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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037978/expected-immunizations-and-health-protection-for-hajj-and-umrah-2018-an-overview
#1
REVIEW
Jaffar A Al-Tawfiq, Philippe Gautret, Ziad A Memish
BACKGROUND: The annual Hajj and Umrah are one of the largest recurring religious mass gatherings across the globe drawing pilgrims from more than 185 countries. The living circumstances and activities of the pilgrims may create an environment for the occurrence and spread of communicable diseases. Each year, the Health authority of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, in coordination with international health authorities, updates health requirements for pilgrims. The Hajj for 2017 took place from August 24 to September 5, 2017...
October 14, 2017: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026659/emergence-and-genomic-diversification-of-a-virulent-serogroup-w-st-2881-cc175-neisseria-meningitidis-clone-in-the-african-meningitis-belt
#2
Araceli Lamelas, Julia Hauser, Jean-Pierre Dangy, Abdul-Wahab M Hamid, Katharina Röltgen, Mohamad R Abdul Sater, Abraham Hodgson, Ali Sie, Thomas Junghanss, Simon R Harris, Julian Parkhill, Stephen D Bentley, Gerd Pluschke
Countries of the African 'meningitis belt' are susceptible to meningococcal meningitis outbreaks. While in the past major epidemics have been primarily caused by serogroup A meningococci, W strains are currently responsible for most of the cases. After an epidemic in Mecca in 2000, W:ST-11 strains have caused many outbreaks worldwide. An unrelated W:ST-2881 clone was described for the first time in 2002, with the first meningitis cases caused by these bacteria reported in 2003. Here we describe results of a comparative whole-genome analysis of 74 W:ST-2881 strains isolated within the framework of two longitudinal colonization and disease studies conducted in Ghana and Burkina Faso...
August 2017: Microbial Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992391/four-years-of-case-based-surveillance-of-meningitis-following-the-introduction-of-menafrivac-in-moissala-chad-lessons-learned
#3
Anne-Laure Page, Matthew E Coldiron, Kadidja Gamougam, Mahmaat Ali Acyl, Mbaihol Tamadji, Céline Lastrucci, Northan Hurtado, François-Charles Tehoua, Florence Fermon, Dominique A Caugant, Klaudia Porten
OBJECTIVE: Case-based surveillance of bacterial meningitis in sentinel districts has been recommended after the introduction of the conjugated vaccine against Neisseria meningitidis serogroup A (NmA), MenAfriVac, in the African meningitis belt. Here we report data and lessons learnt from four years of surveillance in the district of Moissala, Chad. METHODS: All suspected cases of meningitis were referred free of charge to the district hospital for lumbar puncture and treatment...
October 9, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970767/outbreak-of-cerebrospinal-meningitis-in-kebbi-state-nigeria
#4
G J Gana, S Badung, A U Bunza, S Gidado, P Nguku
BACKGROUND: Cerebrospinal meningitis (CSM), is a major public health problem still affecting tropical countries particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. Group A and occasionally group C account for large scale epidemics in many countries in the African meningitis belt. The study aimed to describe the pattern of cerebrospinal meningitis outbreak in Kebbi state in 2015. METHOD: Information on cases and deaths was collected throughout the duration of the meningitis outbreak in all affected local government areas of Kebbi state...
June 2017: Annals of Ibadan Postgraduate Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912442/the-association-between-respiratory-tract-infection-incidence-and-localised-meningitis-epidemics-an-analysis-of-high-resolution-surveillance-data-from-burkina-faso
#5
Judith E Mueller, Maxime Woringer, Souleymane Porgho, Yoann Madec, Haoua Tall, Nadège Martiny, Brice W Bicaba
Meningococcal meningitis epidemics in the African meningitis belt consist of localised meningitis epidemics (LME) that reach attack proportions of 1% within a few weeks. A meningococcal serogroup A conjugate vaccine was introduced in meningitis belt countries from 2010 on, but LME due to other serogroups continue to occur. The mechanisms underlying LME are poorly understood, but an association with respiratory pathogens has been hypothesised. We analysed national routine surveillance data in high spatial resolution (health centre level) from 13 districts in Burkina Faso, 2004-2014...
