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Brain Slice

Petrina Yau-Pok Lau, Linda Katona, Peter Saghy, Kathryn Newton, Peter Somogyi, Karri P Lamsa
Long-term plasticity is well documented in synapses between glutamatergic principal cells in the cortex both in vitro and in vivo. Long-term potentiation (LTP) and -depression (LTD) have also been reported in glutamatergic connections to hippocampal GABAergic interneurons expressing parvalbumin (PV+) or nitric oxide synthase (NOS+) in brain slices, but plasticity in these cells has not been tested in vivo. We investigated synaptically-evoked suprathreshold excitation of identified hippocampal neurons in the CA1 area of urethane-anaesthetized rats...
October 25, 2016: Brain Structure & Function
Lior Weizman, Yonina C Eldar, Dafna Ben Bashat
PURPOSE: In many clinical MRI scenarios, existing imaging information can be used to significantly shorten acquisition time or to improve Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR). In this paper the authors present a framework, referred to as FASTMER, for fast MRI by exploiting a reference image. METHODS: The proposed approach utilizes the possible similarity of the reference image to the acquired image, which exists in many clinical MRI imaging scenarios. Examples include similarity between adjacent slices in high resolution MRI, similarity between various contrasts in the same scan and similarity between different scans of the same patient...
October 2016: Medical Physics
Isabell Prager, Ina Patties, Katrin Himmelbach, Eva Kendzia, Felicitas Merz, Klaus Müller, Rolf-Dieter Kortmann, Annegret Glasow
INTRODUCTION: Radiation therapy plays an essential role in the treatment of brain tumors, but neurocognitive deficits remain a significant risk, especially in pediatric patients. In recent trials, hippocampal sparing techniques are applied to reduce these adverse effects. Here, we investigate dose-dependent effects of ionizing radiation (IR) on juvenile hippocampal neurogenesis. Additionally, we evaluate the radioprotective potential of resveratrol, a plant polyphenol recognized for its bifunctional tumor-preventive and anticancer effects...
October 2016: Brain and Behavior
Nicholas P Vyleta, Carolina Borges-Merjane, Peter Jonas
Mossy fiber synapses on CA3 pyramidal cells are 'conditional detonators' that reliably discharge postsynaptic targets. The 'conditional' nature implies that burst activity in dentate gyrus granule cells is required for detonation. Whether single unitary excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) trigger spikes in CA3 neurons remains unknown. Mossy fiber synapses exhibit both pronounced short-term facilitation and uniquely large post-tetanic potentiation (PTP). We tested whether PTP could convert mossy fiber synapses from subdetonator into detonator mode, using a recently developed method to selectively and noninvasively stimulate individual presynaptic terminals in rat brain slices...
October 25, 2016: ELife
Cathy Joanna Jensen, Frauke Demol, Romy Bauwens, Ron Kooijman, Ann Massie, Agnès Villers, Laurence Ris, Jacques De Keyser
In vitro and in vivo studies suggest that the astrocytic adrenergic signalling enhances glycogenolysis which provides energy to be transported to nearby cells and in the form of lactate. This energy source is important for motor and cognitive functioning. While it is suspected that the β2-adrenergic receptor on astrocytes might contribute to this energy balance, it has not yet been shown conclusively in vivo. Inducible astrocyte specific β2-adrenergic receptor knock-out mice were generated by crossing homozygous β2-adrenergic receptor floxed mice (Adrb2flox) and mice with heterozygous tamoxifen-inducible Cre recombinase-expression driven by the astrocyte specific L-glutamate/L-aspartate transporter promoter (GLAST-CreERT2)...
2016: PloS One
Ewa Pius-Sadowska, Miłosz Piotr Kawa, Patrycja Kłos, Dorota Rogińska, Michał Rudnicki, Boehlke Marek, Piotr Waloszczyk, Bogusław Machaliński
Ionizing radiation can significantly affect brain function in children and young adults, particularly in the hippocampus where neurogenic niches are located. Injury to normal tissue is a major concern when whole-brain irradiation (WBI) is used to treat central nervous system (CNS) tumors, and the pathogenesis of this injury remains poorly understood. We assessed the expression of selected neurotrophins (NTs) and NT receptors (NTRs) in brains of young mice after a single 10 Gy gamma-ray exposure using morphological and molecular analyses [qRT-PCR, Western blot, immunohistochemistry (IHC)] to evaluate WBI-induced injury in its acute phase...
October 24, 2016: Radiation Research
Vincent Gras, Alexandre Vignaud, Alexis Amadon, Franck Mauconduit, Denis Le Bihan, Nicolas Boulant
PURPOSE: A multispoke specific absorption rate (SAR) -aware pulse design approach for homogeneous multiple-slice small and large flip angle (FA) excitations with parallel transmission is proposed. The approach aims at optimizing in a slice-specific manner the spokes locations and radiofrequency pulses. METHODS: The problem is posed as a set of slice-specific magnitude-least-squares problems, linked together by hardware and SAR constraints, and solved jointly using an active-set algorithm...
