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Meningitis belt

(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 31, 2017: Relevé épidémiologique Hebdomadaire
James M Stuart
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 28, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
Alexander Kwarteng, John Amuasi, Augustina Annan, Samuel Ahuno, David Opare, Michael Nagel, Christof Vinnemeier, Jürgen May, Ellis Owusu-Dabo
Bacterial meningitis continues to be one of the most dreaded infections in sub-Saharan Africa and other countries that fall in the "meningitis belt" due to recurrent nature of the infection and the sequel of deliberating effects among survivors even after treatment. Ghana has had recurrent epidemics in the past but has been free from high mortality levels. Whereas reasons for the low reported number of deaths in the past are unclear, we hypothesize that it may be due to increased vaccination from expanded program on immunization (EPI) and consequent herd immunity of the general population...
May 2017: Acta Tropica
Jennifer C Moïsi, Makawa-Sy Makawa, Haoua Tall, Kodjo Agbenoko, Berthe-Marie Njanpop-Lafourcade, Stanislas Tamekloe, Moussa Amidou, Judith E Mueller, Bradford D Gessner
BACKGROUND: S. pneumoniae is a leading cause of meningitis morbidity and mortality in the African meningitis belt, but little is known of its contribution to the burden of pneumonia in the region. We aimed to estimate the incidence of pneumococcal disease in children and adults in northern Togo, before the introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV). METHODS AND FINDINGS: From May 1st 2010 to April 30th 2013, we systematically enrolled all hospitalized patients meeting a case definition of suspected meningitis or clinical pneumonia, residing in Tone or Cinkasse districts, northern Togo and providing informed consent...
2017: PloS One
S Bowong, L Mountaga, A Bah, J J Tewa, J Kurths
Neisseria meningitidis (Nm) is a major cause of bacterial meningitidis outbreaks in Africa and the Middle East. The availability of yearly reported meningitis cases in the African meningitis belt offers the opportunity to analyze the transmission dynamics and the impact of control strategies. In this paper, we propose a method for the estimation of state variables that are not accessible to measurements and an unknown parameter in a Nm model. We suppose that the yearly number of Nm induced mortality and the total population are known inputs, which can be obtained from data, and the yearly number of new Nm cases is the model output...
December 2016: Chaos
Adam C Retchless, Fang Hu, Abdoul-Salam Ouédraogo, Seydou Diarra, Kristen Knipe, Mili Sheth, Lori A Rowe, Lassana Sangaré, Absetou Ky Ba, Soumeya Ouangraoua, Dhwani Batra, Ryan T Novak, Rasmata Ouédraogo Traoré, Xin Wang
Epidemics of invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) caused by meningococcal serogroup A have been eliminated from the sub-Saharan African so-called "meningitis belt" by the meningococcal A conjugate vaccine (MACV), and yet, other serogroups continue to cause epidemics. Neisseria meningitidis serogroup W remains a major cause of disease in the region, with most isolates belonging to clonal complex 11 (CC11). Here, the genetic variation within and between epidemic-associated strains was assessed by sequencing the genomes of 92 N...
November 2016: MSphere
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: Information on transmission of meningococcal infection in the African meningitis belt is scarce. We aimed to describe transmission patterns of Neisseria meningitidis (meningococcus) in households in the African meningitis belt. METHODS: Cross-sectional carriage surveys were done in seven African meningitis belt countries (Chad, Ethiopia, Ghana, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, and Senegal) between Aug 1, 2010, and Oct 15, 2012. Meningococcal carriers identified in these surveys and all available people in their households were recruited into this longitudinal cohort study...
