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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634382/expression-of-p301l-htau-in-mouse-mec-induces-hippocampus-dependent-memory-deficit
#1
Xinghua Liu, Kuan Zeng, Mengzhu Li, Qun Wang, Rong Liu, Bin Zhang, Jian-Zhi Wang, Xiji Shu, Xiaochuan Wang
Intracellular accumulation of abnormally phosphorylated tau in different types of neurons is a pathological characteristic of Alzheimer's disease (AD). While tau modification and associated neuronal loss and hypometabolism start in the entorhinal cortex (EC) in early AD patients, the mechanism by which mutant P301L hTau leads to dementia is not fully elucidated. Here, we studied the effects of P301L hTau transduction in the medial EC (MEC) of mice on tau phosphorylation and accumulation, and cognitive deficit...
June 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628647/an-efficient-coding-theory-for-a-dynamic-trajectory-predicts-non-uniform-allocation-of-entorhinal-grid-cells-to-modules
#2
Noga Mosheiff, Haggai Agmon, Avraham Moriel, Yoram Burak
Grid cells in the entorhinal cortex encode the position of an animal in its environment with spatially periodic tuning curves with different periodicities. Recent experiments established that these cells are functionally organized in discrete modules with uniform grid spacing. Here we develop a theory for efficient coding of position, which takes into account the temporal statistics of the animal's motion. The theory predicts a sharp decrease of module population sizes with grid spacing, in agreement with the trend seen in the experimental data...
June 19, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628104/active-dendritic-integration-as-a-mechanism-for-robust-and-precise-grid-cell-firing
#3
Christoph Schmidt-Hieber, Gabija Toleikyte, Laurence Aitchison, Arnd Roth, Beverley A Clark, Tiago Branco, Michael Häusser
Understanding how active dendrites are exploited for behaviorally relevant computations is a fundamental challenge in neuroscience. Grid cells in medial entorhinal cortex are an attractive model system for addressing this question, as the computation they perform is clear: they convert synaptic inputs into spatially modulated, periodic firing. Whether active dendrites contribute to the generation of the dual temporal and rate codes characteristic of grid cell output is unknown. We show that dendrites of medial entorhinal cortex neurons are highly excitable and exhibit a supralinear input-output function in vitro, while in vivo recordings reveal membrane potential signatures consistent with recruitment of active dendritic conductances...
June 19, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622141/analysis-of-structural-brain-mri-and-multi-parameter-classification-for-alzheimer-s-disease
#4
Yingteng Zhang, Shenquan Liu
Incorporating with machine learning technology, neuroimaging markers which extracted from structural Magnetic Resonance Images (sMRI), can help distinguish Alzheimer's Disease (AD) patients from Healthy Controls (HC). In the present study, we aim to investigate differences in atrophic regions between HC and AD and apply machine learning methods to classify these two groups. T1-weighted sMRI scans of 158 patients with AD and 145 age-matched HC were acquired from the ADNI database. Five kinds of parameters (i...
June 15, 2017: Biomedizinische Technik. Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612291/-f-18-av-1451-binding-correlates-with-postmortem-neurofibrillary-tangle-braak-staging
#5
Marta Marquié, Michael Siao Tick Chong, Alejandro Antón-Fernández, Eline E Verwer, Nil Sáez-Calveras, Avery C Meltzer, Prianca Ramanan, Ana C Amaral, Jose Gonzalez, Marc D Normandin, Matthew P Frosch, Teresa Gómez-Isla
[F-18]-AV-1451, a PET tracer specifically developed to detect brain neurofibrillary tau pathology, has the potential to facilitate accurate diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD), staging of brain tau burden and monitoring disease progression. Recent PET studies show that patients with mild cognitive impairment and AD dementia exhibit significantly higher in vivo [F-18]-AV-1451 retention than cognitively normal controls. Importantly, PET patterns of [F-18]-AV-1451 correlate well with disease severity and seem to match the predicted topographic Braak staging of neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) in AD, although this awaits confirmation...
