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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791849/activation-of-entorhinal-cortical-projections-to-the-dentate-gyrus-underlies-social-memory-retrieval
#1
Celeste Leung, Feng Cao, Robin Nguyen, Krutika Joshi, Afif J Aqrabawi, Shuting Xia, Miguel A Cortez, O Carter Snead, Jun Chul Kim, Zhengping Jia
Social interactions are essential to our mental health, and a deficit in social interactions is a hallmark characteristic of numerous brain disorders. Various subregions within the medial temporal lobe have been implicated in social memory, but the underlying mechanisms that tune these neural circuits remain unclear. Here, we demonstrate that optical activation of excitatory entorhinal cortical perforant projections to the dentate gyrus (EC-DG) is necessary and sufficient for social memory retrieval. We further show that inducible disruption of p21-activated kinase (PAK) signaling, a key pathway important for cytoskeletal reorganization, in the EC-DG circuit leads to impairments in synaptic function and social recognition memory, and, importantly, optogenetic activation of the EC-DG terminals reverses the social memory deficits in the transgenic mice...
May 22, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790025/ampar-mediated-interictal-discharges-in-neurons-of-entorhinal-cortex-experiment-and-model
#2
A V Chizhov, D V Amakhin, A V Zaizev, L G Magazanik
The mechanisms of interictal discharges (IID) were studied under the conditions of the 4-aminopyridine model of spontaneous epileptiform activity in surviving rat brain slice preparations. Addition of the agents blocking GABA and NMDA receptors failed to inhibit IID generation in the entorhinal cortex. A mathematical model of IID has been developed on the basis of the excitatory neuron interaction mediated by the AMPA receptor. Short-term synaptic depression and slow afterspike-hyperpolarization are the key factors required to terminate a single IID...
March 2018: Doklady Biological Sciences: Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Biological Sciences Sections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784544/classifying-alzheimer-s-disease-with-brain-imaging-and-genetic-data-using-a-neural-network-framework
#3
Kaida Ning, Bo Chen, Fengzhu Sun, Zachary Hobel, Lu Zhao, Will Matloff, Arthur W Toga
A long-standing question is how to best use brain morphometric and genetic data to distinguish Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients from cognitively normal (CN) subjects and to predict those who will progress from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to AD. Here, we use a neural network (NN) framework on both magnetic resonance imaging-derived quantitative structural brain measures and genetic data to address this question. We tested the effectiveness of NN models in classifying and predicting AD. We further performed a novel analysis of the NN model to gain insight into the most predictive imaging and genetics features and to identify possible interactions between features that affect AD risk...
April 24, 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782315/tlr4-gene-expression-and-pro-inflammatory-cytokines-in-alzheimer-s-disease-and-in-response-to-hippocampal-deafferentation-in-rodents
#4
Justin Miron, Cynthia Picard, Josée Frappier, Doris Dea, Louise Théroux, Judes Poirier
One important aspect in Alzheimer's disease pathology is the presence of chronic inflammation. Considering its role as a key receptor in the microglial innate immune system, TLR4 was shown to regulate the binding and phagocytosis of amyloid plaques by microglia in several mouse models of amyloidosis, as well as the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. To our knowledge, TLR4 and its association with cytokines have not been thoroughly examined in the brains of subjects affected with Alzheimer's disease. Using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) in postmortem human brains, we observed increased expression for the TLR4 and TNF genes (p = 0...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767690/entorhinal-cortex-volume-is-associated-with-dual-task-gait-cost-among-older-adults-with-mci-results-from-the-gait-and-brain-study
#5
Ryota Sakurai, Robert Bartha, Manuel Montero-Odasso
Background: Low dual-task gait performance (the slowing of gait speed while performing a demanding cognitive task) is associated with low cognitive performance and an increased risk of progression to dementia in older adults with mild cognitive impairment. However, the reason for this remains unclear. This study aimed to examine the relationship between dual-task cost and regional brain volume, focusing on the hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus, entorhinal cortex, and motor and lateral frontal cortices in older adults with mild cognitive impairment...