December 2016: Lancet Global Health
Sarah A Meyer, Paul A Kristiansen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Lancet Global Health
Lydiane Agier, Nadège Martiny, Oumy Thiongane, Judith E Mueller, Juliette Paireau, Eleanor R Watkins, Tom J Irving, Thibaut Koutangni, Hélène Broutin
OBJECTIVES: Neisseria meningitidis is the major cause of seasonal meningitis epidemics in the African meningitis belt. In the changing context of a reduction in incidence of serogroup A and an increase in incidence of serogroups W and C and of Streptococcus pneumoniae, a better understanding of the determinants driving the disease transmission dynamics remains crucial to improving bacterial meningitis control. METHODS: The literature was searched to provide a multi-disciplinary overview of the determinants of meningitis transmission dynamics in the African meningitis belt...
January 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
Ray Borrow, Pedro Alarcón, Josefina Carlos, Dominique A Caugant, Hannah Christensen, Roberto Debbag, Philippe De Wals, Gabriela Echániz-Aviles, Jamie Findlow, Chris Head, Daphne Holt, Hajime Kamiya, Samir K Saha, Sergey Sidorenko, Muhamed-Kheir Taha, Caroline Trotter, Julio A Vázquez Moreno, Anne von Gottberg, Marco A P Sáfadi
The 2015 Global Meningococcal Initiative (GMI) meeting discussed the global importance of meningococcal disease (MD) and its continually changing epidemiology. Areas covered: Although recent vaccination programs have been successful in reducing incidence in many countries (e.g. Neisseria meningitidis serogroup [Men]C in Brazil, MenA in the African meningitis belt), new clones have emerged, causing outbreaks (e.g. MenW in South America, MenC in Nigeria and Niger). The importance of herd protection was highlighted, emphasizing the need for high vaccination uptake among those with the highest carriage rates, as was the need for boosters to maintain individual and herd protection following decline of immune response after primary immunization...
April 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
Fati Sidikou, Maman Zaneidou, Ibrahim Alkassoum, Stephanie Schwartz, Bassira Issaka, Ricardo Obama, Clement Lingani, Ashley Tate, Flavien Ake, Souleymane Sakande, Sani Ousmane, Jibir Zanguina, Issaka Seidou, Innocent Nzeyimana, Didier Mounkoro, Oubote Abodji, Xin Wang, Muhamed-Kheir Taha, Jean Paul Moulia-Pelat, Assimawe Pana, Goumbi Kadade, Olivier Ronveaux, Ryan Novak, Odile Ouwe Missi Oukem-Boyer, Sarah Meyer
BACKGROUND: To combat Neisseria meningitidis serogroup A epidemics in the meningitis belt of sub-Saharan Africa, a meningococcal serogroup A conjugate vaccine (MACV) has been progressively rolled out since 2010. We report the first meningitis epidemic in Niger since the nationwide introduction of MACV. METHODS: We compiled and analysed nationwide case-based meningitis surveillance data in Niger. Cases were confirmed by culture or direct real-time PCR, or both, of cerebrospinal fluid specimens, and whole-genome sequencing was used to characterise isolates...
August 23, 2016: Lancet Infectious Diseases
Stephen I Pelton
Invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) caused by Neisseria meningitidis is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Although IMD incidence is highest in infants, a second peak occurs in adolescents/young adults. The incidence of IMD and the predominant disease-causing meningococcal serogroups vary worldwide. Epidemiologic data have guided the development of meningococcal vaccines to reduce the IMD burden. In Europe, serogroup C IMD has been substantially reduced since the introduction of a serogroup C conjugate vaccine...
August 2016: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
Stephen K Obaro
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2016: Lancet Global Health
Sophie Hanske, Felix Dyrna, Ingo Bechmann, Martin Krueger
The identification of the "paucity of transportation vesicles" and "belt-like" tight junctions (TJs) of endothelial cells as the "morphological correlate of a blood-brain barrier" (BBB) by Reese and Karnovsky (J Cell Biol 34:207-217, 1967) has become textbook knowledge, and countless studies have helped to further define the elements, functions, and dynamics of the BBB. Most work, however, has focused on parenchymal capillaries or less clearly defined "microvessels", while a systematic study on similarities and differences between BBB architecture along the vascular tree within the brain and the meninges has been lacking...
