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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087766/control-of-amygdala-circuits-by-5-ht-neurons-via-5-ht-and-glutamate-co-transmission
#1
Ayesha Sengupta, Marco Bocchio, David M Bannerman, Trevor Sharp, Marco Capogna
: The serotonin (5-HT) system and the amygdala are key regulators of emotional behavior. Several lines of evidence suggest that 5-HT transmission in the amygdala is implicated in the susceptibility and drug treatment of mood disorders. Thus, elucidating the physiological mechanisms through which midbrain 5-HT neurons modulate amygdala circuits could be pivotal in understanding emotional regulation in health and disease. To shed light on these mechanisms, we performed patch-clamp recordings from basal amygdala (BA) neurons in brain slices from mice with channelrhodopsin (ChR2) genetically targeted to 5-HT neurons...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087578/distinct-binding-of-pet-ligands-pbb3-and-av-1451-to-tau-fibril-strains-in-neurodegenerative-tauopathies
#2
Maiko Ono, Naruhiko Sahara, Katsushi Kumata, Bin Ji, Ruiqing Ni, Shunsuke Koga, Dennis W Dickson, John Q Trojanowski, Virginia M-Y Lee, Mari Yoshida, Isao Hozumi, Yasumasa Yoshiyama, John C van Swieten, Agneta Nordberg, Tetsuya Suhara, Ming-Rong Zhang, Makoto Higuchi
Diverse neurodegenerative disorders are characterized by deposition of tau fibrils composed of conformers (i.e. strains) unique to each illness. The development of tau imaging agents has enabled visualization of tau lesions in tauopathy patients, but the modes of their binding to different tau strains remain elusive. Here we compared binding of tau positron emission tomography ligands, PBB3 and AV-1451, by fluorescence, autoradiography and homogenate binding assays with homologous and heterologous blockades using tauopathy brain samples...
January 12, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077713/reversible-disruption-of-neuronal-mitochondria-by-ischemic-and-traumatic-injury-revealed-by-quantitative-two-photon-imaging-in-the-neocortex-of-anesthetized-mice
#3
Mikhail Kislin, Jeremy Sword, Ioulia V Fomitcheva, Deborah Croom, Evgeny Pryazhnikov, Eero Lihavainen, Dmytro Toptunov, Heikki Rauvala, Andre S Ribeiro, Leonard Khiroug, Sergei A Kirov
: Mitochondria play a variety of functional roles in cortical neurons, from metabolic support and neuroprotection to the release of cytokines that trigger apoptosis. In dendrites, mitochondrial structure is closely linked to their function, and fragmentation (fission) of the normally elongated mitochondria indicates loss of their function under pathological conditions, such as stroke and brain trauma. Using in vivo two-photon microscopy in mouse brain, we quantified mitochondrial fragmentation in a full spectrum of cortical injuries, ranging from severe to mild...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077712/changes-in-properties-of-auditory-nerve-synapses-following-conductive-hearing-loss
#4
Xiaowen Zhuang, Wei Sun, Matthew A Xu-Friedman
: Auditory activity plays an important role in the development of the auditory system. Decreased activity can result from conductive hearing loss (CHL) associated with otitis media, which may lead to long-term perceptual deficits. The effects of CHL have been mainly studied at later stages of the auditory pathway, but early stages remain less examined. However, changes in early stages could be important because they would affect how information about sounds is conveyed to higher-order areas for further processing and localization...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072397/agrp-neuron-activity-is-required-for-alcohol-induced-overeating
#5
Sarah Cains, Craig Blomeley, Mihaly Kollo, Romeo Rácz, Denis Burdakov
Alcohol intake associates with overeating in humans. This overeating is a clinical concern, but its causes are puzzling, because alcohol (ethanol) is a calorie-dense nutrient, and calorie intake usually suppresses brain appetite signals. The biological factors necessary for ethanol-induced overeating remain unclear, and societal causes have been proposed. Here we show that core elements of the brain's feeding circuits-the hypothalamic Agrp neurons that are normally activated by starvation and evoke intense hunger-display electrical and biochemical hyperactivity on exposure to dietary doses of ethanol in brain slices...
