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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909101/changes-in-properties-of-auditory-nerve-synapses-following-conductive-hearing-loss
#1
Xiaowen Zhuang, Wei Sun, Matthew A Xu-Friedman
: Auditory activity plays an important role in the development of the auditory system. Decreased activity can result from conductive hearing loss (CHL) associated with otitis media, which may lead to long-term perceptual deficits. The effects of CHL have been mainly studied at later stages of the auditory pathway, but early stages remain less examined. However, changes in early stages could be important, because they would affect how information about sounds is conveyed to higher order areas for further processing and localization...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909098/reversible-disruption-of-neuronal-mitochondria-by-ischemic-and-traumatic-injury-revealed-by-quantitative-two-photon-imaging-in-the-neocortex-of-anesthetized-mice
#2
Mikhail Kislin, Jeremy Sword, Ioulia V Fomitcheva, Deborah Croom, Evgeny Pryazhnikov, Eero Lihavainen, Dmytro Toptunov, Heikki Rauvala, Andre S Ribeiro, Leonard Khiroug, Sergei A Kirov
: Mitochondria play a variety of functional roles in cortical neurons, from metabolic support and neuroprotection to the release of cytokines that trigger apoptosis. In dendrites, mitochondrial structure is closely linked to their function, and fragmentation (fission) of the normally elongated mitochondria indicates loss of their function under such pathological conditions as stroke and brain trauma. Using in vivo two-photon microscopy in mouse brain, we quantified mitochondrial fragmentation in a full spectrum of cortical injuries ranging from severe to mild...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902936/how-restful-is-it-with-all-that-noise-comparison-of-interleaved-silent-steady-state-isss-and-conventional-imaging-in-resting-state-fmri
#3
J Andoh, M Ferreira, I R Leppert, R Matsushita, B Pike, R J Zatorre
Resting-state fMRI studies have become very important in cognitive neuroscience because they are able to identify BOLD fluctuations in brain circuits involved in motor, cognitive, or perceptual processes without the use of an explicit task. Such approaches have been fruitful when applied to various disordered populations, or to children or the elderly. However, insufficient attention has been paid to the consequences of the loud acoustic scanner noise associated with conventional fMRI acquisition, which could be an important confounding factor affecting auditory and/or cognitive networks in resting-state fMRI...
November 27, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900794/fast-and-efficient-free-induction-decay-mr-spectroscopic-imaging-of-the-human-brain-at-9-4-tesla
#4
Grzegorz L Chadzynski, Jonas Bause, Gunamony Shajan, Rolf Pohmann, Klaus Scheffler, Philipp Ehses
PURPOSE: The purpose of this work was to develop a fast and efficient MRSI-FID acquisition scheme and test its performance in vivo. The aim was to find a trade-off between the minimal total acquisition time and signal-to-noise ratio of the acquired spectra. METHODS: Measurements were performed on a 9.4 Tesla system. Sequence optimization included redesign of water suppression, optimization of the sequence gradients, and improvement of the sampling efficiency by minimizing the read-out time...
November 29, 2016: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897242/cortical-synaptic-and-dendritic-spine-abnormalities-in-a-presymptomatic-tdp-43-model-of-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#5
Matthew J Fogarty, Paul M Klenowski, John D Lee, Joy R Drieberg-Thompson, Selena E Bartlett, Shyuan T Ngo, Massimo A Hilliard, Mark C Bellingham, Peter G Noakes
Layer V pyramidal neurons (LVPNs) within the motor cortex integrate sensory cues and co-ordinate voluntary control of motor output. In amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) LVPNs and spinal motor neurons degenerate. The pathogenesis of neural degeneration is unknown in ALS; 10% of cases have a genetic cause, whereas 90% are sporadic, with most of the latter showing TDP-43 inclusions. Clinical and experimental evidence implicate excitotoxicity as a prime aetiological candidate. Using patch clamp and dye-filling techniques in brain slices, combined with high-resolution confocal microscopy, we report increased excitatory synaptic inputs and dendritic spine densities in early presymptomatic mice carrying a TDP-43(Q331K) mutation...