May 15, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764998/mapping-cortical-brain-asymmetry-in-17-141-healthy-individuals-worldwide-via-the-enigma-consortium
#6
Xiang-Zhen Kong, Samuel R Mathias, Tulio Guadalupe, David C Glahn, Barbara Franke, Fabrice Crivello, Nathalie Tzourio-Mazoyer, Simon E Fisher, Paul M Thompson, Clyde Francks
Hemispheric asymmetry is a cardinal feature of human brain organization. Altered brain asymmetry has also been linked to some cognitive and neuropsychiatric disorders. Here, the ENIGMA (Enhancing NeuroImaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis) Consortium presents the largest-ever analysis of cerebral cortical asymmetry and its variability across individuals. Cortical thickness and surface area were assessed in MRI scans of 17,141 healthy individuals from 99 datasets worldwide. Results revealed widespread asymmetries at both hemispheric and regional levels, with a generally thicker cortex but smaller surface area in the left hemisphere relative to the right...
May 15, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755611/morphological-biomarker-differentiating-mci-converters-from-nonconverters-longitudinal-evidence-based-on-hemispheric-asymmetry
#7
Xiaojing Long, Chunxiang Jiang, Lijuan Zhang
Identifying subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) who may probably progress to Alzheimer's disease (AD) is important for better understanding the disease mechanisms and facilitating early treatments. In addition to the direct volumetric and thickness measurement based on high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), hemispheric asymmetry could be a potential index to detect morphological variations in MCI patients with a high risk of conversion to AD. The present study collected a set of longitudinal MRI data from 53 MCI converters and nonconverters and investigated the asymmetry differences between groups...
2018: Behavioural Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752551/tau-seeding-activity-begins-in-the-transentorhinal-entorhinal-regions-and-anticipates-phospho-tau-pathology-in-alzheimer-s-disease-and-part
#8
Sarah K Kaufman, Kelly Del Tredici, Talitha L Thomas, Heiko Braak, Marc I Diamond
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by accumulation of tau neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) and, according to the prion model, transcellular propagation of pathological "seeds" may underlie its progression. Staging of NFT pathology with phospho-tau antibody is useful to classify AD and primary age-related tauopathy (PART) cases. The locus coeruleus (LC) shows the earliest phospho-tau signal, whereas other studies suggest that pathology begins in the transentorhinal/entorhinal cortices (TRE/EC)...
May 11, 2018: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752516/dual-tracer-tau-pet-imaging-reveals-different-molecular-targets-for-11-c-thk5351-and-11-c-pbb3-in-the-alzheimer-brain
#9
Konstantinos Chiotis, Per Stenkrona, Ove Almkvist, Vladimir Stepanov, Daniel Ferreira, Ryosuke Arakawa, Akihiro Takano, Eric Westman, Andrea Varrone, Nobuyuki Okamura, Hitoshi Shimada, Makoto Higuchi, Christer Halldin, Agneta Nordberg
PURPOSE: Several tau PET tracers have been developed, but it remains unclear whether they bind to the same molecular target on the heterogeneous tau pathology. In this study we evaluated the binding of two chemically different tau-specific PET tracers (11 C-THK5351 and 11 C-PBB3) in a head-to-head, in vivo, multimodal design. METHODS: Nine patients with a diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment or probable Alzheimer's disease and cerebrospinal fluid biomarker evidence supportive of the presence of Alzheimer's disease brain pathology were recruited after thorough clinical assessment...
May 12, 2018: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751288/predicted-sequence-of-cortical-tau-and-amyloid-%C3%AE-deposition-in-alzheimer-disease-spectrum
#10
Hanna Cho, Hye Sun Lee, Jae Yong Choi, Jae Hoon Lee, Young Hoon Ryu, Myung Sik Lee, Chul Hyoung Lyoo
We investigated sequential order between tau and amyloid-β (Aβ) deposition in Alzheimer disease spectrum using a conditional probability method. Two hundred twenty participants underwent 18 F-flortaucipir and 18 F-florbetaben positron emission tomography scans and neuropsychological tests. The presence of tau and Aβ in each region and impairment in each cognitive domain were determined by Z-score cutoffs. By comparing pairs of conditional probabilities, the sequential order of tau and Aβ deposition were determined...
