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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635080/neuroadaptations-of-presynaptic-and-postsynaptic-gabab-receptor-function-in-the-paraventricular-nucleus-in-response-to-chronic-unpredictable-stress
#1
Yonggang Gao, Jing-Jing Zhou, Yun Zhu, Li Wang, Therese A Kosten, Xiangjian Zhang, De-Pei Li
BACKGROUND: Chronic stress induces an impaired GABAA (γ-aminobutyric acid type A) receptor-mediated inhibition in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN). It is not clear whether GABAB receptor function is altered in chronic stress. We hypothesize that chronic stress alters GABAB receptor function in PVN corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) neurons to control hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Whole cell patch-clamp recording was performed on PVN-CRH neurons expressing eGFP driven by CRH promoter in brain slices from unstressed rats and rats that had been subjected to chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS)...
June 20, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633908/dynamics-of-the-cell-division-orientation-of-granule-cell-precursors-during-cerebellar-development
#2
Satoshi Miyashita, Toma Adachi, Mariko Yamashita, Takayuki Sota, Mikio Hoshino
The cerebellar granule cell (GC) system provides a good model for studying neuronal development. In the external granule layer (EGL), granule cell precursors (GCPs) rapidly and continuously divide to produce numerous GCs as well as GCPs. In some brain regions, the orientation of cell division affects daughter cell fate, thus the direction of GCP division is related to whether it produces a GCP or a GC. Therefore, we tried to characterize the orientation of GCP division from embryonic to postnatal stages and to identify an environmental cue that regulates the orientation...
June 17, 2017: Mechanisms of Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630885/bayesian-framework-inspired-no-reference-region-of-interest-quality-measure-for-brain-mri-images
#3
Michael Osadebey, Marius Pedersen, Douglas Arnold, Katrina Wendel-Mitoraj
We describe a postacquisition, attribute-based quality assessment method for brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images. It is based on the application of Bayes theory to the relationship between entropy and image quality attributes. The entropy feature image of a slice is segmented into low- and high-entropy regions. For each entropy region, there are three separate observations of contrast, standard deviation, and sharpness quality attributes. A quality index for a quality attribute is the posterior probability of an entropy region given any corresponding region in a feature image where quality attribute is observed...
April 2017: Journal of Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630662/sex-differences-in-endogenous-cortical-network-activity-spontaneously-recurring-up-down-states
#4
Charalambos Sigalas, Eleni Konsolaki, Irini Skaliora
BACKGROUND: Several molecular and cellular processes in the vertebrate brain exhibit differences between males and females, leading to sexual dimorphism in the formation of neural circuits and brain organization. While studies on large-scale brain networks provide ample evidence for both structural and functional sex differences, smaller-scale local networks have remained largely unexplored. In the current study, we investigate sexual dimorphism in cortical dynamics by means of spontaneous Up/Down states, a type of network activity that is exhibited during slow-wave sleep, quiet wakefulness, and anesthesia and is thought to represent the default activity of the cortex...
2017: Biology of Sex Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629847/evidence-for-m2-muscarinic-receptor-modulation-of-axon-terminals-and-dendrites-in-the-rodent-basolateral-amygdala-an-ultrastructural-and-electrophysiological-analysis
#5
Ana Fajardo-Serrano, Lei Liu, David D Mott, Alexander J McDonald
The basolateral amygdala receives a very dense cholinergic innervation from the basal forebrain that is important for memory consolidation. Although behavioral studies have shown that both M1 and M2 muscarinic receptors are critical for these mnemonic functions, there have been very few neuroanatomical and electrophysiological investigations of the localization and function of different types of muscarinic receptors in the amygdala. In the present study we investigated the subcellular localization of M2 muscarinic receptors (M2Rs) in the anterior basolateral nucleus (BLa) of the mouse, including the localization of M2Rs in parvalbumin (PV) immunoreactive interneurons, using double-labeling immunoelectron microscopy...