November 29, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896810/multiple-pathways-for-elevating-extracellular-adenosine-in-the-rat-hippocampal-ca1-region-characterized-by-adenosine-sensor-cells
#6
Kunihiko Yamashiro, Yuki Fujii, Shohei Maekawa, Mitsuhiro Morita
Extracellular adenosine in the brain, which modulates various physiological and pathological processes, fluctuates in a complicated manner that reflects the circadian cycle, neuronal activity, metabolism, and disease states. The dynamics of extracellular adenosine in the brain are not fully understood, largely because of the lack of simple and reliable methods of measuring time-dependent changes in tissue adenosine distribution. This study describes the development of a biosensor, designated an adenosine sensor cell, expressing adenosine A1 receptor, and a genetically modified G protein...
November 5, 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896311/interfacing-with-neural-activity-via-femtosecond-laser-stimulation-of-drug-encapsulating-liposomal-nanostructures
#7
Takashi Nakano, Sean M Mackay, Eng Wui Tan, Keshav M Dani, Jeff Wickens
External control over rapid and precise release of chemicals in the brain potentially provides a powerful interface with neural activity. Optical manipulation techniques, such as optogenetics and caged compounds, enable remote control of neural activity and behavior with fine spatiotemporal resolution. However, these methods are limited to chemicals that are naturally present in the brain or chemically suitable for caging. Here, we demonstrate the ability to interface with neural functioning via a wide range of neurochemicals released by stimulating loaded liposomal nanostructures with femtosecond lasers...
November 2016: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894889/tradeoffs-in-pushing-the-spatial-resolution-of-fmri-for-the-7t-human-connectome-project
#8
An Thanh Vu, Keith Jamison, Matthew F Glasser, Stephen M Smith, Timothy Coalson, Steen Moeller, Edward J Auerbach, Kamil Ugurbil, Essa Yacoub
Whole-brain functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), in conjunction with multiband acceleration, has played an important role in mapping the functional connectivity throughout the entire brain with both high temporal and spatial resolution. Ultrahigh magnetic field strengths (7T and above) allow functional imaging with even higher functional contrast-to-noise ratios for improved spatial resolution and specificity compared to traditional field strengths (1.5T and 3T). High-resolution 7T fMRI, however, has primarily been constrained to smaller brain regions given the amount of time it takes to acquire the number of slices necessary for high resolution whole brain imaging...
November 25, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893859/hippocampal-calcification-on-computed-tomography-in-relation-to-cognitive-decline-in-memory-clinic-patients-a-case-control-study
#9
Remko Kockelkoren, Jill B De Vis, Willem P Th M Mali, Jeroen Hendrikse, Pim A de Jong, Annemieke M Rozemuller, Huiberdina L Koek
BACKGROUND: It was recently shown that calcification of the hippocampus can be detected on computed tomography (CT) images and these calcifications occur in up to 20% of people over 50 years of age. However, little is known about hippocampal calcification and its relation to cognition and cognitive decline. Therefore, the aim of this study was to (1) determine the prevalence of hippocampal calcification on CT in memory clinic patients controls, and (2) to assess its relation with cognitive decline...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891826/ct-brain-perfusion-a-static-phantom-study-of-contrast-to-noise-ratio-and-radiation-dose
#10
Stewart M Midgley, Damien L Stella, Bruce Cv Campbell, Francesca Langenberg, Paul F Einsiedel
INTRODUCTION: Computed tomography perfusion (CTP) is increasingly employed in the diagnosis and management of ischaemic stroke but radiation dose can be significant and optimising contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) is challenging. This study aimed to quantify and optimise the balance between CNR as a surrogate for image quality and radiation dose. METHODS: A perspex head phantom with vials of dilute contrast agent was scanned using a Siemens Definition Flash 128-slice scanner...
