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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458199/alpha-synuclein-oligomers-impair-memory-through-glial-cell-activation-and-via-toll-like-receptor-2
#1
Pietro La Vitola, Claudia Balducci, Milica Cerovic, Giulia Santamaria, Edoardo Brandi, Federica Grandi, Laura Caldinelli, Laura Colombo, Maria Grazia Morgese, Luigia Trabace, Loredano Pollegioni, Diego Albani, Gianluigi Forloni
Alpha-synuclein oligomers (α-synOs) are emerging as crucial factors in the pathogenesis of synucleinopathies. Although the connection between neuroinflammation and α-syn still remains elusive, increasing evidence suggests that extracellular moieties activate glial cells leading to neuronal damage. Using an acute mouse model, we explored whether α-synOs induce memory impairment in association to neuroinflammation, addressing Toll-like receptors 2 and 4 (TLR2 and TLR4) involvement. We found that α-synOs abolished mouse memory establishment in association to hippocampal glial activation...
February 16, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453207/hippocampal-ripple-oscillations-and-inhibition-first-network-models-frequency-dynamics-and-response-to-gaba-modulators
#2
José R Donoso, Dietmar Schmitz, Nikolaus Maier, Richard Kempter
Hippocampal ripples are involved in memory consolidation, but the mechanisms underlying their generation remain unclear. Models relying on interneuron networks in the CA1 region disagree on the predominant source of excitation to interneurons: either 'direct', via the Schaffer collaterals that provide feedforward input from CA3 to CA1, or 'indirect', via the local pyramidal cells in CA1, which are embedded in a recurrent excitatory-inhibitory network. Here, we used physiologically constrained computational models of basket-cell networks to investigate how they respond to different conditions of transient, noisy excitation...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451906/brain-changes-due-to-hypoxia-during-light-anaesthesia-can-be-prevented-by-deepening-anaesthesia-a-study-in-rats
#3
Setayesh R Tasbihgou, Mina Netkova, Alain F Kalmar, Janine Doorduin, Michel M R F Struys, Regien G Schoemaker, Anthony R Absalom
In anaesthetic practice the risk of cerebral ischemic/hypoxic damage is thought to be attenuated by deep anaesthesia. The rationale is that deeper anaesthesia reduces cerebral oxygen demand more than light anaesthesia, thereby increasing the tolerance to ischemia or hypoxia. However, evidence to support this is scarce. We thus investigated the influence of light versus deep anaesthesia on the responses of rat brains to a period of hypoxia. In the first experiment we exposed adult male Wistar rats to deep or light propofol anaesthesia and then performed [18F]- Fludeoxyglucose (FDG) Positron Emission Tomography (PET) scans to verify the extent of cerebral metabolic suppression...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449446/improving-accuracy-of-simultaneously-reconstructed-activity-and-attenuation-maps-using-deep-learning
#4
Donghwi Hwang, Kyeong Yun Kim, Seung Kwan Kang, Seongho Seo, Jin Chul Paeng, Dong Soo Lee, Jae Sung Lee
Simultaneous reconstruction of activity and attenuation using the maximum likelihood reconstruction of activity and attenuation (MLAA) augmented by time-of-flight (TOF) information is a promising method for positron emission tomography (PET) attenuation correction. However, it still suffers from several problems, including crosstalk artifacts, slow convergence speed, and noisy attenuation maps (μ-maps). In this work, we developed deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs) to overcome these MLAA limitations, and we verified their feasibility using a clinical brain PET data set...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447951/suction-electrode-recording-in-locus-coeruleus-of-newborn-rat-brain-slices-reveals-network-bursting-comprising-summated-non-synchronous-spiking
#5
Vladimir Rancic, Bijal Rawal, Bogdan Panaitescu, Araya Ruangkittisakul, Klaus Ballanyi
The brainstem locus coeruleus (LC) controling behaviors like arousal, sleep, breathing, pain or opioid withdrawal is an established model for spontaneous action potential synchronization. Such synchronous 'spiking' might produce an extracellular field potential (FP) which is a crucial tool for neural network analyses. We found using ≥10 μm tip diameter suction electrodes in newborn rat brainstem slices that the LC generates at ∼1 Hz a robust rhythmic FP (rFP). During distinct rFP phases, LC neurons discharge with a jitter of ±33 ms single spikes that summate to a ∼200 ms-lasting population burst...
