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Brain Slice

Niels Janssen, Juan A Hernández-Cabrera, Laura Ezama Foronda
A major drawback of functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) concerns the lack of detection accuracy of the measured signal. Although this limitation stems in part from the neuro-vascular nature of the fMRI signal, it also reflects particular methodological decisions in the fMRI data analysis pathway. Here we show that the signal detection accuracy of fMRI is affected by the specific way in which whole-brain volumes are created from individually acquired brain slices, and by the method of statistically extracting signals from the sampled data...
April 12, 2018: NeuroImage
Katelyn M Reinhart, C William Shuttleworth
Recent work has implicated spreading depolarization (SD) as a key contributor the progression of acute brain injuries, however development of interventions selectively targeting SDs has lagged behind. Initial clinical intervention efforts have focused on observations that relatively high doses of the sedative agent ketamine can completely suppress SD. However blocking propagation of SD could theoretically prevent beneficial effects of SD in surrounding brain regions. Selective targeting of deleterious consequences of SD (rather than abolition) could be a useful adjunct approach, and be achieved with lower ketamine concentrations...
April 10, 2018: Experimental Neurology
Cristina Rodríguez, Yajie Liang, Rongwen Lu, Na Ji
Volumetric imaging tools that are simple to adopt, flexible, and robust are in high demand in the field of neuroscience, where the ability to image neurons and their networks with high spatiotemporal resolution is essential. Using an axially elongated focus approximating a Bessel beam, in combination with two-photon fluorescence microscopy, has proven successful at such an endeavor. Here, we demonstrate three-photon fluorescence imaging with an axially extended Bessel focus. We use an axicon-based module that allowed for the generation of Bessel foci of varying numerical apertures and axial lengths, and apply this volumetric imaging tool to image mouse brain slices and for in vivo imaging of the mouse brain...
April 15, 2018: Optics Letters
Siniša Vujmilović, Goran Spasojević, Saša Vujnović, Slobodan Malobabić, Zoran Vujković
Vertebral artery (VA), the main element of the posterior brain circulation, has many anatomical variations which generally were widely investigated. However, available data vary in wide ranges, reflecting very different sample sizes, lack of data about left-right or sex differences, and about possible ethnic, regionally specific or genetic differences. Certain new findings suggest possible involvement of some environmental factors in VA variations. Accurate anatomical data about VA variations in different regions of the world, including Balkans countries, are still lacking...
April 13, 2018: Folia Morphologica (Warsz)
Satoshi Tsutsumi, Juan Carlos Fernandez-Miranda, Hisato Ishii, Hideo Ono, Yukimasa Yasumoto
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The fastigium cerebelli is an important topographical landmark for neurosurgeons and radiologists. However, few studies have characterized the morphology of the fastigium cerebelli. We aimed to investigate the fastigium cerebelli using postmortem specimens and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in vivo. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three cadaveric brains were midsagittally sectioned for observing the fastigium cerebelli. Additionally, 66 outpatients underwent MRI, including sagittal T1-weighted imaging, axial T2-weighted imaging, and coronal constructive interference in steady-state (CISS) sequence...
April 12, 2018: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
Isabelle Riederer, Claus Zimmer, Daniela Pfeiffer, Silke Wunderlich, Holger Poppert, Ernst J Rummeny, Armin Huber
PURPOSE: To examine CTP of the brain in real patient data after reducing tube current down to 80 mAs to decrease radiation dose. METHODS: CTP was acquired in 60 suspected stroke patients with 80 (n: 30) or 160 (n: 30) mAs. Data were analyzed retrospectively by two independent readers. SNR, perfusion maps and image quality were compared in hypoperfused and non-affected areas. RESULTS: SNR was significantly higher in CTP with 160 mAs compared to 80 mAs (p < 0...
April 5, 2018: Clinical Imaging
Y Q Li, Y Sheng, L Liang, Y Zhao, H Y Li, N Bai, T Wang, L Yuan, H B Han
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the application of the optical magnetic bimodal molecular probe Gd-DO3A-ethylthiouret-fluorescein isothiocyanate (Gd -DO3A-EA-FITC) in brain tissue imaging and brain interstitial space (ISS). METHODS: In the study, 24 male SD rats were randomly divided into 3 groups, including magnetic probe group (n=6), optical probe group (n=6) and optical magnetic bimodal probe group (n=12), then the optical magnetic bimodal probe group was divided equally into magnetic probe subgroup (n=6) and optical probe subgroup (n=6)...