November 27, 2016: Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890676/combined-in-vitro-and-in-silico-approaches-to-the-assessment-of-stimulant-properties-of-novel-psychoactive-substances-the-case-of-the-benzofuran-5-mapb
#11
Michelle A Sahai, Colin Davidson, George Khelashvili, Vincenzo Barrese, Neelakshi Dutta, Harel Weinstein, Jolanta Opacka-Juffry
Novel psychoactive substances (NPS) are increasingly prevalent world-wide although their pharmacological characteristics are largely unknown; those with stimulant properties, due to interactions with the dopamine transporter (DAT), have addictive potential which their users may not realise. We evaluated the binding of 1-(1-benzofuran-5-yl)-N-methylpropan-2-amine (5-MAPB) to rat striatal DAT by means of quantitative autoradiography with [(125)I]RTI-121, and the effects of 5-MAPB on electrically-evoked dopamine efflux by fast-cyclic voltammetry in rat brain slices...
November 24, 2016: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888543/segmented-simultaneous-multi-slice-diffusion-weighted-imaging-with-generalized-trajectories
#12
Michael Herbst, Weiran Deng, Thomas Ernst, V Andrew Stenger
PURPOSE: The purpose of this work is to develop and evaluate a single framework for the use of Cartesian and non-Cartesian segmented trajectories for rapid and robust simultaneous multislice (SMS) diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) at 3 Telsa (T). METHODS: A generalized SMS approach with intrinsic phase navigation using Multiplexed Sensitivity Encoding (MUSE) was developed. Segmented blipped-controlled aliasing in parallel imaging echo planar imaging (EPI) and z-gradient modulated spiral trajectories were examined using SMS DWI scans at 3T with a 32-channel head coil...
November 25, 2016: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888142/profiling-and-identification-of-new-proteins-involved-in-brain-ischemia-using-maldi-imaging-mass-spectrometry
#13
Víctor Llombart, Sebastián Alejandro Trejo, Sílvia Bronsoms, Anna Morancho, Ma Feifei, Júlia Faura, Teresa García-Berrocoso, Alba Simats, Anna Rosell, Francesc Canals, Mar Hernández-Guillamón, Joan Montaner
: The identification of proteins involved in brain ischemia might allow the discovery of putative biomarkers or therapeutic targets for ischemic stroke. Our aim is to study the distribution of proteins within mouse brain after an ischemic insult using MALDI imaging-mass-spectrometry and to identify relevant proteins involved in brain damage. We occluded the middle cerebral artery of C57BL/6J mice. Brain slices were analyzed by MALDI-TOF and infarct (IC) and contralateral (CL) regions were compared using ClinProTools...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886714/classification-of-ct-brain-images-based-on-deep-learning-networks
#14
Xiaohong W Gao, Rui Hui, Zengmin Tian
While computerised tomography (CT) may have been the first imaging tool to study human brain, it has not yet been implemented into clinical decision making process for diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). On the other hand, with the nature of being prevalent, inexpensive and non-invasive, CT does present diagnostic features of AD to a great extent. This study explores the significance and impact on the application of the burgeoning deep learning techniques to the task of classification of CT brain images, in particular utilising convolutional neural network (CNN), aiming at providing supplementary information for the early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease...
January 2017: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885428/normative-biometry-of-the-fetal-brain-using-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#15
Vanessa Kyriakopoulou, Deniz Vatansever, Alice Davidson, Prachi Patkee, Samia Elkommos, Andrew Chew, Miriam Martinez-Biarge, Bibbi Hagberg, Mellisa Damodaram, Joanna Allsop, Matt Fox, Joseph V Hajnal, Mary A Rutherford
The fetal brain shows accelerated growth in the latter half of gestation, and these changes can be captured by 2D and 3D biometry measurements. The aim of this study was to quantify brain growth in normal fetuses using Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and to produce reference biometry data and a freely available centile calculator ( https://www.developingbrain.co.uk/fetalcentiles/ ). A total of 127 MRI examinations (1.5 T) of fetuses with a normal brain appearance (21-38 gestational weeks) were included in this study...