June 16, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627967/novel-region-of-interest-interrogation-technique-for-diffusion-tensor-imaging-analysis-in-the-canine-brain
#6
Jonathan Y Li, Dana M Middleton, Steven Chen, Leonard White, N Matthew Ellinwood, Patricia Dickson, Charles Vite, Allison Bradbury, James M Provenzale
Purpose We describe a novel technique for measuring diffusion tensor imaging metrics in the canine brain. We hypothesized that a standard method for region of interest placement could be developed that is highly reproducible, with less than 10% difference in measurements between raters. Methods Two sets of canine brains (three seven-week-old full-brains and two 17-week-old single hemispheres) were scanned ex-vivo on a 7T small-animal magnetic resonance imaging system. Strict region of interest placement criteria were developed and then used by two raters to independently measure diffusion tensor imaging metrics within four different white-matter regions within each specimen...
January 1, 2017: Neuroradiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626962/three-dimensional-motion-corrected-sensitivity-encoding-reconstruction-for-multi-shot-multi-slice-mri-application-to-neonatal-brain-imaging
#7
Lucilio Cordero-Grande, Emer J Hughes, Jana Hutter, Anthony N Price, Joseph V Hajnal
PURPOSE: To introduce a methodology for the reconstruction of multi-shot, multi-slice magnetic resonance imaging able to cope with both within-plane and through-plane rigid motion and to describe its application in structural brain imaging. THEORY AND METHODS: The method alternates between motion estimation and reconstruction using a common objective function for both. Estimates of three-dimensional motion states for each shot and slice are gradually refined by improving on the fit of current reconstructions to the partial k-space information from multiple coils...
June 19, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625719/atypical-dopamine-transporter-inhibitors-r-modafinil-and-jhw-007-differentially-affect-d2-autoreceptor-neurotransmission-and-the-firing-rate-of-midbrain-dopamine-neurons
#8
Alicia J Avelar, J Cao, Amy Hauck Newman, Michael J Beckstead
Abuse of psychostimulants like cocaine that inhibit dopamine (DA) reuptake through the dopamine transporter (DAT) represents a major public health issue, however FDA-approved pharmacotherapies have yet to be developed. Recently a class of ligands termed "atypical DAT inhibitors" has gained attention due to their range of effectiveness in increasing extracellular dopamine (DA) levels without demonstrating significant abuse liability. These compounds not only hold promise as therapeutic agents to treat stimulant use disorders but also as experimental tools to improve our understanding of DAT function...
June 15, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625609/oxidative-stress-induced-by-cumene-hydroperoxide-produces-synaptic-depression-and-transient-hyperexcitability-in-rat-primary-motor-cortex-neurons
#9
R Pardillo-Diaz, L Carrascal, G Barrionuevo, P Nunez-Abades
Pyramidal neurons of the motor cortex are selectively degenerated in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS). The mechanisms underlying neuronal death in ALS are not well established. In the absence of useful biomarkers, the early increased neuronal excitability seems to be the unique characteristic of ALS. Lipid peroxidation caused by oxidative stress has been postulated as one of the possible mechanisms involved in degeneration motor cortex pyramidal neurons. This paper examines the effect of lipid peroxidation on layer V pyramidal neurons induced by cumene hydroperoxide (CH) in brain slices from wild type rats...
June 15, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624573/plasticity-of-intrinsic-firing-response-gain-in-principal-hippocampal-neurons-following-pilocarpine-induced-status-epilepticus
#10
Idit Tamir, Moshe Daninos, Yoel Yaari
OBJECTIVE: In experimental models of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), brain neurons manifest multiple changes in intrinsic excitability that contribute to neuronal network hyperexcitability. We have investigated whether the intrinsic firing response gain, quantified by the slope of the function relating the number of evoked spikes (Ns) to input excitatory current intensity (I), is modified in principal rat hippocampal neurons in the pilocarpine-status epilepticus (SE) model of TLE. METHODS: Intracellular recordings were made in CA3 and CA1 pyramidal cells (PCs) and dentate granule cells (GCs) in acute hippocampal slices obtained 7-36 days after pilocarpine-SE...