February 12, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447844/angiotensin-ii-facilitates-gabaergic-neurotransmission-at-postsynaptic-sites-in-rat-amygdala-neurons
#6
Bo Hu, Hu Qiao, Tian Cao, Bo Sun, Xiao Luo, Ru Jia, Yuanyuan Fan, Nan Wang, Yi Lu, Jianqun Yan
The central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) is critical in the regulation of sodium appetite. Angiotensin II (Ang II) is important in the generation of sodium appetite and may function as a neurotransmitter or modulator to affect the synaptic transmission and the excitability of neurons. However, the role of Ang II in the CeA remains unclear. In this study, we determined the effects of Ang II on the excitatory and inhibitory synaptic inputs to the CeA neurons in brain slices with whole-cell patch-clamp recordings...
February 12, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446149/distinction-of-the-gaba-2-29-ppm-resonance-using-triple-refocusing-at-3-t-in-vivo
#7
Vivek Tiwari, Zhongxu An, Yiming Wang, Changho Choi
PURPOSE: To develop 1 H MR spectroscopy that provides distinction of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) signal at 3 T in vivo. METHODS: Triple-refocusing was tailored at 3 T, with numerical simulations and phantom validation, for distinction of the GABA 2.29-ppm resonance from the neighboring glutamate resonance. The optimization was performed on the inter-RF pulse time delays and the duration and carrier frequency of a non-slice-selective RF pulse. The optimized triple refocusing was tested in multiple regions in 6 healthy subjects, including hippocampus...
February 14, 2018: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445714/brain-volume-estimation-enhancement-by-morphological-image-processing-tools
#8
R Zeinali, A Keshtkar, A Zamani, N Gharehaghaji
Background: Volume estimation of brain is important for many neurological applications. It is necessary in measuring brain growth and changes in brain in normal/abnormal patients. Thus, accurate brain volume measurement is very important. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the method of choice for volume quantification due to excellent levels of image resolution and between-tissue contrast. Stereology method is a good method for estimating volume but it requires to segment enough MRI slices and have a good resolution...
December 2017: Journal of Biomedical Physics & Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445035/comparative-dynamics-of-microglial-and-glioma-cell-motility-at-the-infiltrative-margin-of-brain-tumours
#9
Joseph Juliano, Orlando Gil, Andrea Hawkins-Daarud, Sonal Noticewala, Russell C Rockne, Jill Gallaher, Susan Christine Massey, Peter A Sims, Alexander R A Anderson, Kristin R Swanson, Peter Canoll
Microglia are a major cellular component of gliomas, and abundant in the centre of the tumour and at the infiltrative margins. While glioma is a notoriously infiltrative disease, the dynamics of microglia and glioma migratory patterns have not been well characterized. To investigate the migratory behaviour of microglia and glioma cells at the infiltrative edge, we performed two-colour time-lapse fluorescence microscopy of brain slices generated from a platelet-derived growth factor-B (PDGFB)-driven rat model of glioma, in which glioma cells and microglia were each labelled with one of two different fluorescent markers...
February 2018: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444034/label-free-cell-nuclear-imaging-by-gr%C3%A3-neisen-relaxation-photoacoustic-microscopy
#10
Xiaowei Liu, Terence T W Wong, Junhui Shi, Jun Ma, Qing Yang, Lihong V Wang
Photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) with ultraviolet (UV) laser illumination has recently been demonstrated as a promising tool that provides fast, label-free, and multilayered histologic imaging of human breast tissue. Thus far, the axial resolution has been determined ultrasonically. To enable optically defined axial resolution, we exploit the Grüneisen relaxation (GR) effect. By imaging mouse brain slices, we show that GRUV-PAM reveals detailed information about three-dimensional cell nuclear distributions and internal structures, which are important diagnostic features for cancers...
February 15, 2018: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443896/dexamethasone-mediated-upregulation-of-calreticulin-inhibits-primary-human-glioblastoma-dispersal-ex-vivo
#11
Mohan Nair, Juan Romero, Aria Mahtabfar, Ahmed M Meleis, Ramsey A Foty, Siobhan A Corbett
Dispersal of Glioblastoma (GBM) renders localized therapy ineffective and is a major cause of recurrence. Previous studies have demonstrated that Dexamethasone (Dex), a drug currently used to treat brain tumor-related edema, can also significantly reduce dispersal of human primary GBM cells from neurospheres. It does so by triggering α5 integrin activity, leading to restoration of fibronectin matrix assembly (FNMA), increased neurosphere cohesion, and reduction of neurosphere dispersal velocity (DV). How Dex specifically activates α5 integrin in these GBM lines is unknown...
