-and-umrah-2018-an-overview
#15
REVIEW
Jaffar A Al-Tawfiq, Philippe Gautret, Ziad A Memish
BACKGROUND: The annual Hajj and Umrah are one of the largest recurring religious mass gatherings across the globe drawing pilgrims from more than 185 countries. The living circumstances and activities of the pilgrims may create an environment for the occurrence and spread of communicable diseases. Each year, the Health authority of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, in coordination with international health authorities, updates health requirements for pilgrims. The Hajj for 2017 took place from August 24 to September 5, 2017...
September 2017: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026659/emergence-and-genomic-diversification-of-a-virulent-serogroup-w-st-2881-cc175-neisseria-meningitidis-clone-in-the-african-meningitis-belt
#16
Araceli Lamelas, Julia Hauser, Jean-Pierre Dangy, Abdul-Wahab M Hamid, Katharina Röltgen, Mohamad R Abdul Sater, Abraham Hodgson, Ali Sie, Thomas Junghanss, Simon R Harris, Julian Parkhill, Stephen D Bentley, Gerd Pluschke
Countries of the African 'meningitis belt' are susceptible to meningococcal meningitis outbreaks. While in the past major epidemics have been primarily caused by serogroup A meningococci, W strains are currently responsible for most of the cases. After an epidemic in Mecca in 2000, W:ST-11 strains have caused many outbreaks worldwide. An unrelated W:ST-2881 clone was described for the first time in 2002, with the first meningitis cases caused by these bacteria reported in 2003. Here we describe results of a comparative whole-genome analysis of 74 W:ST-2881 strains isolated within the framework of two longitudinal colonization and disease studies conducted in Ghana and Burkina Faso...
August 2017: Microbial Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992391/four-years-of-case-based-surveillance-of-meningitis-following-the-introduction-of-menafrivac-in-moissala-chad-lessons-learned
#17
Anne-Laure Page, Matthew E Coldiron, Kadidja Gamougam, Mahmaat Ali Acyl, Mbaihol Tamadji, Céline Lastrucci, Northan Hurtado, François-Charles Tehoua, Florence Fermon, Dominique A Caugant, Klaudia Porten
OBJECTIVE: Case-based surveillance of bacterial meningitis in sentinel districts has been recommended after the introduction of the conjugated vaccine against Neisseria meningitidis serogroup A (NmA), MenAfriVac, in the African meningitis belt. Here we report data and lessons learnt from four years of surveillance in the district of Moissala, Chad. METHODS: All suspected cases of meningitis were referred free of charge to the district hospital for lumbar puncture and treatment...
December 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970767/outbreak-of-cerebrospinal-meningitis-in-kebbi-state-nigeria
#18
G J Gana, S Badung, A U Bunza, S Gidado, P Nguku
BACKGROUND: Cerebrospinal meningitis (CSM), is a major public health problem still affecting tropical countries particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. Group A and occasionally group C account for large scale epidemics in many countries in the African meningitis belt. The study aimed to describe the pattern of cerebrospinal meningitis outbreak in Kebbi state in 2015. METHOD: Information on cases and deaths was collected throughout the duration of the meningitis outbreak in all affected local government areas of Kebbi state...
June 2017: Annals of Ibadan Postgraduate Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912442/the-association-between-respiratory-tract-infection-incidence-and-localised-meningitis-epidemics-an-analysis-of-high-resolution-surveillance-data-from-burkina-faso
#19
Judith E Mueller, Maxime Woringer, Souleymane Porgho, Yoann Madec, Haoua Tall, Nadège Martiny, Brice W Bicaba
Meningococcal meningitis epidemics in the African meningitis belt consist of localised meningitis epidemics (LME) that reach attack proportions of 1% within a few weeks. A meningococcal serogroup A conjugate vaccine was introduced in meningitis belt countries from 2010 on, but LME due to other serogroups continue to occur. The mechanisms underlying LME are poorly understood, but an association with respiratory pathogens has been hypothesised. We analysed national routine surveillance data in high spatial resolution (health centre level) from 13 districts in Burkina Faso, 2004-2014...
September 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904692/evaluation-of-bacterial-meningitis-surveillance-data-of-the-northern-region-ghana-2010-2015
#20
Basil Benduri Kaburi, Chrysantus Kubio, Ernest Kenu, Donne Kofi Ameme, Jacob Yakubu Mahama, Samuel Oko Sackey, Edwin Andrew Afari
INTRODUCTION: Bacterial meningitis is a disease of major public health importance especially for countries such as Ghana; whose northern part lies within the meningitis belt. The Northern region of Ghana has been recording cases with outbreaks over the years. In order to generate evidence to improve surveillance, we described the epidemiology of bacterial meningitis using surveillance data of the northern region. METHODS: Bacterial meningitis datasets from January 2010 to December 2015 for all the 26 districts of the Northern region were retrieved from line lists...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
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