April 17, 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743670/vector-based-navigation-using-grid-like-representations-in-artificial-agents
#11
Andrea Banino, Caswell Barry, Benigno Uria, Charles Blundell, Timothy Lillicrap, Piotr Mirowski, Alexander Pritzel, Martin J Chadwick, Thomas Degris, Joseph Modayil, Greg Wayne, Hubert Soyer, Fabio Viola, Brian Zhang, Ross Goroshin, Neil Rabinowitz, Razvan Pascanu, Charlie Beattie, Stig Petersen, Amir Sadik, Stephen Gaffney, Helen King, Koray Kavukcuoglu, Demis Hassabis, Raia Hadsell, Dharshan Kumaran
Deep neural networks have achieved impressive successes in fields ranging from object recognition to complex games such as Go1,2 . Navigation, however, remains a substantial challenge for artificial agents, with deep neural networks trained by reinforcement learning3-5 failing to rival the proficiency of mammalian spatial behaviour, which is underpinned by grid cells in the entorhinal cortex 6 . Grid cells are thought to provide a multi-scale periodic representation that functions as a metric for coding space7,8 and is critical for integrating self-motion (path integration)6,7,9 and planning direct trajectories to goals (vector-based navigation)7,10,11 ...
May 9, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740275/synaptic-tau-seeding-precedes-tau-pathology-in-human-alzheimer-s-disease-brain
#12
Sarah L DeVos, Bianca T Corjuc, Derek H Oakley, Chloe K Nobuhara, Riley N Bannon, Alison Chase, Caitlin Commins, Jose A Gonzalez, Patrick M Dooley, Matthew P Frosch, Bradley T Hyman
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is defined by the presence of intraneuronal neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) composed of hyperphosphorylated tau aggregates as well as extracellular amyloid-beta plaques. The presence and spread of tau pathology through the brain is classified by Braak stages and thought to correlate with the progression of AD. Several in vitro and in vivo studies have examined the ability of tau pathology to move from one neuron to the next, suggesting a "prion-like" spread of tau aggregates may be an underlying cause of Braak tau staging in AD...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733974/the-hippocampus-and-related-neocortical-structures-in-memory-transformation
#13
REVIEW
Melanie J Sekeres, Gordon Winocur, Morris Moscovitch
Episodic memories are multifaceted and malleable, capable of being transformed with time and experience at both the neural level and psychological level. At the neural level, episodic memories are transformed from being dependent on the hippocampus to becoming represented in neocortical structures, such as the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), and back again, while at the psychological level, detailed, perceptually rich memories, are transformed to ones retaining only the gist of an experience or a schema related to it...
May 4, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729527/the-hippocampus-in-depth-a-sublayer-specific-perspective-of-entorhinal-hippocampal-function
#14
REVIEW
Manuel Valero, Liset Menendez de la Prida
Understanding how the brain represents events is a fundamental question in neuroscience. The entorhinal-hippocampal system is central to such representations, which are severely compromised in some neurological diseases. In spite of much progress, a comprehensive, integrated view of spatial, temporal and other aspects of episodic representation remains elusive. Here, we review recent data on the role of cell-type specific entorhinal inputs which excite deep and superficial CA1 pyramidal cells by direct and indirect pathways...