November 24, 2016: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885356/magnetization-transfer-and-amide-proton-transfer-mri-of-neonatal-brain-development
#16
Yang Zheng, Xiaoming Wang, Xuna Zhao
Purpose. This study aims to evaluate the process of brain development in neonates using combined amide proton transfer (APT) imaging and conventional magnetization transfer (MT) imaging. Materials and Methods. Case data were reviewed for all patients hospitalized in our institution's neonatal ward. Patients underwent APT and MT imaging (a single protocol) immediately following the routine MR examination. Single-slice APT/MT axial imaging was performed at the level of the basal ganglia. APT and MT ratio (MTR) measurements were performed in multiple brain regions of interest (ROIs)...
2016: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881950/a-new-approach-of-modified-submerged-patch-clamp-recording-reveals-interneuronal-dynamics-during-epileptiform-oscillations
#17
Gareth Morris, Premysl Jiruska, John G R Jefferys, Andrew D Powell
Highlights Simultaneous epileptiform LFPs and single-cell activity can be recorded in the membrane chamber.Interneuron firing can be linked to epileptiform high frequency activity.Fast ripples, unique to chronic epilepsy, can be modeled in ex vivo tissue from TeNT-treated rats. Traditionally, visually-guided patch clamp in brain slices using submerged recording conditions has been required to characterize the activity of individual neurons. However, due to limited oxygen availability, submerged conditions truncate fast network oscillations including epileptiform activity...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877108/cerebral-ketone-body-oxidation-is-facilitated-by-a-high-fat-diet-enriched-with-advanced-glycation-end-products-in-normal-and-diabetic-rats
#18
Adriano M de Assis, Jussemara S da Silva, Anderson Rech, Aline Longoni, Yasmine Nonose, Cendrine Repond, Matheus A de Bittencourt Pasquali, José C F Moreira, Diogo O Souza, Luc Pellerin
Diabetes mellitus (DM) causes important modifications in the availability and use of different energy substrates in various organs and tissues. Similarly, dietary manipulations such as high fat diets also affect systemic energy metabolism. However, how the brain adapts to these situations remains unclear. To investigate these issues, control and alloxan-induced type I diabetic rats were fed either a standard or a high fat diet enriched with advanced glycation end products (AGEs) (HAGE diet). The HAGE diet increased their levels of blood ketone bodies, and this effect was exacerbated by DM induction...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876654/fast-bayesian-whole-brain-fmri-analysis-with-spatial-3d-priors
#19
Per Sidén, Anders Eklund, David Bolin, Mattias Villani
Spatial whole-brain Bayesian modeling of task-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a great computational challenge. Most of the currently proposed methods therefore do inference in subregions of the brain separately or do approximate inference without comparison to the true posterior distribution. A popular such method, which is now the standard method for Bayesian single subject analysis in the SPM software, is introduced in Penny et al. (2005b). The method processes the data slice-by-slice and uses an approximate variational Bayes (VB) estimation algorithm that enforces posterior independence between activity coefficients in different voxels...
November 19, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875800/evaluation-of-tspo-pet-imaging-a-marker-of-glial-activation-to-study-the-neuroimmune-footprints-of-morphine-exposure-and-withdrawal
#20
Sylvain Auvity, Sébastien Goutal, Benoît Thézé, Catarina Chaves, Benoît Hosten, Bertrand Kuhnast, Wadad Saba, Raphaël Boisgard, Irène Buvat, Salvatore Cisternino, Nicolas Tournier
INTRODUCTION: A growing area of research suggests that neuroimmunity may impact the pharmacology of opioids. Microglia is a key component of the brain immunity. Preclinical and clinical studies have demonstrated that microglial modulators may improve morphine-induced analgesia and prevent the development of tolerance and dependence. Positron emission tomography (PET) using translocator protein 18kDa (TSPO) radioligand is a clinically validated strategy for the non-invasive detection of microglial activation...
November 8, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
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