June 14, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624534/glutaminase-c-overexpression-in-the-brain-induces-learning-deficits-synaptic-dysfunctions-and-neuroinflammation-in-mice
#11
Yi Wang, Yuju Li, Runze Zhao, Beiqing Wu, Blaise Lanoha, Zenghan Tong, Justin Peer, Jianhui Liu, Huangui Xiong, Yunlong Huang, Jialin Zheng
Glutaminolysis, a metabolic process that converts glutamine to glutamate, is particularly important for the central nervous system since glutamate is the major transmitter of excitatory synapses. Glutaminase is the mitochondrial enzyme that catalyzes the first step of glutaminolysis. Two genes encode at least four isoforms of glutaminase in humans. GLS1 gene encodes isoforms kidney-type glutaminase and glutaminase C (GAC) through alternative splicing, whereas GLS2 gene encodes liver-type glutaminase isoforms...
June 14, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624490/bioenergetics-dysfunction-mitochondrial-permeability-transition-pore-opening-and-lipid-peroxidation-induced-by-hydrogen-sulfide-as-relevant-pathomechanisms-underlying-the-neurological-dysfunction-characteristic-of-ethylmalonic-encephalopathy
#12
Gabriela Miranda Fernandez Cardoso, Julia Tauana Pletsch, Belisa Parmeggiani, Mateus Grings, Nícolas Manzke Glanzel, Larissa Daniele Bobermin, Alexandre Umpierrez Amaral, Moacir Wajner, Guilhian Leipnitz
Hydrogen sulfide (sulfide) accumulates at high levels in the brains of patients with ethylmalonic encephalopathy (EE). In the present study, we evaluated whether sulfide could disturb energy and redox homeostasis, and induce mitochondrial permeability transition (mPT) pore opening in rat brain aiming to better clarify the neuropathophysiology of EE. Sulfide decreased the activities of citrate synthase and aconitase in rat cerebral cortex mitochondria, and of creatine kinase (CK) in rat cerebral cortex, striatum and hippocampus supernatants...
June 14, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618115/iron-sulfur-glutaredoxin-2-protects-oligodendrocytes-against-damage-induced-by-nitric-oxide-release-from-activated-microglia
#13
Klaudia Lepka, Katrin Volbracht, Eckhard Bill, Reiner Schneider, Natalia Rios, Thomas Hildebrandt, Jens Ingwersen, Timur Prozorovski, Christopher Horst Lillig, Jack van Horssen, Lawrence Steinman, Hans-Peter Hartung, Rafael Radi, Arne Holmgren, Orhan Aktas, Carsten Berndt
Demyelinated brain lesions, a hallmark of autoimmune neuroinflammatory diseases like multiple sclerosis, result from oligodendroglial cell damage. Activated microglia are considered a major source of nitric oxide and subsequent peroxynitrite-mediated damage of myelin. Here, we provide biochemical and biophysical evidence that the oxidoreductase glutaredoxin 2 inhibits peroxynitrite formation by transforming nitric oxide into dinitrosyl-diglutathionyl-iron-complexes. Glutaredoxin 2 levels influence both survival rates of primary oligodendrocyte progenitor cells and preservation of myelin structure in cerebellar organotypic slice cultures challenged with activated microglia or nitric oxide donors...
June 15, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617576/ex-vivo-measurement-of-electrically-evoked-dopamine-release-in-zebrafish-whole-brain
#14
Mimi Shin, Thomas M Field, Chase S Stucky, Mia N Furgurson, Michael A Johnson
Zebrafish (Danio rerio) have recently emerged as useful model organism for the study of neuronal function. Here, fast-scan cyclic voltammetry at carbon-fiber microelectrodes (FSCV) was used to measure locally-evoked dopamine release and uptake in zebrafish whole brain preparations and results were compared with those obtained from brain slices. Evoked dopamine release ([DA]max) was similar in whole brain and sagittal brain slice preparations (0.49 ± 0.13 µM in whole brain and 0.59 ± 0.28 µM in brain slices)...
June 15, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616031/polyethylene-glycol-restores-axonal-conduction-after-corpus-callosum-transection
#15
Ravinder Bamba, D Colton Riley, Richard B Boyer, Alonda C Pollins, R Bruce Shack, Wesley P Thayer
Polyethylene glycol (PEG) has been shown to restore axonal continuity after peripheral nerve transection in animal models. We hypothesized that PEG can also restore axonal continuity in the central nervous system. In this current experiment, coronal sectioning of the brains of Sprague-Dawley rats was performed after animal sacrifice. 3Brain high-resolution microelectrode arrays (MEA) were used to measure mean firing rate (MFR) and peak amplitude across the corpus callosum of the ex-vivo brain slices. The corpus callosum was subsequently transected and repeated measurements were performed...