February 14, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441488/visualization-of-rostral-migratory-stream-in-the-developing-rat-brain-by-in-vivo-electroporation
#12
Yi-Wei Xie, Zhao-Yun Li, Jing Du, Yu Chen, Bing-Yu Chen, Tong-Tong Wang, Zhihui Huang, Shuangxing Hou, Ying Wang
Interneurons in the olfactory bulb (OB) are generated from neuronal precursor cells migrating from anterior subventricular zone (SVZa) not only in the developing embryo but also throughout the postnatal life of mammals. In the present study, we established an in vivo electroporation assay to label SVZa cells of rat both at embryonic and postnatal ages, and traced SVZa progenitors and followed their migration pathway and differentiation. We found that labeled cells displayed high motility. Interestingly, the postnatal cells migrated faster than the embryonic cells after applying this assay at different ages of brain development...
February 13, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440379/targeting-the-cmet-pathway-augments-radiation-response-without-adverse-effect-on-hearing-in-nf2-schwannoma-models
#13
Yingchao Zhao, Pinan Liu, Na Zhang, Jie Chen, Lukas D Landegger, Limeng Wu, Fu Zhao, Yanxia Zhao, Yanling Zhang, Jing Zhang, Takeshi Fujita, Anat Stemmer-Rachamimov, Gino B Ferraro, Hao Liu, Alona Muzikansky, Scott R Plotkin, Konstantina M Stankovic, Rakesh K Jain, Lei Xu
Neurofibromatosis type II (NF2) is a disease that needs new solutions. Vestibular schwannoma (VS) growth causes progressive hearing loss, and the standard treatment, including surgery and radiotherapy, can further damage the nerve. There is an urgent need to identify an adjunct therapy that, by enhancing the efficacy of radiation, can help lower the radiation dose and preserve hearing. The mechanisms underlying deafness in NF2 are still unclear. One of the major limitations in studying tumor-induced hearing loss is the lack of mouse models that allow hearing testing...
February 9, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438798/short-term-fasting-decreases-excitatory-synaptic-inputs-to-ventromedial-tuberoinfundibular-dopaminergic-neurons-and-attenuates-their-activity-in-male-mice
#14
Takafumi Kubota, Atsushi Fukushima, Hiroko Hagiwara, Yoshinori Kamiya, Miyako Furuta, Tomoyuki Miyazaki, Hitomi Fujioka, Sei-Etsu Fujiwara, Toshiya Funabashi, Tatsuo Akema
Tuberoinfundibular dopaminergic (TIDA) neurons in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) of the hypothalamus play a role in inhibiting prolactin (PRL) secretion from the anterior pituitary. PRL is involved in a variety of behaviors, including feeding. Consequently, we hypothesized that fasting might reduce the activity of TIDA neurons, which might alter PRL secretion. However, direct examinations of TIDA neuron activity are difficult. Recently, transgenic mice were generated that expressed green fluorescent protein (GFP) under the control of the rat tyrosine hydroxylase gene...
February 10, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433836/multiresolution-image-registration-for-multimodal-brain-images-and-fusion-for-better-neurosurgical-planning
#15
Siddeshappa Nandish, Gopalakrishna Prabhu, Kadavigere V Rajagopal
BACKGROUND: Imaging modalities in medicine gives complementary information. Inadequacy in clinical information made single imaging modality insufficient. There is a need for computer-based system that permits rapid acquisition of digital medical images and performs multi-modality registration, segmentation and three-dimensional planning of minimally invasive neurosurgical procedures. In this regard proposed article presents multimodal brain image registration and fusion for better neurosurgical planning...
