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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340432/reorganization-of-anterior-and-posterior-hippocampal-networks-associated-with-memory-performance-in-mesial-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#1
Hong Li, Caihong Ji, Lujia Zhu, Peiyu Huang, Biao Jiang, Xiaojun Xu, Jianzhong Sun, Zhong Chen, Meiping Ding, Minming Zhang, Shuang Wang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the pattern of functional demarcation of hippocampal network and its relationship with memory performance in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) with unilateral hippocampal sclerosis. METHODS: Resting state fMRI data were acquired from fifteen left mTLE patients, fourteen right mTLE patients and twenty healthy subjects. We explore the hippocampal-cortical alterations and corresponding inter-hemispheric functional connectivity (FC) across anterior and posterior hippocampal networks...
March 4, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334610/a-novel-mechanism-for-the-grid-to-place-cell-transformation-revealed-by-transgenic-depolarization-of-medial-entorhinal-cortex-layer-ii
#2
Benjamin R Kanter, Christine M Lykken, Daniel Avesar, Aldis Weible, Jasmine Dickinson, Benjamin Dunn, Nils Z Borgesius, Yasser Roudi, Clifford G Kentros
The spatial receptive fields of neurons in medial entorhinal cortex layer II (MECII) and in the hippocampus suggest general and environment-specific maps of space, respectively. However, the relationship between these receptive fields remains unclear. We reversibly manipulated the activity of MECII neurons via chemogenetic receptors and compared the changes in downstream hippocampal place cells to those of neurons in MEC. Depolarization of MECII impaired spatial memory and elicited drastic changes in CA1 place cells in a familiar environment, similar to those seen during remapping between distinct environments, while hyperpolarization did not...
March 22, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334142/layer-specific-organization-of-local-excitatory-and-inhibitory-synaptic-connectivity-in-the-rat-presubiculum
#3
Yangfan Peng, Federico J Barreda Tomás, Constantin Klisch, Imre Vida, Jörg R P Geiger
The presubiculum is part of the parahippocampal spatial navigation system and contains head direction and grid cells upstream of the medial entorhinal cortex. This position within the parahippocampal cortex renders the presubiculum uniquely suited for analyzing the circuit requirements underlying the emergence of spatially tuned neuronal activity. To identify the local circuit properties, we analyzed the topology of synaptic connections between pyramidal cells and interneurons in all layers of the presubiculum by testing 4250 potential synaptic connections using multiple whole-cell recordings of up to 8 cells simultaneously...
February 25, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333012/cerebral-cortex-regions-selectively-vulnerable-to-radiation-dose-dependent-atrophy
#4
Tyler M Seibert, Roshan Karunamuni, Samar Kaifi, Jeffrey Burkeen, Michael Connor, Anitha Priya Krishnan, Nathan S White, Nikdokht Farid, Hauke Bartsch, Vyacheslav Murzin, Tanya T Nguyen, Vitali Moiseenko, James B Brewer, Carrie R McDonald, Anders M Dale, Jona A Hattangadi-Gluth
PURPOSE AND OBJECTIVES: Neurologic deficits after brain radiation therapy (RT) typically involve decline in higher-order cognitive functions such as attention and memory rather than sensory defects or paralysis. We sought to determine whether areas of the cortex critical to cognition are selectively vulnerable to radiation dose-dependent atrophy. METHODS AND MATERIALS: We measured change in cortical thickness in 54 primary brain tumor patients who underwent fractionated, partial brain RT...
April 1, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326120/structural-mri-and-amyloid-pet-imaging-for-prediction-of-conversion-to-alzheimer-s-disease-in-patients-with-mild-cognitive-impairment-a-meta-analysis
#5
Eun Hyun Seo, Woon Yeong Park, Il Han Choo
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to explore the prognostic values of biomarkers of neurodegeneration as measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and amyloid burden as measured by amyloid positron emission tomography (PET) in predicting conversion to Alzheimer's disease (AD) in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). METHODS: PubMed and EMBASE databases were searched for structural MRI or amyloid PET imaging studies published between January 2000 and July 2014 that reported conversion to AD in patients with MCI...