June 13, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612259/apoptosis-following-cortical-spreading-depression-in-juvenile-rats
#6
Ali Jahanbazi Jahan-Abad, Leila Alizadeh, Sajad Sahab Negah, Parastoo Barati, Maryam Khaleghi Ghadiri, Sven G Meuth, Stjepana Kovac, Ali Gorji
Repetitive cortical spreading depression (CSD) can lead to cell death in immature brain tissue. Caspases are involved in neuronal cell death in several CSD-related neurological disorders, such as stroke and epilepsy. Yet, whether repetitive CSD itself can induce caspase activation in adult or juvenile tissue remains unknown. Inducing repetitive CSD in somatosensory cortices of juvenile and adult rats in vivo, we thus aimed to investigate the effect of repetitive CSD on the expression caspase-3, caspase-8, caspase-9, and caspase-12 in different brain regions using immunohistochemistry and western blotting techniques...
June 13, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611603/inactivation-of-the-lateral-entorhinal-area-increases-the-influence-of-visual-cues-on-hippocampal-place-cell-activity
#7
Kristin M Scaplen, Rohan N Ramesh, Negin Nadvar, Omar J Ahmed, Rebecca D Burwell
The hippocampus is important for both navigation and associative learning. We previously showed that the hippocampus processes two-dimensional (2D) landmarks and objects differently. Our findings suggested that landmarks are more likely to be used for orientation and navigation, whereas objects are more likely to be used for associative learning. The process by which cues are recognized as relevant for navigation or associative learning, however, is an open question. Presumably both spatial and nonspatial information are necessary for classifying cues as landmarks or objects...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598850/recovery-from-proactive-semantic-interference-and-mri-volume-a%C3%A2-replication-and-extension-study
#8
David A Loewenstein, Rosie E Curiel, Steven DeKosky, Monica Rosselli, Russell Bauer, Maria Grieg-Custo, Ailyn Penate, Chunfei Li, Gabriel Lizagarra, Todd Golde, Malek Adjouadi, Ranjan Duara
BACKGROUND: The rise in incidence of Alzheimer's disease (AD) has led to efforts to advance early detection of the disease during its preclinical stages. To achieve this, the field needs to develop more sensitive cognitive tests that relate to biological markers of disease pathology. Failure to recover from proactive interference (frPSI) is one such cognitive marker that is associated with volumetric reductions in the hippocampus, precuneus, and other AD-prone regions, and to amyloid load in the brain...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593193/differential-expression-and-cell-type-specificity-of-perineuronal-nets-in-hippocampus-medial-entorhinal-cortex-and-visual-cortex-examined-in-the-rat-and-mouse
#9
Kristian Kinden Lensjø, Ane Charlotte Christensen, Simen Tennøe, Marianne Fyhn, Torkel Hafting
Perineuronal nets (PNNs) are specialized extracellular matrix (ECM) structures that condense around the soma and proximal dendrites of subpopulations of neurons. Emerging evidence suggests that they are involved in regulating brain plasticity. However, the expression of PNNs varies between and within brain areas. A lack of quantitative studies describing the distribution and cell-specificity of PNNs makes it difficult to reveal the functional roles of PNNs. In the current study, we examine the distribution of PNNs and the identity of PNN-enwrapped neurons in three brain areas with different cognitive functions: the dorsal hippocampus, medial entorhinal cortex (mEC) and primary visual cortex (V1)...
May 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591796/histamine-enhances-theta-coupled-spiking-and-gamma-oscillations-in-the-medial-entorhinal-cortex-consistent-with-successful-spatial-recognition
#10
Quanhui Chen, Fenlan Luo, Faguo Yue, Jianxia Xia, Qin Xiao, Xiang Liao, Jun Jiang, Jun Zhang, Bo Hu, Dong Gao, Chao He, Zhian Hu
Encoding of spatial information in the superficial layers of the medial entorhinal cortex (sMEC) involves theta-modulated spiking and gamma oscillations, as well as spatially tuned grid cells and border cells. Little is known about the role of the arousal-promoting histaminergic system in the modification of information encoded in the sMEC in vivo, and how such histamine-regulated information correlates with behavioral functions. Here, we show that histamine upregulates the neural excitability of a significant proportion of neurons (16...