October 23, 2016: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
P S Dalvi, J A Chalmers, V Luo, D-Yd Han, L Wellhauser, Y Liu, D Q Tran, J Castel, S Luquet, M B Wheeler, D D Belsham
BACKGROUND: Consumption of dietary fat is one of the key factors leading to obesity. High-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity is characterized by induction of inflammation in the hypothalamus; however, the temporal regulation of proinflammatory markers and their impact on hypothalamic appetite-regulating neuropeptide Y/agouti-related peptide (NPY/AgRP) neurons remains undefined. METHODS: Mice were injected with an acute lipid infusion for 24 h or fed a HFD over 8-20 weeks...
October 24, 2016: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Lorène Penazzi, Julia Lorengel, Frederik Sündermann, Nataliya Golovyashkina, Stefan Marre, Chantal M B Mathis, Lars Lewejohann, Roland Brandt, Lidia Bakota
DMSO has a widespread use as a vehicle for water-insoluble therapeutic drug candidates but may also exert disease-relevant pharmacological effects by itself. However, its influence on the CNS has hardly been addressed. Here we examined the brain structure and function following chronic exposure to low DMSO dose at a paradigm with flawed synaptic connectivity in a preclinical transgenic mouse model for Alzheimer's disease (APPSDL mice). DMSO treatment increased spine density in a region-specific manner in the hippocampus of APPSDL mice ex vivo and in vivo...
October 20, 2016: Neuropharmacology
Andrew G Yee, Peter S Freestone, Ji-Zhong Bai, Janusz Lipski
Parkinson's disease (PD) is not only associated with degeneration of dopaminergic (DAergic) neurons in the Substantia Nigra, but also with profound loss of noradrenergic neurons in the Locus Coeruleus (LC). Remarkably, LC degeneration may exceed, or even precede the loss of nigral DAergic neurons, suggesting that LC neurons may be more susceptible to damage by various insults. Using a combination of electrophysiology, fluorescence imaging and electrochemistry, we directly compared the responses of LC, nigral DAergic and nigral non-dopaminergic (non-DAergic) neurons in rat brain slices to acute application of rotenone, a mitochondrial toxin used to create animal and in vitro models of PD...
October 19, 2016: Experimental Neurology
Luisa Iacovelli, Luisa Di Menna, Daniel Peterlik, Christina Stangl, Rosamaria Orlando, Gemma Molinaro, Antonio De Blasi, Valeria Bruno, Giuseppe Battaglia, Peter J Flor, Nicole Uschold-Schmidt, Ferdinando Nicoletti
We studied the interaction between mGlu7 and α1-adrenergic receptors in heterologous expression systems, brain slices, and living animals. L-2-Amino-4-phosphonobutanoate (L-AP4), and l-serine-O-phosphate (L-SOP), which activate group III mGlu receptors, restrained the stimulation of polyphosphoinositide (PI) hydrolysis induced by the α1-adrenergic receptor agonist, phenylephrine, in HEK 293 cells co-expressing α1-adrenergic and mGlu7 receptors. The inibitory action of L-AP4 was abrogated by (i) the mGlu7 receptor antagonist, XAP044; (ii) the C-terminal portion of type-2 G protein coupled receptor kinase; and (iii) the MAP kinase inhibitors, UO126 and PD98059...
October 18, 2016: Neuropharmacology
A D Surowka, M Töpperwien, M Bernhardt, J D Nicolas, M Osterhoff, T Salditt, D Adamek, M Szczerbowska-Boruchowska
Human dopaminergic system in general, and substantia nigra (SN) neurons, in particular, are implicated in the pathologies underlying the human brain aging. The interplay between aberrations in the structural organization and elemental composition of SN neuron bodies has recently gained in importance as selected metals: Fe, Cu, Zn, Ca were found to trigger oxidative-stress-mediated aberration in their molecular assembly due to concomitant protein (alpha-synuclein, tau-protein) aggregation, gliosis and finally oxidative stress...
December 1, 2016: Talanta
Elena Hernandez-Encinas, Diana Aguilar-Morante, Jose A Morales-Garcia, Elena Gine, Marina Sanz-SanCristobal, Angel Santos, Ana Perez-Castillo
BACKGROUND: The CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein β (C/EBPβ) is a transcription factor implicated in the control of proliferation, differentiation, and inflammatory processes mainly in adipose tissue and liver; although more recent results have revealed an important role for this transcription factor in the brain. Previous studies from our laboratory indicated that CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein β is implicated in inflammatory process and brain injury, since mice lacking this gene were less susceptible to kainic acid-induced injury...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Thomas J Younts, Hannah R Monday, Barna Dudok, Matthew E Klein, Bryen A Jordan, István Katona, Pablo E Castillo
Long-term changes of neurotransmitter release are critical for proper brain function. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these changes are poorly understood. While protein synthesis is crucial for the consolidation of postsynaptic plasticity, whether and how protein synthesis regulates presynaptic plasticity in the mature mammalian brain remain unclear. Here, using paired whole-cell recordings in rodent hippocampal slices, we report that presynaptic protein synthesis is required for long-term, but not short-term, plasticity of GABA release from type 1 cannabinoid receptor (CB1)-expressing axons...