March 2017: Psychiatry Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324693/cortical-complexity-in-bipolar-disorder-applying-a-spherical-harmonics-approach
#6
Igor Nenadic, Rachel A Yotter, Maren Dietzek, Kerstin Langbein, Heinrich Sauer, Christian Gaser
Recent studies using surface-based morphometry of structural magnetic resonance imaging data have suggested that some changes in bipolar disorder (BP) might be neurodevelopmental in origin. We applied a novel analysis of cortical complexity based on fractal dimensions in high-resolution structural MRI scans of 18 bipolar disorder patients and 26 healthy controls. Our region-of-interest based analysis revealed increases in fractal dimensions (in patients relative to controls) in left lateral orbitofrontal cortex and right precuneus, and decreases in right caudal middle frontal, entorhinal cortex, and right pars orbitalis, and left fusiform and posterior cingulate cortices...
February 21, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324681/morphometric-mri-features-are-associated-with-surgical-outcome-in-mesial-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-with-hippocampal-sclerosis
#7
Maria Teresa Fernandes Castilho Garcia, Larissa Botelho Gaça, Gabriel Barbosa Sandim, Idaiane Batista Assunção Leme, Henrique Carrete, Ricardo Silva Centeno, João Ricardo Sato, Elza Márcia Targas Yacubian
PURPOSE: Corticoamygdalohippocampectomy (CAH) improves seizure control, quality of life, and decreases mortality for refractory mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis (MTLE-HS). One-third of patients continue having seizures, and it is pivotal to determine structural abnormalities that might influence the postoperative outcome. Studies indicate that nonhippocampal regions may play a role in the epileptogenic network in MTLE-HS and could generate seizures postoperatively...
March 1, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323831/genetic-assessment-of-age-associated-alzheimer-disease-risk-development-and-validation-of-a-polygenic-hazard-score
#8
Rahul S Desikan, Chun Chieh Fan, Yunpeng Wang, Andrew J Schork, Howard J Cabral, L Adrienne Cupples, Wesley K Thompson, Lilah Besser, Walter A Kukull, Dominic Holland, Chi-Hua Chen, James B Brewer, David S Karow, Karolina Kauppi, Aree Witoelar, Celeste M Karch, Luke W Bonham, Jennifer S Yokoyama, Howard J Rosen, Bruce L Miller, William P Dillon, David M Wilson, Christopher P Hess, Margaret Pericak-Vance, Jonathan L Haines, Lindsay A Farrer, Richard Mayeux, John Hardy, Alison M Goate, Bradley T Hyman, Gerard D Schellenberg, Linda K McEvoy, Ole A Andreassen, Anders M Dale
BACKGROUND: Identifying individuals at risk for developing Alzheimer disease (AD) is of utmost importance. Although genetic studies have identified AD-associated SNPs in APOE and other genes, genetic information has not been integrated into an epidemiological framework for risk prediction. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Using genotype data from 17,008 AD cases and 37,154 controls from the International Genomics of Alzheimer's Project (IGAP Stage 1), we identified AD-associated SNPs (at p < 10-5)...
March 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323012/extracellular-matrix-alterations-in-the-ketamine-model-of-schizophrenia
#9
Gabriela Matuszko, Sebastiano Curreli, Rahul Kaushik, Axel Becker, Alexander Dityatev
The neural extracellular matrix (ECM) plays an important role in regulation of perisomatic GABAergic inhibition and synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus and cortex. Decreased labeling of perineuronal nets, a form of ECM predominantly associated with parvalbumin-expressing interneurons in the brain, has been observed in post-mortem studies of schizophrenia patients, specifically, in brain areas such as prefrontal cortex, entorhinal cortex, and amygdala. Moreover, glial ECM in the form of dandelion clock-like structures was reported to be altered in schizophrenia patients...
