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Ivan Ljubic, Aleksandar Sabljic, Marija Bonifacic
The reactions of α-hydroxyalkyl radicals in aqueous medium are of interest because they exhibit a rich variety of fundamentally important competing mechanisms, such as proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET), hydrogen atom transfer, free radical substitutions, abstractions and additions etc. We present a theoretical study of the mechanism and kinetics of the aqueous reactions of α-hydroxyisopropyl (2-propanol) radical with four halogenated organic substrates: iodoacetate (IAc), iodoacetamide (IAm), 5-bromouracil (5-BrU), and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Sara Zahedi, Karim Shamsasenjan, Aliakbar Movassaghpour, Parvin Akbarzadehlaleh
Purpose: Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) are one of the essential members of Bone Marrow (BM) microenvironment and the cells affect normal and malignant cells in BM milieu. One of the most important hematological malignancies is Multiple Myeloma (MM). Numerous studies reported various effects of MSCs on myeloma cells. MSCs initiate various signaling pathways in myeloma cells, particularly NF-kβ. NF-kβ signaling pathway plays pivotal role in the survival, proliferation and resistance of myeloma cells to the anticancer drugs, therefore this pathway can be said to be a vital target for cancer therapy...
September 2016: Advanced Pharmaceutical Bulletin
Yingxue Yu, Xuehua Sun, Jinyang Gu, Chang Yu, Yankai Wen, Yueqiu Gao, Qiang Xia, Xiaoni Kong
Liver fibrosis is a global health problem and previous studies have demonstrated that reactive oxygen species (ROS) play important roles in fibrogenesis. Parkinson disease (autosomal recessive, early onset) 7 (Park7) also called DJ-1 has an essential role in modulating cellular ROS levels. DJ-1 therefore may play functions in liver fibrogenesis and modulation of DJ-1 may be a promising therapeutic approach. Here, wild-type (WT) and DJ-1 knockout (DJ-1 KO) mice were administrated with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) to induce liver fibrosis or acute liver injury...
2016: International Journal of Biological Sciences
Fadia S Youssef, Mohamed L Ashour, Mansour Sobeh, Hesham A El-Beshbishy, Abdel Nasser Singab, Michael Wink
BACKGROUND: The Australian plant Eremophila maculata F. Muell (Scrophulariaceae) is cultivated worldwide as an ornamental plant. PURPOSE: This study was designed to assess the antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities of a methanol extract from E. maculata leaves (EMM) both in vitro and in vivo (rats) experiments. Detailed phytochemical study was done on the extract followed by molecular docking experiments on TNF-α ascertain the efficacy of the isolated compounds...
November 15, 2016: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
Mohamed A Farag, Ahlam M El Fishawy, Sayed A El-Toumy, Khadiga F Amer, Ahmed M Mansour, Hala E Taha
BACKGROUND: Panicum turgidum, desert grass, has not reported any detailed phytochemical or biological study as yet. OBJECTIVE: To establish P. turgidum secondary metabolite profile and to assess its antihepatotoxic effect. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled to quadrupole high-resolution time of flight mass spectrometry (qTOF-MS) was used for large-scale secondary metabolites profiling in P. turgidum extract, alongside assessing median lethal dose (LD50) and hepatoprotective effect against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) intoxication...
July 2016: Pharmacognosy Magazine
A Rahman, S M Vasenwala, M Iqbal
Glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) has been used widely as a potent vasodilator to treat heart conditions, such as angina pectoris and chronic heart failure. This study aims to elucidate the effect of exogenous nitric oxide (NO) administration, using GTN, on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced oxidative stress and liver injury in rats. The results obtained demonstrated that NO generated by the administration of GTN affords protection against CCl4-induced oxidative stress and liver injury. Administration of CCl4 resulted in a significant (p < 0...
October 10, 2016: Human & Experimental Toxicology
Zenei Taira, Yukari Ueda, Hiroshi Monmasu, Daisuke Yamase, Sayaka Miyake, Maya Shiraishi
Two specific signals for regulating liver regeneration were found after 70% partial hepatectomy (PH) in rats. The first finding was a sustained increasing signal of intracellular Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)]i) in hepatocytes, consisting of two successive peaks with the first narrow peak at 1 hour and the second broad peak increasing by day 3 and then returning to normal by day 4. The second finding was an abnormal peak in the restoring ratio (Rr) curve of liver regeneration after 70% PH at day 4, where the Rr exceeded 100% temporarily, returned to a lower level, and then proceeded to a termination phase of liver regeneration...