July 19, 2016: Brain Structure & Function
Mable Carole Tevi-Benissan, Edna Moturi, Blanche-Philomene Melanga Anya, Teka Aschalew, Akanmori Barthlomew Dicky, Poy Alain Nyembo, Leon Kinuam Mbulu, Joseph Okeibunor, Richard Mihigo, Felicitas Zawaira
BACKGROUND: Significant progress has been made to increase access to vaccines in Africa since the 1974 launch of the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI). Successes include the introduction of several new vaccines across the continent and likely eradication of polio. We examined the contribution of polio eradication activities (PEI) on new vaccine introduction in the countries of the African Region. METHODS: We reviewed country specific PEI reports to identify best practices relevant to new vaccine introduction (NVI), and analyzed trends in vaccine coverage during 2010-2015 from immunization estimates provided by WHO/UNICEF...
October 10, 2016: Vaccine
Olivier Manigart, Caroline Trotter, Helen Findlow, Abraham Aseffa, Wude Mihret, Tesfaye Moti Demisse, Biruk Yeshitela, Isaac Osei, Abraham Hodgson, Stephen Laryea Quaye, Samba Sow, Mamadou Coulibaly, Kanny Diallo, Awa Traore, Jean-Marc Collard, Rahamatou Moustapha Boukary, Oumarou Djermakoye, Ali Elhaji Mahamane, Jean-François Jusot, Cheikh Sokhna, Serge Alavo, Souleymane Doucoure, El Hadj Ba, Mariétou Dieng, Aldiouma Diallo, Doumagoum Moto Daugla, Babatunji Omotara, Daniel Chandramohan, Musa Hassan-King, Maria Nascimento, Arouna Woukeu, Ray Borrow, James M Stuart, Brian Greenwood
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0147928.].
2016: PloS One
Haoua Tall, Berthe-Marie Njanpop-Lafourcade, Didier Mounkoro, Loukoumane Tidjani, Kodjo Agbenoko, Issifou Alassani, Moussa Amidou, Stanislas Tamekloe, Kenneth G Laing, Adam A Witney, Jason Hinds, Mark P G van der Linden, Bradford D Gessner, Jennifer C Moïsi
During 2010-2014, we enrolled 511 patients with suspected bacterial meningitis into surveillance in 2 districts of northern Togo. We identified 15 persons with Streptococcus suis infection; 10 had occupational contact with pigs, and 12 suffered neurologic sequelae. S. suis testing should be considered in rural areas of the African meningitis belt.
July 2016: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Juliette Paireau, Angelica Chen, Helene Broutin, Bryan Grenfell, Nicole E Basta
BACKGROUND: Bacterial meningitis, which is caused mainly by Neisseria meningitidis, Haemophilus influenzae, and Streptococcus pneumoniae, inflicts a substantial burden of disease worldwide. Yet, the temporal dynamics of this disease are poorly characterised and many questions remain about the ecology of the disease. We aimed to comprehensively assess seasonal trends in bacterial meningitis on a global scale. METHODS: We developed the first bacterial meningitis global database by compiling monthly incidence data as reported by country-level surveillance systems...
June 2016: Lancet Global Health
Jerome Ateudjieu, Beat Stoll, Georges Nguefack-Tsague, Martin Ndinakie Yakum, Marcellin Nimpa Mengouo, Blaise Genton
PURPOSE: A new vaccine against meningitis A was introduced in Africa meningitis belt in 2010. This study was planned to describe the incidence and types of adverse events following immunization (AEFIs) with a new conjugate vaccine against meningitis A (MenAfrivac™) in a Cameroonian vaccination campaign. METHODS: The campaign was conducted in Adamawa and North West regions in December 2012 and the AEFIs enhanced surveillance from December 2012 to January 2013. Incidence rates (IR) of overall and serious AEFIs were estimated as well as AEFI incidence rates by type, age group and region...
May 13, 2016: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 22, 2016: Relevé épidémiologique Hebdomadaire
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