March 16, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314821/phases-of-hyper-and-hypo-connectivity-in-the-default-mode-and-salience-networks-track-with-amyloid-and-tau-in-clinically-normal-individuals
#10
Aaron P Schultz, Jasmeer P Chhatwal, Trey Hedden, Elizabeth C Mormino, Bernard J Hanseeuw, Jorge Sepulcre, Willem Huijbers, Molly LaPoint, Rachel F Buckley, Keith A Johnson, Reisa A Sperling
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by two hallmark molecular pathologies: amyloid aβ1-42, and Tau neurofibrillary tangles. To date, studies of functional connectivity MRI (fcMRI) in preclinical AD have relied on associations with in-vivo measures of amyloid pathology. With the recent advent of in-vivo Tau-PET tracers it is now possible to extend investigations on fcMRI in a sample of cognitively normal elderly humans to regional measures of Tau. We modeled fcMRI measures across four major cortical association networks (Default Mode (DMN), Salience, Dorsal Attention (DAN), and Frontoparietal Control (FPCN)) as a function of global cortical amyloid (PiB-PET) and regional Tau (AV1451-PET) in entorhinal, inferior temporal (IT), and inferior parietal (IP) cortex...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304286/family-history-of-alzheimer-s-disease-is-associated-with-impaired-perceptual-discrimination-of-novel-objects
#11
Emily J Mason, Erin P Hussey, Robert J Molitor, Philip C Ko, Manus J Donahue, Brandon A Ally
Early detection may be the key to developing therapies that will combat Alzheimer's disease (AD). It has been consistently demonstrated that one of the main pathologies of AD, tau, is present in the brain decades before a clinical diagnosis. Tau pathology follows a stereotypical route through the medial temporal lobe beginning in the entorhinal and perirhinal cortices. If early pathology leads to very subtle changes in behavior, it may be possible to detect these changes in subjects years before a clinical diagnosis can currently be made...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299641/the-phospholipid-composition-of-the-human-entorhinal-cortex-remains-relatively-stable-over-80%C3%A2-years-of-adult-aging
#12
Sarah E Hancock, Michael G Friedrich, Todd W Mitchell, Roger J W Truscott, Paul L Else
Membrane lipid composition is altered in the brain during the pathogenesis of several age-related neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease. The entorhinal cortex is one of the first regions of the brain to display the neuropathology typical of Alzheimer's disease, yet little is known about the changes that occur in membrane lipids within this brain region during normal aging (i.e., in the absence of dementia). In the present study, the phospholipid composition of mitochondrial and microsomal membranes from human entorhinal cortex was examined for any changes over the adult lifespan (18-98 years)...
February 2017: Geroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291520/corrigendum-to-entorhinal-cortex-lesions-result-in-adenosine-sensitive-high-frequency-oscillations-in-the-hippocampus-exp-neurol-271-2015-319-328
#13
Franco Ortiz, Rafael Gutiérrez
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 11, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281317/hippocampal-formation-alterations-differently-contribute-to-autobiographic-memory-deficits-in-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#14
Dusan Hirjak, Robert C Wolf, Barbara Pfeifer, Ulrich Seidl, Anne K Thomann, Katharina M Kubera, Johannes Schröder, Klaus H Maier-Hein, Philipp A Thomann
BACKGROUND: Autobiographical memory (AM) is part of declarative memory and includes both semantic and episodic aspects. AM deficits are among the major complaints of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) even in early or preclinical stages. OBJECTIVES: Previous MRI studies AD patients have showed that deficits in semantic and episodic AM are associated with hippocampal alterations. However, the question which specific hippocampal subfields and adjacent extrahippocampal structures contribute to deficits of AM in individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and AD patients has not been investigated so far...
March 9, 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279988/entorhinal-cortex-antemortem-cortical-thickness-and-postmortem-neurofibrillary-tangles-and-amyloid-pathology
#15
A A Thaker, B D Weinberg, W P Dillon, C P Hess, H J Cabral, D A Fleischman, S E Leurgans, D A Bennett, B T Hyman, M S Albert, R J Killiany, B Fischl, A M Dale, R S Desikan
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The entorhinal cortex, a critical gateway between the neocortex and hippocampus, is one of the earliest regions affected by Alzheimer disease-associated neurofibrillary tangle pathology. Although our prior work has automatically delineated an MR imaging-based measure of the entorhinal cortex, whether antemortem entorhinal cortex thickness is associated with postmortem tangle burden within the entorhinal cortex is still unknown. Our objective was to evaluate the relationship between antemortem MRI measures of entorhinal cortex thickness and postmortem neuropathological measures...