September 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904692/evaluation-of-bacterial-meningitis-surveillance-data-of-the-northern-region-ghana-2010-2015
#6
Basil Benduri Kaburi, Chrysantus Kubio, Ernest Kenu, Donne Kofi Ameme, Jacob Yakubu Mahama, Samuel Oko Sackey, Edwin Andrew Afari
INTRODUCTION: Bacterial meningitis is a disease of major public health importance especially for countries such as Ghana; whose northern part lies within the meningitis belt. The Northern region of Ghana has been recording cases with outbreaks over the years. In order to generate evidence to improve surveillance, we described the epidemiology of bacterial meningitis using surveillance data of the northern region. METHODS: Bacterial meningitis datasets from January 2010 to December 2015 for all the 26 districts of the Northern region were retrieved from line lists...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796795/investigation-of-correlates-of-protection-against-pharyngeal-carriage-of-neisseria-meningitidis-genogroups-w-and-y-in-the-african-meningitis-belt
#7
Laura V Cooper, Rahamatou Moustapha Boukary, Abraham Aseffa, Wude Mihret, Jean-Marc Collard, Doumagoum Daugla, Abraham Hodgson, Cheikh Sokhna, Babatunji Omotara, Samba Sow, Stephen Laryea Quaye, Kanny Diallo, Olivier Manigart, Martin C J Maiden, Helen Findlow, Ray Borrow, James M Stuart, Brian M Greenwood, Caroline L Trotter
BACKGROUND: Serum bactericidal antibody titres that correlate with protection against invasive meningococcal disease have been characterised. However, titres that are associated with protection against acquisition of pharyngeal carriage of Neisseria meningitidis are not known. METHODS: Sera were obtained from the members of a household in seven countries of the African meningitis belt in which a pharyngeal carrier of N. meningitidis had been identified during a cross-sectional survey...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771457/meningitis-outbreak-caused-by-vaccine-preventable-bacterial-pathogens-northern-ghana-2016
#8
Fortress Y Aku, Fernanda C Lessa, Franklin Asiedu-Bekoe, Phoebe Balagumyetime, Winfred Ofosu, Jennifer Farrar, Mahamoudou Ouattara, Jeni T Vuong, Kofi Issah, Joseph Opare, Sally-Ann Ohene, Charles Okot, Ernest Kenu, Donne K Ameme, David Opare, Abass Abdul-Karim
Bacterial meningitis is a severe, acute infection of the fluid surrounding the brain and spinal cord that can rapidly lead to death. Even with recommended antibiotic treatment, up to 25% of infected persons in Africa might experience neurologic sequelae (1). Three regions in northern Ghana (Upper East, Northern, and Upper West), located in the sub-Saharan "meningitis belt" that extends from Senegal to Ethiopia, experienced periodic outbreaks of meningitis before introduction of serogroup A meningococcal conjugate vaccine (MenAfriVac) in 2012 (2,3)...
August 4, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760613/who-position-paper-meningococcal-a-conjugate-vaccine-updated-guidance-february-2015
#9
World Health Organization
This article presents the World Health Organization's (WHO) updated recommendations on the use of meningococcal vaccines excerpted from the WHO position paper on Meningococcal A conjugate vaccine: updated guidance, February 2015, published in the Weekly Epidemiological Record [1]. A position paper on meningococcal vaccines was published in 2011 and its recommendations remain valid [2]. This update adds to the previous recommendations specifically concerning routine immunization of infants and young children in the African meningitis belt with meningococcal A conjugate vaccine...
July 28, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646924/ciprofloxacin-for-contacts-of-cases-of-meningococcal-meningitis-as-an-epidemic-response-study-protocol-for-a-cluster-randomized-trial
#10
Matthew E Coldiron, Gabriel Alcoba, Iza Ciglenecki, Matt Hitchings, Ali Djibo, Anne-Laure Page, Celine Langendorf, Rebecca F Grais
BACKGROUND: Epidemics of meningococcal meningitis are common in the "African meningitis belt." Current response strategies include reactive vaccination campaigns, which are often organized too late to have maximal impact. A novel strain of Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C has been circulating in recent years, and vaccine supplies are limited. An evaluation of chemoprophylaxis with single-dose ciprofloxacin for household contacts of meningitis cases has therefore been recommended. METHODS/DESIGN: A three-arm cluster-randomized trial has been designed for implementation during a meningococcal meningitis epidemic in a health district in Niger in which at least two Health Zones (HZs) have met the weekly epidemic threshold...