May 2, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718802/degeneracy-in-the-robust-expression-of-spectral-selectivity-subthreshold-oscillations-and-intrinsic-excitability-of-entorhinal-stellate-cells
#15
Divyansh Mittal, Rishikesh Narayanan
Biological heterogeneities are ubiquitous and play critical roles in the emergence of physiology at multiple scales. Although neurons in layer II (LII) of the medial entorhinal cortex (MEC) express heterogeneities in channel properties, the impact of such heterogeneities on the robustness of their cellular-scale physiology has not been assessed. Here, we performed a 55-parameter stochastic search spanning 9 voltage- or calcium-activated channels to assess the impact of channel heterogeneities on the concomitant emergence of 10 in vitro electrophysiological characteristics of LII stellate cells (SCs)...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29716643/tdp-43-pathology-in-anterior-temporal-pole-cortex-in-aging-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#16
Sukriti Nag, Lei Yu, Patricia A Boyle, Sue E Leurgans, David A Bennett, Julie A Schneider
TDP-43 pathology was investigated in the anterior temporal pole cortex (ATPC) and orbital frontal cortex (OFC), regions often degenerated in frontotemporal lobar degenerations (FTLD), in aging and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Diagnosis of dementia in the 1160 autopsied participants from 3 studies of community-dwelling elders was based on clinical evaluation and cognitive performance tests which were used to create summary measures of the five cognitive domains. Neuronal and glial TDP-43 cytoplasmic inclusions were quantitated in 8 brain regions by immunohistochemistry, and used in ANOVA and regression analyses...
May 1, 2018: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29710716/brain-inflammation-connects-cognitive-and-non-cognitive-symptoms-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#17
M Clara Selles, Mauricio M Oliveira, Sergio T Ferreira
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the main form of dementia in the elderly and affects greater than 47 million people worldwide. Care for AD patients poses very significant personal and economic demands on individuals and society, and the situation is expected to get even more dramatic in the coming decades unless effective treatments are found to halt the progression of the disease. Although AD is most commonly regarded as a disease of the memory, the entire brain is eventually affected by neuronal dysfunction or neurodegeneration, which brings about a host of other behavioral disturbances...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29701787/nucleus-basalis-of-meynert-degeneration-precedes-and-predicts-cognitive-impairment-in-parkinson-s-disease
#18
Jonathan Schulz, Gennaro Pagano, Juan Alberto Fernández Bonfante, Heather Wilson, Marios Politis
Currently, no reliable predictors of cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease exist. We hypothesized that microstructural changes at grey matter T1-weighted MRI and diffusion tensor imaging in the cholinergic system nuclei and associated limbic pathways underlie cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease. We performed a cross-sectional comparison between patients with Parkinson's disease with and without cognitive impairment. We also performed a longitudinal 36-month follow-up study of cognitively intact Parkinson's disease patients, comparing patients who remained cognitively intact to those who developed cognitive impairment...
May 1, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29701153/semantic-intrusions-and-failure-to-recover-from-semantic-interference-in-mild-cognitive-impairment-relationship-to-amyloid-and-cortical-thickness
#19
David A Loewenstein, Rosie E Curiel, Monica Rosselli, Ailyn Penate, Maria T Greig-Custo, Russell M Bauer, Salvador M Guinjoan, Kevin S Hanson, Chunfei Li, Gabriel Lizarraga, William W Barker, Valeria Torres, Steven DeKosky, Malek Adjouadi, Ranjan Duara
BACKGROUND: Accumulating evidence indicates that the failure to recover from the effects of proactive semantic interference [frPSI] represents an early cognitive manifestation of preclinical Alzheimer's disease. A limitation of this novel paradigm has been a singular focus on the number of targets correctly recalled, without examining co-occurring semantic intrusions [SI] that may highlight specific breakdowns in memory. OBJECTIVES: We focused on SI and their relationship to amyloid load and regional cortical thickness among persons with amnestic mild cognitive impairment...
April 27, 2018: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29700607/cerebrovascular-inflammation-is-associated-with-tau-pathology-in-guam-parkinsonism-dementia
#20
Petra Majerova, Ralph M Garruto, Andrej Kovac
Parkinsonism-dementia complex of Guam (Guam PDC) is a neurodegenerative disease with parkinsonism and early onset Alzheimer-like dementia. Guam PDC belongs to the family of neurodegenerative disorders, known as tauopathies, which are histopathologically characterized by abnormal deposition of microtubule-associated protein tau. While changes in the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in Alzheimer's disease are increasingly recognized, dysfunction of BBB in Guam PDC has not been extensively studied. In this study, we characterized cerebrovascular changes in the patients with Guam PDC...
April 26, 2018: Journal of Neural Transmission
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