June 7, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591171/mixed-mode-oscillations-in-pyramidal-neurons-under-antiepileptic-drug-conditions
#11
Babak V-Ghaffari, M Kouhnavard, Sherif M Elbasiouny
Subthreshold oscillations in combination with large-amplitude oscillations generate mixed-mode oscillations (MMOs), which mediate various spatial and temporal cognition and memory processes and behavioral motor tasks. Although many studies have shown that canard theory is a reliable method to investigate the properties underlying the MMOs phenomena, the relationship between the results obtained by applying canard theory and conductance-based models of neurons and their electrophysiological mechanisms are still not well understood...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589856/association-analysis-of-rare-variants-near-the-apoe-region-with-csf-and-neuroimaging-biomarkers-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#12
Kwangsik Nho, Sungeun Kim, Emrin Horgusluoglu, Shannon L Risacher, Li Shen, Dokyoon Kim, Seunggeun Lee, Tatiana Foroud, Leslie M Shaw, John Q Trojanowski, Paul S Aisen, Ronald C Petersen, Clifford R Jack, Michael W Weiner, Robert C Green, Arthur W Toga, Andrew J Saykin
BACKGROUND: The APOE ε4 allele is the most significant common genetic risk factor for late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD). The region surrounding APOE on chromosome 19 has also shown consistent association with LOAD. However, no common variants in the region remain significant after adjusting for APOE genotype. We report a rare variant association analysis of genes in the vicinity of APOE with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and neuroimaging biomarkers of LOAD. METHODS: Whole genome sequencing (WGS) was performed on 817 blood DNA samples from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI)...
May 24, 2017: BMC Medical Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587897/comparison-of-multiple-tau-pet-measures-as-biomarkers-in-aging-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#13
Anne Maass, Susan Landau, Suzanne L Baker, Andy Horng, Samuel N Lockhart, Renaud La Joie, Gil D Rabinovici, William J Jagust
The recent development of tau-specific positron emission tomography (PET) tracers enables in vivo quantification of regional tau pathology, one of the key lesions in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Tau PET imaging may become a useful biomarker for clinical diagnosis and tracking of disease progression but there is no consensus yet on how tau PET signal is best quantified. The goal of the current study was to evaluate multiple whole-brain and region-specific approaches to detect clinically relevant tau PET signal...
June 3, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585932/plasma-rest-a-novel-candidate-biomarker-of-alzheimer-s-disease-is-modified-by-psychological-intervention-in-an-at-risk-population
#14
N J Ashton, A Hye, C A Leckey, A R Jones, A Gardner, C Elliott, J L Wetherell, E J Lenze, R Killick, N L Marchant
The repressor element 1-silencing transcription (REST) factor is a key regulator of the aging brain's stress response. It is reduced in conditions of stress and Alzheimer's disease (AD), which suggests that increasing REST may be neuroprotective. REST can be measured peripherally in blood plasma. Our study aimed to (1) examine plasma REST levels in relation to clinical and biological markers of neurodegeneration and (2) alter plasma REST levels through a stress-reduction intervention-mindfulness training. In study 1, REST levels were compared across the following four well-characterized groups: healthy elderly (n=65), mild cognitive impairment who remained stable (stable MCI, n=36), MCI who later converted to dementia (converter MCI, n=29) and AD (n=65) from the AddNeuroMed cohort...
June 6, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578804/human-anterolateral-entorhinal-cortex-volumes-are-associated-with-cognitive-decline-in-aging-prior-to-clinical-diagnosis
#15
Rosanna K Olsen, Lok-Kin Yeung, Alix Noly-Gandon, Maria C D'Angelo, Arber Kacollja, Victoria M Smith, Jennifer D Ryan, Morgan D Barense
We investigated whether older adults without subjective memory complaints, but who present with cognitive decline in the laboratory, demonstrate atrophy in medial temporal lobe (MTL) subregions associated with Alzheimer's disease. Forty community-dwelling older adults were categorized based on Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) performance. Total gray/white matter, cerebrospinal fluid, and white matter hyperintensity load were quantified from whole-brain T1-weighted and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery magnetic resonance imaging scans, whereas hippocampal subfields and MTL cortical subregion volumes (CA1, dentate gyrus/CA2/3, subiculum, anterolateral and posteromedial entorhinal, perirhinal, and parahippocampal cortices) were quantified using high-resolution T2-weighted scans...