June 24, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545721/impact-of-menafrivac-in-nine-countries-of-the-african-meningitis-belt-2010-15-an-analysis-of-surveillance-data
#11
Caroline L Trotter, Clément Lingani, Katya Fernandez, Laura V Cooper, André Bita, Carol Tevi-Benissan, Olivier Ronveaux, Marie-Pierre Préziosi, James M Stuart
BACKGROUND: In preparation for the introduction of MenAfriVac, a meningococcal group A conjugate vaccine developed for the African meningitis belt, an enhanced meningitis surveillance network was established. We analysed surveillance data on suspected and confirmed cases of meningitis to quantify vaccine impact. METHODS: We compiled and analysed surveillance data for nine countries in the meningitis belt (Benin, Burkina Faso, Chad, Côte d'Ivoire, Ghana, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, and Togo) collected and curated by the WHO Inter-country Support Team between 2005 and 2015...
August 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495657/outer-membrane-vesicles-extracted-from-neisseria-meningitidis-serogroup-x-for-prevention-of-meningococcal-disease-in-africa
#12
Reinaldo Acevedo, Caridad Zayas, Gunnstein Norheim, Sonsire Fernández, Barbara Cedré, Yisabel Aranguren, Maribel Cuello, Yaimara Rodriguez, Humberto González, Aleida Mandiarote, Marylin Pérez, Maritza Hernández, Mabel Hernández-Cedeño, Domingo González, Sverre-Henning Brorson, Einar Rosenqvist, Lisbeth Naess, Gro Tunheim, Daniel Cardoso, Luis García
Meningococcal disease is caused mainly by serogroups A, B, C, Y, W of N. meningitidis. However, numerous cases of meningitis caused by serogroup X N. meningitidis (MenX) have recently been reported in several African countries. Currently, there are no licensed vaccines against this pathogen and most of the MenX cases have been caused by meningococci from clonal complex (c.c) 181. Detergent extracted meningococcal outer membrane vesicle (dOMV) vaccines have previously shown to be safe and effective against epidemics of serogroup B meningococcal disease in all age groups...
May 8, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455205/meningococcal-disease-in-the-middle-east-and-africa-findings-and-updates-from-the-global-meningococcal-initiative
#13
REVIEW
Ray Borrow, Dominique A Caugant, Mehmet Ceyhan, Hannah Christensen, Ener Cagri Dinleyici, Jamie Findlow, Linda Glennie, Anne Von Gottberg, Amel Kechrid, Julio Vázquez Moreno, Aziza Razki, Vincent Smith, Muhamed-Kheir Taha, Hassiba Tali-Maamar, Khalid Zerouali
The Global Meningococcal Initiative (GMI) has recently considered current issues in Middle Eastern and African countries, and produced two recommendations: (i) that vaccination of attendees should be considered for some types of mass-gathering events, as some countries mandate for the Hajj, and (ii) vaccination of people with human immunodeficiency virus should be used routinely, because of increased meningococcal disease (MD) risk. Differences exist between Middle Eastern and African countries regarding case and syndrome definitions, surveillance, and epidemiologic data gaps...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438133/evaluation-of-the-enhanced-meningitis-surveillance-system-yendi-municipality-northern-ghana-2010-2015
#14
Basil Benduri Kaburi, Chrysantus Kubio, Ernest Kenu, Kofi Mensah Nyarko, Jacob Yakubu Mahama, Samuel Oko Sackey, Edwin Andrew Afari
BACKGROUND: Meningitis is the inflammation of the meninges of the brain and or spinal cord. Global mortality rates vary from 2% to 30%. Epidemic meningitis remains a public health concern along the meningitis belt of Africa. Despite the operation of an enhanced meningitis surveillance system in Ghana, institutional mortality rates are estimated to range from 36% to 50%. In 2014, Yendi recorded 83 confirmed cases; with focal epidemics in some sub-municipals. We evaluated the system over a five-year period to find out whether it was achieving its objectives of systematic collection and analyses of data for the prevention or early detection of meningitis epidemics...