December 2017: Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432809/seizure-progression-and-inflammatory-mediators-promote-pericytosis-and-pericyte-microglia-clustering-at-the-cerebrovasculature
#16
Wendy Klement, Rita Garbelli, Emma Zub, Laura Rossini, Laura Tassi, Benoit Girard, Marine Blaquiere, Federica Bertaso, Julie Perroy, Frederic de Bock, Nicola Marchi
BACKGROUND: Cerebrovascular dysfunction and inflammation occur in experimental and clinical epilepsy. Here we asked whether pericytes, a pivotal cellular component of brain capillaries, undergo pathological modifications during experimental epileptogenesis and in human epilepsy. We evaluated whether pro-inflammatory cytokines, present in the brain during seizures, contribute to pericyte morphological modifications. METHODS: In vivo, unilateral intra-hippocampal kainic acid (KA) injections were performed in NG2DsRed/C57BL6 mice to induce status epilepticus (SE), epileptogenesis, and spontaneous recurrent seizures (SRS)...
February 9, 2018: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432418/spike-and-burst-coding-in-thalamocortical-relay-cells
#17
Fleur Zeldenrust, Pascal Chameau, Wytse J Wadman
Mammalian thalamocortical relay (TCR) neurons switch their firing activity between a tonic spiking and a bursting regime. In a combined experimental and computational study, we investigated the features in the input signal that single spikes and bursts in the output spike train represent and how this code is influenced by the membrane voltage state of the neuron. Identical frozen Gaussian noise current traces were injected into TCR neurons in rat brain slices as well as in a validated three-compartment TCR model cell...
February 12, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427393/dynamic-2d-self-phase-map-nyquist-ghost-correction-for-simultaneous-multi-slice-echo-planar-imaging
#18
Uten Yarach, Yi-Hang Tung, Kawin Setsompop, Myung-Ho In, Itthi Chatnuntawech, Renat Yakupov, Frank Godenschweger, Oliver Speck
PURPOSE: To develop a reconstruction pipeline that intrinsically accounts for both simultaneous multislice echo planar imaging (SMS-EPI) reconstruction and dynamic slice-specific Nyquist ghosting correction in time-series data. METHODS: After 1D slice-group average phase correction, the separate polarity (i.e., even and odd echoes) SMS-EPI data were unaliased by slice GeneRalized Autocalibrating Partial Parallel Acquisition. Both the slice-unaliased even and odd echoes were jointly reconstructed using a model-based framework, extended for SMS-EPI reconstruction that estimates a 2D self-phase map, corrects dynamic slice-specific phase errors, and combines data from all coils and echoes to obtain the final images...
February 9, 2018: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427315/an-8-15-channel-tx-rx-head-neck-rf-coil-combination-with-region-specific-b1-shimming-for-whole-brain-mri-focused-on-the-cerebellum-at-7t
#19
Viktor Pfaffenrot, Sascha Brunheim, Stefan H G Rietsch, Peter J Koopmans, Thomas M Ernst, Oliver Kraff, Stephan Orzada, Harald H Quick
PURPOSE: To design and evaluate an 8/15-channel transmit/receive (Tx/Rx) head-neck RF coil combination with region-specific B1+ shimming for whole-brain MRI with focus on improved functional MRI of the cerebellum at 7 T. METHODS: An 8-channel transceiver RF head coil was combined with a 7-channel receive-only array. The noise parameters and acceleration capabilities of this 8Tx/15Rx coil setup were compared with a commercially available 1Tx/32Rx RF head coil. Region-specific 8-channel B1+ shimming was applied when using the 8Tx/15Rx RF coil...
February 9, 2018: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426354/lentivirus-mediated-expression-of-human-secreted-amyloid-precursor-protein-alpha-prevents-development-of-memory-and-plasticity-deficits-in-a-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#20
Valerie T Y Tan, Bruce G Mockett, Shane M Ohline, Karen D Parfitt, Hollie E Wicky, Katie Peppercorn, Lucia Schoderboeck, Mohamad Fairuz Bin Yahaya, Warren P Tate, Stephanie M Hughes, Wickliffe C Abraham
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease driven in large part by accumulated deposits in the brain of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) cleavage product amyloid-β peptide (Aβ). However, AD is also characterised by reductions in secreted amyloid precursor protein-alpha (sAPPα), an alternative cleavage product of APP. In contrast to the neurotoxicity of accumulated Αβ, sAPPα has many neuroprotective and neurotrophic properties. Increasing sAPPα levels has the potential to serve as a therapeutic treatment that mitigates the effects of Aβ and rescue cognitive function...
February 9, 2018: Molecular Brain
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