May 8, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572767/glia-maturation-factor-and-mitochondrial-uncoupling-proteins-2-and-4-expression-in-the-temporal-cortex-of-alzheimer-s-disease-brain
#16
Ramasamy Thangavel, Duraisamy Kempuraj, Smita Zaheer, Sudhanshu Raikwar, Mohammad E Ahmed, Govindhasamy Pushpavathi Selvakumar, Shankar S Iyer, Asgar Zaheer
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by the presence of neuropathological lesions containing amyloid plaques (APs) and neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs). AD is associated with mitochondrial dysfunctions, neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration in the brain. We have previously demonstrated enhanced expression of the proinflammatory protein glia maturation factor (GMF) in glial cells near APs and NFTs in the AD brains. Parahippocampal gyrus consisting of entorhinal and perirhinal subdivisions of temporal cortex is the first brain region affected during AD pathogenesis...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28567006/lateral-entorhinal-cortex-lesions-impair-local-spatial-frameworks
#17
Maneesh V Kuruvilla, James A Ainge
A prominent theory in the neurobiology of memory processing is that episodic memory is supported by contextually gated spatial representations in the hippocampus formed by combining spatial information from medial entorhinal cortex (MEC) with non-spatial information from lateral entorhinal cortex (LEC). However, there is a growing body of evidence from lesion and single-unit recording studies in rodents suggesting that LEC might have a role in encoding space, particularly the current and previous locations of objects within the local environment...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28567004/differentiation-of-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-hipsc-derived-neurons-in-mouse-hippocampal-slice-cultures
#18
Toshimitsu Hiragi, Megumi Andoh, Toshihiro Araki, Takayuki Shirakawa, Takashi Ono, Ryuta Koyama, Yuji Ikegaya
Potential clinical applications of neurons derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC-neurons) for drug screening and transplantation therapies have received considerable attention. However, it remains unclear whether and how transplanted hiPSC-neurons are incorporated into pre-existing neural circuits. Here we developed a co-culture system of hiPSC-neurons and mouse hippocampal slices to examine the differentiation of hiPSC-neurons in pre-existing neural circuits. hiPSC-neurons transplanted in mouse hippocampal slices expressed the hippocampal neuron-specific markers HuB and Prox1 after 7 days of culture, while those markers were scarcely expressed in hiPSC-neurons cultured on glass dishes...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566144/the-anteroposterior-and-primary-to-posterior-limbic-ratios-as-mri-derived-volumetric-markers-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#19
Adolfo Jiménez-Huete, Susana Estévez-Santé
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Alzheimer's disease (AD) shows a characteristic pattern of brain atrophy, with predominant involvement of posterior limbic structures, and relative preservation of rostral limbic and primary cortical regions. We aimed to investigate the diagnostic utility of two gray matter volume ratios based on this pattern, and to develop a fully automated method to calculate them from unprocessed MRI files. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Cross-sectional study of 118 subjects from the ADNI database, including normal controls and patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and AD...
July 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558817/effects-of-exercise-on-brain-activity-during-walking-in-older-adults-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#20
Hiroyuki Shimada, Kenji Ishii, Hyuma Makizako, Kiichi Ishiwata, Keiichi Oda, Megumi Suzukawa
BACKGROUND: Physical activity may preserve neuronal plasticity, increase synapse formation, and cause the release of hormonal factors that promote neurogenesis and neuronal function. Previous studies have reported enhanced neurocognitive function following exercise training. However, the specific cortical regions activated during exercise training remain largely undefined. In this study, we quantitatively and objectively evaluated the effects of exercise on brain activity during walking in healthy older adults...
May 30, 2017: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
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