2016: Journal of Experimental Pharmacology
Norikazu Kiguchi, Huiping Ding, Christopher M Peters, Nancy D Kock, Shiroh Kishioka, J Mark Cline, Janice D Wagner, Mei-Chuan Ko
Neuroinflammation is a pathological condition that underlies diabetes and affects sensory processing. Given the high prevalence of pain in diabetic patients and crosstalk between chemokines and opioids, it is pivotal to know whether neuroinflammation-associated mediators are dysregulated in the central nervous system of diabetic primates. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate whether mRNA expression levels of glial markers, chemokines, and opioid receptors are altered in the spinal cord and thalamus of naturally occurring type 2 diabetic monkeys (n=7) compared with age-matched non-diabetic monkeys (n=6)...
October 14, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Kangkang Wu, Rui Huang, Hongyan Wu, Yong Liu, Chenchen Yang, Shufeng Cao, Xianglin Hou, Bing Chen, Jianwu DaI, Chao Wu
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) serves an important role in promoting angiogenesis and tissue regeneration. However, the lack of an effective delivery system that can target this growth factor to the injured site reduces its therapeutic efficacy. Therefore, in the current study, collagen‑binding VEGF was constructed by fusing a collagen‑binding domain (CBD) to the N‑terminal of native VEGF. The CBD‑VEGF can specifically bind to collagen which is the major component of the extracellular matrix in fibrotic liver...
October 12, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
Ying Wang, Tao Liu, Ning Yang, Shuo Xu, Xingang Li, Donghai Wang
Glioblastoma (GBM) is a highly malignant brain tumor characterized by invasion tendency. Macrophage infiltration is associated with GBM invasion, but the mechanisms remain unclear. Hypoxia is an outstanding characteristic of GBM tissue. Hypoxia microenvironment modulates the biological behaviors of both tumor cells and infiltrated immune cells, including macrophages. In the present study, we analyzed the effects of hypoxia and macrophages on invasion of GBM cells and its potential mechanisms. We found that both hypoxia and macrophage supernatant promoted GBM cells invasion and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 expression, and hypoxia modulated the invasive activity of GBM cells by upregulating their CCR5 expression...
October 13, 2016: Oncology Reports
Haifeng Teng, Meng Chen, Ansheng Zou, Haili Jiang, Jichun Han, Long Sun, Chao Feng, Ju Liu
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to investigate the hepatoprotective effect of licochalcone B (LCB) in a mice model of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver toxicity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Hepatotoxicity was induced in mice by a single subcutaneous injection (SC) of CCl4. The LCB was administered orally once a day for seven days (PO) as pretreatment at three doses of 1, 5, and 25 mg/kg/day. The levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH), glutathione disulfide (GSSG), C-reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were analyzed by ELISA...
August 2016: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
Mohamed Balaha, Samah Kandeel, Waleed Barakat
Carvedilol is an anti-oxidant non-selective β-blocker used for reduction of portal blood pressure, prophylaxis of esophageal varices development and bleeding in chronic liver diseases. Recently, it exhibited potent anti-inflammatory, anti-fibrotic, anti-proliferative and anti-carcinogenic effects. In the present study, we evaluated the possible suppressive effect of carvedilol on circulating and hepatic IL-6 levels responsible for hepatocarcinogenesis in a rat model of hepatic cirrhosis. Besides, its effect on hepatic STAT-3 levels, function tests, oxidative stress markers, and hydroxyproline content, hepatic tissue histopathological changes and immunohistochemical expression of E & N-cadherin...
October 13, 2016: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Daniel Hanna, Ariane Emami Riedmaier, Kim S Sugamori, Denis M Grant
The incidence of liver cancer is higher in men than in women. This sex difference is also observed in murine tumor induction models that result in the appearance of liver tumors in adult mice following their exposure on postnatal days 8 and/or 15 to carcinogens such as 4-aminobiphenyl (ABP) or diethylnitrosamine (DEN). Previous studies performed in adult mice showed that acute hepatotoxic and inflammatory responses to high-dose DEN exposure were greater in males than in females, leading to the suggestion that these responses could account for the sex difference in tumor development...