May 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615161/high-glucose-increases-action-potential-firing-of-catecholamine-neurons-in-the-nucleus-of-the-solitary-tract-by-increasing-spontaneous-glutamate-inputs
#16
Brandon L Roberts, Mingyan Zhu, Huan Zhao, Crystal Dillon, Suzanne M Appleyard
Glucose is a crucial substrate essential for cell survival and function. Changes in glucose levels impact neuronal activity and glucose deprivation increases feeding. Several brain regions have been shown to respond to glucoprivation, including the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) in the brainstem. The NTS is the primary site in the brain that receives visceral afferent information from the gastrointestinal tract. The catecholaminergic (CA) subpopulation within the NTS modulates many homeostatic functions including cardiovascular reflexes, respiration, food intake, arousal and stress...
June 14, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614607/anatomical-and-functional-implications-of-crh-neurons-in-a-septal-nucleus-of-the-avian-brain-an-emphasis-on-glial-neuronal-interaction-via-v1a-receptors-in-vitro
#17
Gurueswar Nagarajan, Alexander Jurkevich, Seong W Kang, Wayne J Kuenzel
Previously, we showed that corticotropin releasing hormone immunoreactive (CRH-ir) neurons in a septal structure are associated with stress and the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis in birds. In this study, we focused upon CRH-ir neurons located within the septal structure called the nucleus of the hippocampal commissure (NHpC). Immunocytochemical and gene expression analyses were used to identify the anatomical and functional characteristics of cells within the NHpC. A comparative morphometry analysis showed that CRH-ir neurons in the NHpC were significantly larger than CRH-ir parvocellular neurons in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) and lateral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607651/assessment-of-the-diagnostic-accuracy-of-double-inversion-recovery-sequence-compared-with-flair-and-t2w_tse-in-detection-of-cerebral-multiple-sclerosis-lesions
#18
Zahra Abidi, Fariborz Faeghi, Zahra Mardanshahi, Hasan Mortazavi
BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. MRI has an important role in early diagnosis of MS within diagnostic criteria. AIM: To determine the diagnostic value of the double inversion recovery (DIR) sequence in detection of brain MS lesions. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 55 patients were admitted to the MRI department in Vali-E-Asr Hospital in Qaemshahr, Iran, from May 2016 to February 2016...
April 2017: Electronic Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604807/brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-bdnf-trkb-signaling-modulates-cancer-endothelial-cells-interaction-and-affects-the-outcomes-of-triple-negative-breast-cancer
#19
Yi-Fang Tsai, Ling-Ming Tseng, Chih-Yi Hsu, Muh-Hwa Yang, Jen-Hwey Chiu, Yi-Ming Shyr
AIMS: There is good evidence that the tumor microenvironment plays an important role in cancer metastasis and progression. Our previous studies have shown that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) participates in the process of metastasis and in the migration of cancer cells. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of BDNF on the tumor cell microenvironment, namely, the cancer cell-endothelial cell interaction of TNBC cells. METHODS: We conducted oligoneucleotide microarray analysis of potential biomarkers that are able to differentiate recurrent TNBC from non-recurrent TNBC...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604219/potentiation-of-nmda-receptor-mediated-synaptic-transmission-at-the-parabrachial-central-amygdala-synapses-by-cgrp-in-mice
#20
Yuya Okutsu, Yukari Takahashi, Masashi Nagase, Kei Shinohara, Ryo Ikeda, Fusao Kato
The capsular part of the central amygdala (CeC) is called the "nociceptive amygdala," as it receives nociceptive information from various pathways, including monosynaptic input from the lateral part of the parabrachial nucleus (LPB), a major target of ascending neurons in the spinal and medullary dorsal horn. LPB-CeC synaptic transmission is mediated by glutamate but the fibers from the LPB also contain calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and the CeC is rich in CGRP-binding sites. CGRP might be released in response to strong nociception and activate these CGRP receptors...
January 2017: Molecular Pain
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