March 9, 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279355/entorhinal-ca3-dual-input-control-of-spike-timing-in-the-hippocampus-by-theta-gamma-coupling
#16
Antonio Fernández-Ruiz, Azahara Oliva, Gergő A Nagy, Andrew P Maurer, Antal Berényi, György Buzsáki
Theta-gamma phase coupling and spike timing within theta oscillations are prominent features of the hippocampus and are often related to navigation and memory. However, the mechanisms that give rise to these relationships are not well understood. Using high spatial resolution electrophysiology, we investigated the influence of CA3 and entorhinal inputs on the timing of CA1 neurons. The theta-phase preference and excitatory strength of the afferent CA3 and entorhinal inputs effectively timed the principal neuron activity, as well as regulated distinct CA1 interneuron populations in multiple tasks and behavioral states...
March 8, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273767/impairment-of-social-cognition-in-multiple-sclerosis-amygdala-atrophy-is-the-main-predictor
#17
Sonia Batista, Otília C d'Almeida, Ana Afonso, Sandra Freitas, Carmo Macário, Lívia Sousa, Miguel Castelo-Branco, Isabel Santana, Luís Cunha
BACKGROUND: Patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) frequently reveal social behavior disturbance. Nevertheless, little is known regarding the impact of MS on social cognition, particularly theory of mind (ToM), and its neural basis. OBJECTIVES: To explore how ToM is affected in MS and its neural correlates. METHODS: Enrolled 60 consecutive MS patients and 60 healthy controls (HC) matched on age, sex, and education. Participants underwent ToM testing (Eyes Test, Videos Test) and 3 T brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)...
December 1, 2016: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270783/semi-supervised-learning-of-cartesian-factors-a-top-down-model-of-the-entorhinal-hippocampal-complex
#18
András Lőrincz, András Sárkány
The existence of place cells (PCs), grid cells (GCs), border cells (BCs), and head direction cells (HCs) as well as the dependencies between them have been enigmatic. We make an effort to explain their nature by introducing the concept of Cartesian Factors. These factors have specific properties: (i) they assume and complement each other, like direction and position and (ii) they have localized discrete representations with predictive attractors enabling implicit metric-like computations. In our model, HCs make the distributed and local representation of direction...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265813/quantitative-neuropathology-an-update-on-automated-methodologies-and-implications-for-large-scale-cohorts
#19
Lauren Walker, Kirsty E McAleese, Mary Johnson, Ahmad A Khundakar, Daniel Erskine, Alan J Thomas, Ian G McKeith, Johannes Attems
A tissue microarray (TMA) has previously been developed for use in assessment of neurodegenerative diseases. We investigated the variation of pathology loads in semi-quantitative score categories and how pathology load related to disease progression. Post-mortem tissue from 146 cases were used; Alzheimer's disease (AD) (n = 36), Lewy body disease (LBD) (n = 56), mixed AD/dementia with Lewy bodies (n = 14) and controls (n = 40). TMA blocks (one per case) were constructed using tissue cores from 15 brain regions including cortical and subcortical regions...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263300/a-distinct-entorhinal-cortex-to-hippocampal-ca1-direct-circuit-for-olfactory-associative-learning
#20
Yiding Li, Jiamin Xu, Yafeng Liu, Jia Zhu, Nan Liu, Wenbo Zeng, Ning Huang, Malte J Rasch, Haifei Jiang, Xiang Gu, Xiang Li, Minhua Luo, Chengyu Li, Junlin Teng, Jianguo Chen, Shaoqun Zeng, Longnian Lin, Xiaohui Zhang
Lateral and medial parts of entorhinal cortex (EC) convey nonspatial 'what' and spatial 'where' information, respectively, into hippocampal CA1, via both the indirect EC layer 2→ hippocampal dentate gyrus→CA3→CA1 and the direct EC layer 3→CA1 paths. However, it remains elusive how the direct path transfers distinct information and contributes to hippocampal learning functions. Here we report that lateral EC projection neurons selectively form direct excitatory synapses onto a subpopulation of morphologically complex, calbindin-expressing pyramidal cells (PCs) in the dorsal CA1 (dCA1), while medial EC neurons uniformly innervate all dCA1 PCs...
March 6, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
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