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Brain Slice

Yiran Li, Sudipto Dolui, Dan-Feng Xie, Ze Wang
BACKGROUND: Due to the low signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) and unavoidable head motions, the pairwise subtraction perfusion signal extraction process in arterial spin labeling (ASL) perfusion MRI can produce extreme outliers. COMPARISON WITH EXISTING METHODS: We previously proposed an adaptive outlier cleaning (AOC) algorithm for ASL MRI. While it performed well even for clinical ASL data, two issues still exist. One is that if the reference is already dominated by noise, outlier cleaning using low correlation with the mean as a rejection criterion will actually reject the less noisy samples but keep the more noisy ones...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Wen-Ju Pan, Seung Yup Lee, Jacob Billings, Maysam Nezafati, Waqas Majeed, Erin Buckley, Shella Keilholz
Optical studies of ex vivo brain slices where blood is absent show that neural activity is accompanied by significant intrinsic optical signals (IOS) related to activity-dependent scattering changes in neural tissue. However, the neural scattering signals have been largely ignored in vivo in widely-used IOS methods where absorption contrast from hemoglobin was employed. Changes in scattering were observed on a time scale of seconds in previous brain slice IOS studies, similar to the time scale for the hemodynamic response...
June 13, 2018: NeuroImage
Jeremy M Thompson, Vadim Yakhnitsa, Guangchen Ji, Volker Neugebauer
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Chronic neuropathic pain is an important healthcare issue with significant emotional components. The amygdala is a brain region involved in pain and emotional-affective states and disorders. The central amygdala output nucleus (CeA) contains small-conductance calcium-activated potassium (SK) channels that can control neuronal activity. A clinically available therapeutic, riluzole can activate SK channels and may have antinociceptive effects through a supraspinal action...
June 13, 2018: Neuropharmacology
Nastaren Abad, Jens T Rosenberg, David C Hike, Michael G Harrington, Samuel C Grant
Under the hypothesis that increased extracellular sodium induces sustained neuronal excitability with the onset and progression of migraine, this study evaluates dynamic in vivo Na fluxes in the brain of a preclinical rodent analogue of migraine. Ultra-high field Na MRI at 21.1 T has demonstrated potential to quantify sodium concentrations with good spatial and temporal resolution following the onset of central sensitization. Sprague-Dawley male rats with implanted intraperitoneal (IP) lines were studied by MRI before and after an in situ injection of 10 mg/kg of nitroglycerin (NTG) versus vehicle and saline controls...
June 12, 2018: Pain
E Kipiani
Aim - mostly, gamma oscillations are studied in interface-type chambers. The purpose of the presented investigation is to describe the characteristics of gamma oscillations induced in submerged chambers by kainite pressure ejection. Horizontal combined entorhynal-hippocampal slices 300-350 µm were prepared from young mice (P18-28). Gamma oscillations were induced by 1 mM kainite pressure ejection at the boundary of stratum radiatum and lacunosum-moleculare of area CA1. Field potential recordings were registered from the vicinity of kainite application...
May 2018: Georgian Medical News
Xi Chen, Yongheng Fan, Zhifeng Xiao, Xing Li, Bin Yang, Yannan Zhao, Xianglin Hou, Sufang Han, Jianwu Dai
Objective: To evaluate the effect of the combination of collagen scaffold and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) on the repair of transected spinal cord injury in rats. Methods: Thirty-two Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: group A (sham operation group), T 9 , T 10 segments of the spinal cord was only exposed; group B, 4-mm T 9 , T 10 segments of the spinal cord were resected; group C, 4-mm T 9 , T 10 segments of the spinal cord were resected and linear ordered collagen scaffolds (LOCS) with corresponding length was transplanted into lesion site; group D, 4-mm T 9 , T 10 segments of the spinal cord were resected and LOCS with collagen binding domain (CBD)-BDNF was transplanted into lesion site...
June 1, 2018: Chinese Journal of Reparative and Reconstructive Surgery
Cara L Croft, Wendy Noble
Alzheimer's disease, the most common cause of dementia, is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterised by amyloid-beta deposits in extracellular plaques, intracellular neurofibrillary tangles of aggregated tau, synaptic dysfunction and neuronal death. There are no cures for AD and current medications only alleviate some disease symptoms. Transgenic rodent models to study Alzheimer's mimic features of human disease such as age-dependent accumulation of abnormal beta-amyloid and tau, synaptic dysfunction, cognitive deficits and neurodegeneration...