January 10, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069353/effects-of-chronic-exposure-to-low-dose-thip-on-brainstem-neuronal-excitability-in-mouse-models-of-rett-syndrome-evidence-from-symptomatic-females
#6
Weiwei Zhong, Christopher Mychal Johnson, Ningren Cui, Hao Xing, Yang Wu, Chun Jiang
Rett Syndrome (RTT) is a neurodevelopmental disorder caused by mutations of the MECP2 gene, affecting predominantly females. One of the characteristic features of the disease is defective brainstem autonomic function. In Mecp2(-/Y) mice, several groups of brainstem neurons are overly excitable, which causes destabilization of neuronal networks for the autonomic control. We have previously shown that the extrasynaptic GABAA receptor agonist THIP relieves many RTT-like symptoms in Mecp2(-/Y) mice. Although neuronal activity is inhibited by acute THIP exposure, how a chronic treatment affects neuronal excitability remains elusive...
January 6, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069030/acute-stress-enhances-the-glutamatergic-transmission-onto-basoamygdala-neurons-embedded-in-distinct-microcircuits
#7
Chen Song, Wen-Hua Zhang, Xue-Hui Wang, Jun-Yu Zhang, Xiao-Li Tian, Xiao-Ping Yin, Bing-Xing Pan
Amygdala activation is known to be critical for the processing of stressful events in brain. Recent studies have shown that the projection neurons (PNs) in amygdala, although architecturally intermingled, are integrated into distinct microcircuits and thus play divergent roles in amygdala-related behaviors. It remains unknown how stress regulates the individual amygdala PNs embedded in distinct microcircuits. Here, by using retrograde tracing and electrophysiological recording in in vitro slices, we explored the modulation of acute immobilization stress (AIS) on the basoamygdala (BA) PNs projecting either to medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) or elsewhere, which we designated as BA-mPFC and non-BA-mPFC PNs respectively...
January 9, 2017: Molecular Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067279/impaired-novelty-acquisition-and-synaptic-plasticity-in-congenital-hyperammonemia-caused-by-hepatic-glutamine-synthetase-deficiency
#8
Aisa N Chepkova, Olga A Sergeeva, Boris Görg, Helmut L Haas, Nikolaj Klöcker, Dieter Häussinger
Genetic defects in ammonia metabolism can produce irreversible damage of the developing CNS causing an impairment of cognitive and motor functions. We investigated alterations in behavior, synaptic plasticity and gene expression in the hippocampus and dorsal striatum of transgenic mice with systemic hyperammonemia resulting from conditional knockout of hepatic glutamine synthetase (LGS-ko). These mice showed reduced exploratory activity and delayed habituation to a novel environment. Field potential recordings from LGS-ko brain slices revealed significantly reduced magnitude of electrically-induced long-term potentiation (LTP) in both CA3-CA1 hippocampal and corticostriatal synaptic transmission...
January 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063772/white-matter-hyperintensity-associations-with-cerebral-blood-flow-in-elderly-subjects-stratified-by-cerebrovascular-risk
#9
Ahmed A Bahrani, David K Powell, Guoquiang Yu, Eleanor S Johnson, Gregory A Jicha, Charles D Smith
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to add clarity to the relationship between deep and periventricular brain white matter hyperintensities (WMHs), cerebral blood flow (CBF), and cerebrovascular risk in older persons. METHODS: Deep white matter hyperintensity (dWMH) and periventricular white matter hyperintensity (pWMH) and regional gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) blood flow from arterial spin labeling were quantified from magnetic resonance imaging scans of 26 cognitively normal elderly subjects stratified by cerebrovascular disease (CVD) risk...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063694/post-wbrt-cognitive-impairment-and-hippocampal-neuronal-depletion-measured-by-in-vivo-metabolic-mr-spectroscopy-results-of-prospective-investigational-study
#10
Petr Pospisil, Tomas Kazda, Ludmila Hynkova, Martin Bulik, Marie Dobiaskova, Petr Burkon, Nadia N Laack, Pavel Slampa, Radim Jancalek
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The aim of this prospective study is to evaluate post-whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) changes in hippocampal concentration of N-acetylaspartate (h-tNAA) as a marker of neuronal loss and to correlate those changes to neurocognitive function. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Thirty-five patients with brain metastases underwent baseline single slice multi-voxel MR spectroscopy (MRS) examination for measurement of hippocampal h-tNAA together with baseline battery of neurocognitive tests focused on memory (Auditory Verbal Learning Test and Brief Visuospatial Memory Test - Revised) as well as quality of life questionnaires (EORTC QLQ-C30 a EORTC QLQ-BN20)...