April 18, 2018: Beijing da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Peking University. Health Sciences
Michelle A Sahai, Colin Davidson, Neelakshi Dutta, Jolanta Opacka-Juffry
Novel psychoactive substances (NPS) may have unsuspected addiction potential through possessing stimulant properties. Stimulants normally act at the dopamine transporter (DAT) and thus increase dopamine (DA) availability in the brain, including nucleus accumbens, within the reward and addiction pathway. This paper aims to assess DAT responses to dissociative diarylethylamine NPS by means of in vitro and in silico approaches. We compared diphenidine (DPH) and 2-methoxydiphenidine (methoxphenidine, 2-MXP/MXP) for their binding to rat DAT, using autoradiography assessment of [125 I]RTI-121 displacement in rat striatal sections...
April 7, 2018: Brain Sciences
Fabio Carletti, Valerio Rizzo, Giuditta Gambino, Viviana De Caro, Flavia Maria Sutera, Libero Italo Giannola, Giuseppe Ferraro, Pierangelo Sardo
BACKGROUND: Research about improvement of epilepsy therapy is constantly growing. Valproyl-L-Phenylalanine (VPA-Phen) and N-valproyl-L-tryptophan (VPA-Tryp) were synthesized to increase the antiepileptic valproic acid efficacy. METHODS: VPA-Phen and VPA-Tryp were comparatively tested on CA1 hippocampal epileptiform bursting activity obtained by increasing potassium and lowering calcium and magnesium concentrations in the fluid perfusing rat brain slices. Each slice was treated with a single concentration (0...
April 8, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Archana Iyer, Lakshmi Subramanian, Shubha Tole
This protocol describes the technique of ex-vivo electroporation to target embryonic hippocampal progenitors in an organotypic slice preparation. This technique allows gene perturbation for examining developmental processes in the embryonic hippocampus while retaining the environment and connectivity of the cells. Gene perturbation can include Cre-mediated recombination, RNAi-mediated knockdown, gene overexpression, or a combination of any of these. Ex-vivo electroporation can be performed at a wide range of embryonic stages, giving temporal control to the experimenter...
March 20, 2018: Bio-protocol
Jesvin S Madan, Kanika Gupta, Sumantra Chattarji, Aditi Bhattacharya
Stress is known to cause contrasting patterns of morphological and physiological plasticity in the hippocampus and amygdala. An obligatory cellular process underlying such neural changes is de novo translation and alterations in protein expression. Yet the nature of the translational response to stress in neurons remains largely unexplored. Even less is known about how glia are affected. Using a click-chemistry-based method to label the de novo proteome in live brain slices, we monitored translation in neurons and astrocytes of the basolateral amygdala (BLA) and dorsal hippocampal area CA3 (dCA3) in rats at different time-points after a single 2-hour exposure to immobilization stress...
April 7, 2018: Hippocampus
Dmitry V Amakhin, Elena B Soboleva, Aleksey V Zaitsev
Cephalosporins are beta-lactam antibiotics that are extensively used in medical practice and are reported to cause epileptic seizures in some patients. The primary cause of cephalosporin-induced convulsions is believed to be their ability to block GABAa receptors. However, direct evidence for the involvement of this mechanism has not yet been provided. The present study aims to investigate the ability of two cephalosporins - cefepime and ceftriaxone - to block inhibitory synaptic transmission in entorhinal cortex slices of rats...
April 3, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Michael G White, Brian N Mathur
The claustrum is a telencephalic gray matter nucleus that is richly interconnected with the neocortex. This structure subserves top-down executive functions that require frontal cortical control of posterior cortical regions. However, functional anatomical support for the claustrum allowing for long-range intercortical communication is lacking. To test this, we performed a channelrhodopsin-assisted long-circuit mapping strategy in mouse brain slices. We find that anterior cingulate cortex input to the claustrum is transiently amplified by claustrum neurons that, in turn, project to parietal association cortex or to primary and secondary visual cortices...