October 13, 2016: Toxicology
Hiroki Yoshioka, Miki Tanaka, Hirohisa Fujii, Tsunemasa Nonogaki
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the therapeutic effects of a Sasa veitchii leaf extract (SE) on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepato- and nephrotoxicity. METHODS: Seven-week-old male ddy mice were orally administered SE or saline for seven days. Twenty-four hours after the last SE or saline administration, the mice were intraperitoneally injected with 3 g/kg CCl4 or olive oil. The mice from each group were euthanized and bled for plasma analysis 24 h after the CCl4/olive oil injection...
October 13, 2016: Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine
Zemin Li, Xiaolin Wang, Hehai Pan, Hao Yang, Xiang Li, Kuibo Zhang, Hua Wang, Zhaomin Zheng, Hui Liu, Jianru Wang
OBJECTIVE: This study was to investigate whether resistin induces the expression of CCL4 during IVDD and whether Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR-4) and the NF-κB signaling pathway are involved in this process. METHODS: The expression pattern of resistin and CCL4 in different degenerated human NP tissues were measured by qPCR; Effect of resistin on the migration of macrophages was measured by cell migration assay. Resistin-induced CCL4 expression were analyzed by qPCR, ELISA and cell immunofluorescence...
October 10, 2016: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
Anna Slawinska, John C Hsieh, Carl J Schmidt, Susan J Lamont
Acute heat stress requires immediate adjustment of the stressed individual to sudden changes of ambient temperatures. Chickens are particularly sensitive to heat stress due to development of insufficient physiological mechanisms to mitigate its effects. One of the symptoms of heat stress is endotoxemia that results from release of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from the guts. Heat-related cytotoxicity is mitigated by the innate immune system, which is comprised mostly of phagocytic cells such as monocytes and macrophages...
2016: PloS One
Reham H Mekky, Mostafa R Fayed, Mohamed R El-Gindi, Azza R Abdel-Monem, María Del Mar Contreras, Antonio Segura-Carretero, Essam Abdel-Sattar
Chickpea (Cicer arietinum) is a legume of the family Fabaceae, subfamily Faboideae. In Egypt, chickpea seeds are usually consumed at raw green and tender stage, or in the form of mature dry seeds. In our previous study, 'Giza 1' seeds exhibited stronger antioxidant activity and higher total phenol content than those from other Egyptian cultivars. In order to assess the biological potential of 'Giza 1' seeds in vivo, the extraction procedure was reproduced here. The extract was standardized using liquid chromatography coupled to diode array detector and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) to evaluate their hepatoprotective effect on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatotoxicity in rats and acute toxicity...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Todd R Harris, Sean Kodani, Jun Yang, Denise M Imai, Bruce D Hammock
Exposure to the halogenated hydrocarbon carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) leads to hepatic lipid peroxidation, inflammation and fibrosis. Dietary supplementation of ω-3 fatty acids has been increasingly advocated as being generally anti-inflammatory, though its effect in models of liver fibrosis is mixed. This raises the question of whether diets high in ω-3 fatty acids will result in a greater sensitivity or resistance to liver fibrosis as a result of environmental toxicants like CCl4. In this study, we fed CCl4-treated mice a high ω-3 diet (using a mix of docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid ethyl esters)...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Yuan-Yuan Zhan, Jin-Hui Wang, Xing Tian, Shi-Xiu Feng, Lin Xue, Li-Ping Tian
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Citrullus lanatus ssp. vulgaris var. megalaspermus Lin et Chao, was also known as watermelon belongs to family Cucurbitaceae, variously used as healthy food and in the treatment of liver and lungs problems. Currently, Citrullus lanatus has become a major economic crop of medicinal and edible effects with regional characteristics. AIM: This study was designed to evaluate the hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity of the seed melon (Citrullus lanatus ssp...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Y Gallais, N Szely, F-X Legrand, A Leroy, M Pallardy, I Turbica
Patients treated with therapeutic biological products (BP) frequently develop anti-drug antibodies (ADA) with potential neutralizing capacities leading to loss of clinical response, or serious side effects. BP aggregates have been suggested to promote immunogenicity thus enhancing ADA production. Dendritic cells (DC) are key effectors in T-cell and B-cell fates and the subsequent generation of immunogenicity. The objective of this work was to determine if BP aggregates can participate to DC maturation and T-cell activation...
October 7, 2016: Immunology and Cell Biology
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