January 4, 2017: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063057/quantitative-assessment-of-cerebral-basement-membranes-using-electron-microscopy
#11
Matthew MacGregor Sharp, Anton Page, Alan Morris, Roy O Weller, Roxana O Carare
In this chapter we describe in detail the tissue processing techniques we employ for the study of cerebral tissue by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In particular, we explain a technique that enables quantification of changes in cerebral basement membranes at the ultrastructural level. This is significant, as age related pathological conditions affecting the brain are often accompanied by ultrastructural changes in the cerebral vasculature.Briefly, experimental mice are fixed by perfusion and their brains removed...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062187/dentate-gyrus-autonomous-ictal-activity-in-the-status-epilepticus-rat-model-of-epilepsy
#12
Florian Weissinger, Matthias Wawra, Pawel Fidzinski, Mark Elsner, Hartmut Meierkord, Martin Holtkamp, Katharina Buchheim
The dentate gyrus (DG) as part of the hippocampal formation is believed to serve as a gatekeeper with strong inhibitory properties against uncontrolled propagation of neuronal activity from the entorhinal cortex and neocortical structures. In temporal lobe epilepsy, the DG becomes hyperexcitable and loses its gate function, enabling propagation of ictal activity into downstream structures such as CA3 and CA1 areas. Furthermore, the DG, apart from facilitating propagation, may also be able to autonomously generate ictal activity, but this point has remained open so far...
January 3, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060319/isolation-and-culture-of-adult-neural-stem-cells-from-the-mouse-subcallosal-zone
#13
Joo Yeon Kim, Ju-Hyun Lee, Woong Sun
Adult neural stem cells (aNSCs) can be used for the regeneration of damaged brain tissue. NSCs have the potential for differentiation and proliferation into three types of cells: neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes. Identifying aNSC-derived regions and characterizing the aNSC properties are critical for the potential use of aNSCs and for the elucidation of their role in neural regeneration. The subcallosal zone (SCZ), located between white matter and the hippocampus, has recently been reported to contain aNSCs and continuously give rise to neuroblasts...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057557/anesthetics-inhibit-extracellular-signal-regulated-kinase1-2-phosphorylation-via-nmda-receptor-phospholipase-c-and-protein-kinase-c-in-mouse-hippocampal-slices
#14
Gao Haiying, Han Mingjie, Zhang Lingyu, Wang Qingxiang, Wang Haisong, Zhang Bingxi
BACKGROUND: Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) has been implicated in learning and memory; however, whether intravenous anesthetics modulate ERK1/2 remains unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of several intravenous anesthetics on the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 in the hippocampus of adult mice. METHODS: Western blotting was used to examine cellular levels of phosphorylated and unphosphorylated ERK1/2 in mouse hippocampus slices, which were incubated with or without anesthetics including propofol, etomidate, ketamine and midazolam, a protein kinase C (PKC) activator or inhibitor, or phospholipase C (PLC) activator or inhibitor...