April 6, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
G Aleph Prieto, Liqi Tong, Erica D Smith, Carl W Cotman
CNS inflammatory responses are linked to cognitive impairment in humans. Research in animal models supports this connection by showing that inflammatory cytokines suppress long-term potentiation (LTP), the best-known cellular correlate of memory. Cytokine-induced modulation of LTP has been previously studied in vivo or in brain slices, two experimental approaches containing multiple cell populations responsive to cytokines. In their target cells, cytokines commonly increase the expression of multiple cytokines, thus increasing the complexity of brain cytokine networks even after single-cytokine challenges...
April 4, 2018: Neurochemical Research
Munish Chauhan, Aprinda Indahlastari, Aditya K Kasinadhuni, Michael Schar, Thomas H Mareci, Rosalind J Sadleir
We present the first in vivo images of anisotropic conductivity distribution in the human head, measured at a frequency of approximately 10 Hz. We used magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography techniques to encode phase changes caused by current flow within the head via two independent electrode pairs. These results were then combined with diffusion tensor imaging data to reconstruct full anisotropic conductivity distributions in 5-mm-thick slices of the brains of two participants. Conductivity values recovered in this paper were broadly consistent with literature values...
April 2018: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
Huiquan Wang, S Nizam Ahmed, Mrinal Mandal
Cavernous malformation or cavernoma is one of the most common epileptogenic lesions. It is a type of brain vessel abnormality that can cause serious symptoms such as seizures, intracerebral hemorrhage, and various neurological disorders. Manual detection of cavernomas by physicians in a large set of brain MRI slices is a time-consuming and labor-intensive task and often delays diagnosis. In this paper, we propose a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system for cavernomas based on T2-weighted axial plane MRI image analysis...
March 21, 2018: Computerized Medical Imaging and Graphics: the Official Journal of the Computerized Medical Imaging Society
Zhenyu Liu, Katelynne B Donnelly, Kara G Pratt
The Xenopus tadpole retinotectal circuit, comprised of the retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in the eye which form synapses directly onto neurons in the optic tectum, is a popular model to study how neural circuits self-assemble. The ability to carry out whole cell patch clamp recordings from tectal neurons and to record RGC-evoked responses, either in vivo or using a whole brain preparation, has generated a large body of high-resolution data about the mechanisms underlying normal, and abnormal, circuit formation and function...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Agnes Thalhammer, Fanny Jaudon, Lorenzo A Cingolani
The purpose of this protocol is to characterize the effect of gene knockdown on presynaptic function within intact neuronal circuits. We describe a workflow on how to combine artificial microRNA (miR)-mediated RNA interference with optogenetics to achieve selective stimulation of manipulated presynaptic boutons in acute brain slices. The experimental approach involves the use of a single viral construct and a single neuron-specific promoter to drive the expression of both an optogenetic probe and artificial miR(s) against presynaptic gene(s)...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Olivier Camiré, Lisa Topolnik
Calcium (Ca2+ ) imaging is a powerful tool to investigate the spatiotemporal dynamics of intracellular Ca2+ signals in neuronal dendrites. Ca2+ fluctuations can occur through a variety of membrane and intracellular mechanisms and play a crucial role in the induction of synaptic plasticity and regulation of dendritic excitability. Hence, the ability to record different types of Ca2+ signals in dendritic branches is valuable for groups studying how dendrites integrate information. The advent of two-photon microscopy has made such studies significantly easier by solving the problems inherent to imaging in live tissue, such as light scattering and photodamage...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Fuyixue Wang, Berkin Bilgic, Zijing Dong, Mary Kate Manhard, Ned Ohringer, Bo Zhao, Melissa Haskell, Stephen F Cauley, Qiuyun Fan, Thomas Witzel, Elfar Adalsteinsson, Lawrence L Wald, Kawin Setsompop
PURPOSE: To develop an efficient MR technique for ultra-high resolution diffusion MRI (dMRI) in the presence of motion. METHODS: gSlider is an SNR-efficient high-resolution dMRI acquisition technique. However, subject motion is inevitable during a prolonged scan for high spatial resolution, leading to potential image artifacts and blurring. In this study, an integrated technique termed Motion Corrected gSlider (MC-gSlider) is proposed to obtain high-quality, high-resolution dMRI in the presence of large in-plane and through-plane motion...
April 1, 2018: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
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