2018: F1000Research
Xin-Lu Yin, Hui-Qun Jie, Min Liang, Li-Na Gong, Han-Wei Liu, Hao-Lai Pan, Ya-Zhi Xing, Hai-Bo Shi, Chun-Yan Li, Lu-Yang Wang, Shan-Kai Yin
In developing sensory systems, elaborate morphological connectivity between peripheral cells and first-order central neurons emerges via genetic programming before the onset of sensory activities. However, how the first-order central neurons acquire the capacity to interface with peripheral cells remains elusive. By making patch-clamp recordings from mouse brainstem slices, we found that a subset of neurons in the cochlear nuclei, the first central station to receive peripheral acoustic impulses, exhibits spontaneous firings (SFs) as early as at birth, and the fraction of such neurons increases during the prehearing period...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Saraí Trujeque-Ramos, Diego Castillo-Rolón, Elvira Galarraga, Dagoberto Tapia, Gabina Arenas-López, Stefan Mihailescu, Salvador Hernández-López
Recent studies, have shown that insulin increases extrasynaptic GABAA receptor-mediated currents in the hippocampus, causing alterations of neuronal excitability. The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is another brain area which is involved in cognition functions and expresses insulin receptors. Here, we used electrophysiological, molecular, and immunocytochemical techniques to examine the effect of insulin on the extrasynaptic GABAA receptor-mediated tonic currents in brain slices. We found that insulin (20-500 nM) increases GABAA -mediated tonic currents...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Yuyuan Zhang, Xue Chen, Yun Wang, Chunhua Wang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the oxidative damage induced by cadmium choride and the expression of nuclear factor κB( NF-κB), tumor necrosis factor-α( TNF-α) and intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1( ICAM-1) in brain tissue of mice. METHODS: A total of 32 adult ICR mice were divided into 4 groups randomly including CdCl_2 2. 0, 1. 0 and 0. 5 mg/kg and NS control group, all mice were through intraperitoneally injected administration for 14 days, after the last exposure, open-field test were used and all mice were sacrificed by cervical dislocation, the expression of reactive oxygen species( ROS)was measured and the expression of TNF-α, ICAM-1 were observed by ELISA, the level of NF-κB P65 in the brain were detected by immunohistochemistry and western blot, the slices of the brain were stained with HE for histopathological examination...
September 2017: Wei Sheng Yan Jiu, Journal of Hygiene Research
Norman Atkins, Shifang Ren, Nathan G Hatcher, Penny W Burgoon, Jennifer W Mitchell, Jonathan V Sweedler, Martha U Gillette
Daily oscillations of brain and body states are under complex temporal modulation by environmental light and the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), the master circadian clock. To better understand mediators of differential temporal modulation, we characterize neuropeptide releasate profiles by non-selective capture of secreted neuropeptides in an optic nerve-horizontal SCN brain slice model. Releasates are collected following electrophysiological stimulation of the optic nerve/retinohypothalamic tract under conditions that alter the phase of SCN activity state...
June 14, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
Eric Salter, Julia Sunstrum, Sara Matovic, Wataru Inoue
KEY POINTS: Glutamatergic synaptic inputs to corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) secreting neurons in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) are required for stress-induced activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. These synapses also undergo stress-induced plasticity thereby influencing HPA axis stress adaptation. By using patch clamp electrophysiology, we show that, in adult non-stressed mice, action potentials at these glutamatergic afferents elicit multiquantal transmission to the postsynaptic PVN-CRH neurons (i...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Physiology
Hema Santhakumar, Resmi V Nair, Divya Susan Philips, Sachin J Shenoy, Anoopkumar Thekkuveettil, Ayyappanpillai Ajayaghosh, Ramapurath S Jayasree
Zinc, the essential trace element in human body exists either in the bound or free state, for both structural and functional roles. Insights on Zn2+ distribution and its dynamics are essential in view of the fact that Zn2+ dyshomeostasis is a risk factor for epileptic seizures, Alzheimer's disease, depression, etc. Herein, a bipyridine bridged bispyrrole (BP) probe is used for ratiometric imaging and quantification of Zn2+ in hippocampal slices. The green fluorescence emission of BP shifts towards red in the presence of Zn2+ ...