April 24, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361528/epidemic-meningitis-control-in-countries-of-the-african-meningitis-belt-2016
#15
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 31, 2017: Relevé épidémiologique Hebdomadaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28244176/can-infant-vaccination-prevent-pneumococcal-meningitis-outbreaks-in-sub-saharan-africa
#16
EDITORIAL
James M Stuart
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 28, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122199/current-meningitis-outbreak-in-ghana-historical-perspectives-and-the-importance-of-diagnostics
#17
REVIEW
Alexander Kwarteng, John Amuasi, Augustina Annan, Samuel Ahuno, David Opare, Michael Nagel, Christof Vinnemeier, Jürgen May, Ellis Owusu-Dabo
Bacterial meningitis continues to be one of the most dreaded infections in sub-Saharan Africa and other countries that fall in the "meningitis belt" due to recurrent nature of the infection and the sequel of deliberating effects among survivors even after treatment. Ghana has had recurrent epidemics in the past but has been free from high mortality levels. Whereas reasons for the low reported number of deaths in the past are unclear, we hypothesize that it may be due to increased vaccination from expanded program on immunization (EPI) and consequent herd immunity of the general population...
May 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114427/burden-of-pneumococcal-disease-in-northern-togo-before-the-introduction-of-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine
#18
Jennifer C Moïsi, Makawa-Sy Makawa, Haoua Tall, Kodjo Agbenoko, Berthe-Marie Njanpop-Lafourcade, Stanislas Tamekloe, Moussa Amidou, Judith E Mueller, Bradford D Gessner
BACKGROUND: S. pneumoniae is a leading cause of meningitis morbidity and mortality in the African meningitis belt, but little is known of its contribution to the burden of pneumonia in the region. We aimed to estimate the incidence of pneumococcal disease in children and adults in northern Togo, before the introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV). METHODS AND FINDINGS: From May 1st 2010 to April 30th 2013, we systematically enrolled all hospitalized patients meeting a case definition of suspected meningitis or clinical pneumonia, residing in Tone or Cinkasse districts, northern Togo and providing informed consent...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039983/parameter-and-state-estimation-in-a-neisseria-meningitidis-model-a-study-case-of-niger
#19
S Bowong, L Mountaga, A Bah, J J Tewa, J Kurths
Neisseria meningitidis (Nm) is a major cause of bacterial meningitidis outbreaks in Africa and the Middle East. The availability of yearly reported meningitis cases in the African meningitis belt offers the opportunity to analyze the transmission dynamics and the impact of control strategies. In this paper, we propose a method for the estimation of state variables that are not accessible to measurements and an unknown parameter in a Nm model. We suppose that the yearly number of Nm induced mortality and the total population are known inputs, which can be obtained from data, and the yearly number of new Nm cases is the model output...
December 2016: Chaos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904879/the-establishment-and-diversification-of-epidemic-associated-serogroup-w-meningococcus-in-the-african-meningitis-belt-1994-to-2012
#20
Adam C Retchless, Fang Hu, Abdoul-Salam Ouédraogo, Seydou Diarra, Kristen Knipe, Mili Sheth, Lori A Rowe, Lassana Sangaré, Absetou Ky Ba, Soumeya Ouangraoua, Dhwani Batra, Ryan T Novak, Rasmata Ouédraogo Traoré, Xin Wang
Epidemics of invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) caused by meningococcal serogroup A have been eliminated from the sub-Saharan African so-called "meningitis belt" by the meningococcal A conjugate vaccine (MACV), and yet, other serogroups continue to cause epidemics. Neisseria meningitidis serogroup W remains a major cause of disease in the region, with most isolates belonging to clonal complex 11 (CC11). Here, the genetic variation within and between epidemic-associated strains was assessed by sequencing the genomes of 92 N...
November 2016: MSphere
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