October 19, 2016: Neuron
Raquel Fonseca, Rui A Carvalho, Cristina Lemos, Ana C Sequeira, Inês R Pita, Fábio Carvalho, Carlos D Silva, Rui D S Prediger, Ivana Jarak, Rodrigo A Cunha, Carlos A Fontes Ribeiro, Attila Köfalvi, Frederico C Pereira
INTRODUCTION: We recently showed that a single high dose of methamphetamine (METH) induces a persistent frontal cortical monoamine depletion that is accompanied by helpless-like behavior in mice. However, brain metabolic alterations underlying both neurochemical and mood alterations remain unknown. AIMS: Herein, we aimed at characterizing frontal cortical metabolic alterations associated with early negative mood behavior triggered by METH. Adult C57BL/6 mice were injected with METH (30 mg/kg, i...
October 19, 2016: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
Zhangjing Yang, Piaopiao Feng, Tian Wen, Minghua Wan, Xunning Hong
Differentiation of glioblastoma multiformes (GBMs) and lymphomas using multi-sequence magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is an important task that is valuable for treatment planning. However, this task is a challenge because GBMs and lymphomas may have a similar appearance in MRI images. This similarity may lead to misclassification and could affect the treatment results. In this paper, we propose a semi-automatic method based on multi-sequence MRI to differentiate these two types of brain tumors. Our method consists of three steps: 1) the key slice is selected from 3D MRIs and region of interests (ROIs) are drawn around the tumor region; 2) different features are extracted based on prior clinical knowledge and validated using a t-test; and 3) features that are helpful for classification are used to build an original feature vector and a support vector machine is applied to perform classification...
October 18, 2016: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
Ali Yusuf Öner, Berrak Barutcu, Şükrü Aykol, Emin Turgut Tali
OBJECTIVES: There have been recent studies evaluating brain magnetic resonance imaging changes in patients with normal renal function, after intravenous administration of gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs). Their findings were supported by histological evidence as well and brought a new vision concerning what needs to be learned to provide better patient care. In this report, we aim to present brain magnetic resonance imaging changes after intrathecal administration of a linear ionic agent (gadopentetate dimeglumine)...
October 13, 2016: Investigative Radiology
Koning Shen, Barbara Calamini, Jonathan A Fauerbach, Boxue Ma, Sarah H Shahmoradian, Ivana L Serrano Lachapel, Wah Chiu, Donald C Lo, Judith Frydman
Many neurodegenerative diseases are linked to amyloid aggregation. In Huntington's disease (HD), neurotoxicity correlates with increased aggregation propensity of a polyglutamine (polyQ) expansion in exon 1 of mutant huntingtin protein (mHtt). Here we establish how the domains flanking the polyQ tract shape the mHtt conformational landscape in vitro and in neurons. In vitro, the flanking domains have opposing effects on the conformation and stabilities of oligomers and amyloid fibrils. The N-terminal N17 promotes amyloid fibril formation, while the C-terminal Proline Rich Domain destabilizes fibrils and enhances oligomer formation...
October 18, 2016: ELife
Ahmad Chaddad, Camel Tanougast
To isolate the brain from non-brain tissues using a fully automatic method may be affected by the presence of radio frequency non-homogeneity of MR images (MRI), regional anatomy, MR sequences, and the subjects of the study. In order to automate the brain tumor (Glioblastoma) detection, we proposed a novel approach of skull stripping for axial slices derived from MRI. Then, the brain tumor was detected using multi-level threshold segmentation based on histogram analysis. Skull-stripping method, was applied by adaptive morphological operations approach...
March 2016: Brain Informatics
Mahua Chatterjee, Fernando Perez de Los Cobos Pallares, Alex Loebel, Michael Lukas, Veronica Egger
During odor sensing the activity of principal neurons of the mammalian olfactory bulb, the mitral and tufted cells (MTCs), occurs in repetitive bursts that are synchronized to respiration, reminiscent of hippocampal theta-gamma coupling. Axonless granule cells (GCs) mediate self- and lateral inhibitory interactions between the excitatory MTCs via reciprocal dendrodendritic synapses. We have explored long-term plasticity at this synapse by using a theta burst stimulation (TBS) protocol and variations thereof...
2016: Neural Plasticity
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