June 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
Richard Piet, Bruna Kalil, Tim McLennan, Robert Porteous, Katja Czieselsky, Allan E Herbison
A population of kisspeptin-GABA co-expressing neurons located in the rostral periventricular area of the third ventricle (RP3V) is believed to activate gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons to generate the luteinizing hormone (LH) surge triggering ovulation. Selective optogenetic activation of RP3V kisspeptin (RP3VKISS ) neurons in female mice for >30s and ≥10Hz in either a continuous or bursting mode was found to reliably generate a delayed and long-lasting activation of GnRH neuron firing in brain slices...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Daniel B Yaeger, Emma J Coddington
Neurons in the medullary reticular formation are involved in the control of postural and locomotor behaviors in all vertebrates. Reticulospinal neurons in this brain region provide one of the major descending projections to the spinal cord. Although neurons in the newt medullary reticular formation have been extensively studied using in vivo extracellular recordings, little is known of their intrinsic biophysical properties or of the underlying circuitry of this region. Using whole-cell patch-clamp recordings in brain slices containing the rostromedial reticular formation (rmRF) from adult male newts, we observed spontaneous miniature outward currents (SMOCs) in approximately two-thirds of neurons...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
Sheeba Arnold Anteraper, Xavier Guell, Anila D'Mello, Neha Joshi, Susan Whitfield-Gabrieli, Gagan Joshi
OBJECTIVES: To examine the resting-state functional-connectivity (RsFc) in young adults with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder (HF-ASD) using state-of-the-art fMRI data acquisition and analysis techniques. METHODS: Simultaneous multi-slice, high temporal resolution fMRI acquisition; unbiased whole-brain connectome-wide multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA) techniques for assessing RsFc; and post-hoc whole-brain seed-to-voxel analyses using MVPA results as seeds...
June 13, 2018: Brain Connectivity
Wei Wang, Yi Guo, Liang He, Chengzhi Chen, Jing Luo, Yuanlin Ma, Jie Li, Yong Yang, Qin Yang, Chao Du, Yanke Zhang, Zhonggui Li, Xin Xu, Xin Tian, Xuefeng Wang
miRNA-137 is an extremely abundant miRNA in the central nervous system and is thought to be closely related to synaptic plasticity. Here, we report a previously unrecognized role of miRNA-137 in epilepsy. The expression of miRNA-137 was decreased both in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and in two different mouse models of epilepsy. Overexpression of miRNA-137 induced by an intrahippocampal injection of a specific agomir prolonged the latency to spontaneous recurrent seizures (SRSs) and reduced seizure severity in a mouse model of pilocarpine-induced epilepsy...
June 9, 2018: Neuropharmacology
Jonathan J Sabbagh, Ricardo A Cordova, Dali Zheng, Marangelie Criado-Marrero, Andrea Lemus, Pengfei Li, Jeremy D Baker, Bryce A Nordhues, April L Darling, Carlos Martinez-Licha, Daniel A Rutz, Shreya Patel, Johannes Buchner, James W Leahy, John Koren, Chad A Dickey, Laura J Blair
Genetic and epigenetic alterations in FK506-binding protein 5 (FKBP5) have been associated with increased risk for psychiatric disorders, including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). These variants can increase the expression of FKBP5, the gene that encodes FKBP51. Excess FKBP51 promotes hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis dysregulation through altered glucocorticoid receptor (GR) signaling. Thus, we hypothesized that GR activity could be restored by perturbing FKBP51. Here, we report that depletion of FKBP51 from the GR/90kDa heat shock protein (Hsp90) complex increased GR signaling in vivo...
June 12, 2018: ACS Chemical Biology
Colin Davidson, Christopher A R Raby, Vincenzo Barrese, John Ramsey
3,4-dichloromethylphenidate (3,4-CTMP) and ethylphenidate are new psychoactive substances and analogs of the attention deficit medication methylphenidate. Both drugs have been reported on online user fora to induce effects similar to cocaine. In the UK, 3,4-CTMP appeared on the drug market in 2013 and ethylphenidate has been sold since 2010. We aimed to explore the neurochemical effects of these drugs on brain dopamine and noradrenaline efflux. 3,4-CTMP and ethylphenidate, purchased from online vendors, were analyzed using gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy to confirm their identity...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Jin-Zhao Wang, Cheng Long, Kai-Yuan Li, Hua-Tai Xu, Li-Lian Yuan, Gang-Yi Wu
U0126 (1,4-diamino-2,3-dicyano-1,4-bis (2-aminophenylthio) butadiene), a widely used mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) inhibitor, was found to accelerate voltage-gated K+ channel (KV ) inactivation in heterologous cells expressing several types of KV . The goal of this study was to examine whether U0126 at a concentration thought to specifically inhibit MEK signaling also inhibits KV in native neurons of primary cultures or brain slices. U0126 caused a dose-dependent inhibition of both the transient (IA ) and sustained (IDR ) components of K+ currents in hippocampal neurons...
June 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
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