January 3, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052252/biphasic-dependence-of-glioma-survival-and-cell-migration-on-cd44-expression-level
#15
Rebecca L Klank, Stacy A Decker Grunke, Benjamin L Bangasser, Colleen L Forster, Matthew A Price, Thomas J Odde, Karen S SantaCruz, Steven S Rosenfeld, Peter Canoll, Eva A Turley, James B McCarthy, John R Ohlfest, David J Odde
While several studies link the cell-surface marker CD44 to cancer progression, conflicting results show both positive and negative correlations with increased CD44 levels. Here, we demonstrate that the survival outcomes of genetically induced glioma-bearing mice and of high-grade human glioma patients are biphasically correlated with CD44 level, with the poorest outcomes occurring at intermediate levels. Furthermore, the high-CD44-expressing mesenchymal subtype exhibited a positive trend of survival with increased CD44 level...
January 3, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049780/preparing-brain-slices-to-study-basic-synaptic-properties
#16
Matthew A Xu-Friedman
This protocol describes how to prepare brain slices for electrophysiology, with an emphasis on synaptic physiology in voltage clamp. This approach remains the gold standard for understanding the properties of individual neurons, as well as the connections between neurons.
January 3, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048113/su-f-i-44-using-the-air-signal-to-characterize-image-noise-in-ct
#17
T Szczykutowicz, A Malkus
PURPOSE: With increasing emphasis on CT image quality and low dose, quality activities analyzing noise levels in images will need to be increasingly automated. This work describes a new automated method for characterizing noise in CT. To obviate the need to segment out anatomical structure, this work introduces the use of noise statistics of air to understand the noise in the scanned object. METHODS: Scans of a uniform water phantom were acquired at four dose levels...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048042/tu-ab-bra-07-distortion-free-3d-diffusion-mri-on-an-mri-guided-radiotherapy-system-for-longitudinal-tumor-response-assessment
#18
Y Gao, Y Yang, N Rangwala, M Cao, D Low, P Hu
PURPOSE: To develop a reliable, 3D distortion-free diffusion MRI technique for longitudinal tumor response assessment and MRI-guided adaptive radiotherapy(RT). METHODS: A diffusion prepared 3D turbo spin echo readout (DP-TSE) sequence was developed and compared with the conventional diffusion-weighted single-shot echo-planar-imaging (DW-ssEPI) sequence in a commercially available diffusion phantom, and one head-and-neck and one brain cancer patient on an MRI-guided RT system (ViewRay)...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047502/su-g-iep1-04-comparison-of-cerebral-blood-volume-estimated-by-dsc-and-dcemri
#19
M Aryal, Y Cao
PURPOSE: The cerebral blood volume (CBV) is commonly estimated from T2*/T2-weighted dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) MRI acquired by an EPI sequence. There are several challenges with DSC imaging, including geometric distortion, limited brain spatial coverage, and unreliable arterial input function (AIF) due to the partial volume effect. However, CBV can be estimated from T1-weighted dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE) MRI. This study aimed to examine whether CBV estimated from DCE-MRI is comparable to one from DSC-MRI...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046980/we-fg-206-05-new-arterial-spin-labeling-method-for-simultaneous-estimation-of-arterial-cerebral-blood-volume-cerebral-blood-flow-and-arterial-transit-time
#20
M Johnston, H Liu, C Whitlow, Y Jung
PURPOSE: To demonstrate the feasibility of a novel Arterial Spin Labeling (ASL) method for simultaneously measuring cerebral blood flow (CBF), arterial transit time (ATT), and arterial cerebral blood volume (aCBV) without the use of a contrast agent. METHODS: A series of multi-TI ASL images were acquired from one healthy subject on a 3T Siemens Skyra, with the following parameters: PCASL labeling with variable TI [300, 400, 500, 600, 700, 800, 900, 1000, 1500, 2000, 2500, 3000, 3500, 4000] ms, labeling bolus 1400 ms when TI allows, otherwise 100 ms less than TI, TR was minimized for each TI, two sinc shaped pre-saturation pulses were applied in the imaging plane immediately before 2D EPI acquisition...
June 2016: Medical Physics
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