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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736521/group-level-progressive-alterations-in-brain-connectivity-patterns-revealed-by-diffusion-tensor-brain-networks-across-severity-stages-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#1
Javier Rasero, Carmen Alonso-Montes, Ibai Diez, Laiene Olabarrieta-Landa, Lakhdar Remaki, Iñaki Escudero, Beatriz Mateos, Paolo Bonifazi, Manuel Fernandez, Juan Carlos Arango-Lasprilla, Sebastiano Stramaglia, Jesus M Cortes
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a chronically progressive neurodegenerative disease highly correlated to aging. Whether AD originates by targeting a localized brain area and propagates to the rest of the brain across disease-severity progression is a question with an unknown answer. Here, we aim to provide an answer to this question at the group-level by looking at differences in diffusion-tensor brain networks. In particular, making use of data from Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI), four different groups were defined (all of them matched by age, sex and education level): G1 (N1 = 36, healthy control subjects, Control), G2 (N2 = 36, early mild cognitive impairment, EMCI), G3 (N3 = 36, late mild cognitive impairment, LMCI) and G4 (N4 = 36, AD)...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735144/entorhinal-tau-pathology-disrupts-hippocampal-prefrontal-oscillatory-coupling-during-associative-learning
#2
Stephanie E Tanninen, Bardia Nouriziabari, Mark D Morrissey, Rami Bakir, Robert D Dayton, Ronald L Klein, Kaori Takehara-Nishiuchi
A neural signature of asymptomatic preclinical Alzheimer's disease (AD) is disrupted connectivity between brain regions; however, its underlying mechanisms remain unknown. Here, we tested whether a preclinical pathologic feature, tau aggregation in the entorhinal cortex (EC) is sufficient to disrupt the coordination of local field potentials (LFPs) between its efferent regions. P301L-mutant human tau or green fluorescent protein (GFP) was virally overexpressed in the EC of adult rats. LFPs were recorded from the dorsal hippocampus and prelimbic medial prefrontal cortex while the rats underwent trace eyeblink conditioning where they learned to associate 2 stimuli separated by a short time interval...
July 6, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731444/the-relationship-of-brain-amyloid-load-and-apoe-status-to-regional-cortical-thinning-and-cognition-in-the-adni-cohort
#3
Chunfei Li, David A Loewenstein, Ranjan Duara, Mercedes Cabrerizo, Warren Barker, Malek Adjouadi
BACKGROUND: Both amyloid (Aβ) load and APOE4 allele are associated with neurodegenerative changes in Alzheimer's disease (AD) prone regions and with risk for cognitive impairment. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the unique and independent contribution of APOE4 allele status (E4+∖E4-), Aβ status (Amy+∖Amy-), and combined APOE4 and Aβ status on regional cortical thickness (CoTh) and cognition among participants diagnosed as cognitively normal (CN, n = 251), early mild cognitive impairment (EMCI, n = 207), late mild cognitive impairment (LMCI, n = 196), and mild AD (n = 162) from the ADNI...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730225/purkinje-cells-pathology-in-schizophrenia-a-morphometric-approach
#4
Ioannis Asterios Mavroudis, Foivos Petrides, Marina Manani, Fotios Chatzinikolaou, Alin Stelian Ciobică, Manuela Pădurariu, Dimitrios Kazis, Samuel Ndugu Njau, Vasiliki George Costa, Stavros John Baloyannis
OBJECTIVES: Schizophrenia is a brain disorder that affects more than 21 million people worldwide. Ventricle enlargement and reduction in the volume of the temporal lobe overall and in medial temporal structures constitutes the main macroscopic findings, whilst synaptic and spinal changes as well as gliosis in the hippocampal formation, the prefrontal and the entorhinal cortex stand among cardinal microscopic findings in the schizophrenic brains. In recent years, accumulated evidence comes to light about the role of cerebellum in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia...
2017: Romanian Journal of Morphology and Embryology, Revue Roumaine de Morphologie et Embryologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717130/polymicrobial-infections-in-brain-tissue-from-alzheimer-s-disease-patients
#5
Diana Pisa, Ruth Alonso, Ana M Fernández-Fernández, Alberto Rábano, Luis Carrasco
Several studies have advanced the idea that the etiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD) could be microbial in origin. In the present study, we tested the possibility that polymicrobial infections exist in tissue from the entorhinal cortex/hippocampus region of patients with AD using immunohistochemistry (confocal laser scanning microscopy) and highly sensitive (nested) PCR. We found no evidence for expression of early (ICP0) or late (ICP5) proteins of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) in brain sections. A polyclonal antibody against Borrelia detected structures that appeared not related to spirochetes, but rather to fungi...
July 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716715/functional-parcellation-using-time-courses-of-instantaneous-connectivity
#6
REVIEW
Erik S B van Oort, Maarten Mennes, Tobias Navarro Schröder, Vinod J Kumar, Nestor I Zaragoza Jimenez, Wolfgang Grodd, Christian F Doeller, Christian F Beckmann
Functional neuroimaging studies have led to understanding the brain as a collection of spatially segregated functional networks. It is thought that each of these networks is in turn composed of a set of distinct sub-regions that together support each network's function. Considering the sub-regions to be an essential part of the brain's functional architecture, several strategies have been put forward that aim at identifying the functional sub-units of the brain by means of functional parcellations. Current parcellation strategies typically employ a bottom-up strategy, creating a parcellation by clustering smaller units...
July 14, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714390/cdk5-and-mapt-gene-expression-in-alzheimer-s-disease-brain-samples
#7
Josianne Thomazini Fukasawa, Roger Willian de Labio, Lucas Trevizani Rasmussen, Lucieni Conterno de Oliveira, Elizabeth Chen, João Villares, Gustavo Tureck, Marília de Arruda Cardoso Smith, Spencer Luiz Marques Payão
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by extracellular amyloid plaque and neurofibrillary tangles in the brain. Studies have shown that neurons are able to re-enter the cell cycle, but not enough to enable full replication. This leads to cell death and consequent neurodegeneration. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to characterize the expression of the MAPT gene and CDK5 (the gene involved in cell cycle regulation) in brain samples from patients with AD and controls...
July 13, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713251/age-related-changes-in-lateral-entorhinal-and-ca3-neuron-allocation-predict-poor-performance-on-object-discrimination
#8
Andrew P Maurer, Sarah A Johnson, Abbi R Hernandez, Jordan Reasor, Daniela M Cossio, Kaeli E Fertal, Jack M Mizell, Katelyn N Lubke, Benjamin J Clark, Sara N Burke
Age-related memory deficits correlate with dysfunction in the CA3 subregion of the hippocampus, which includes both hyperactivity and overly rigid activity patterns. While changes in intrinsic membrane currents and interneuron alterations are involved in this process, it is not known whether alterations in afferent input to CA3 also contribute. Neurons in layer II of the lateral entorhinal cortex (LEC) project directly to CA3 through the perforant path, but no data are available regarding the effects of advanced age on LEC activity and whether these activity patterns update in response to environmental change...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713250/impaired-in-vivo-gamma-oscillations-in-the-medial-entorhinal-cortex-of-knock-in-alzheimer-model
#9
Tomoaki Nakazono, Travis N Lam, Ayushi Y Patel, Masashi Kitazawa, Takashi Saito, Takaomi C Saido, Kei M Igarashi
The entorhinal cortex (EC) has bidirectional connections with the hippocampus and plays a critical role in memory formation and retrieval. EC is one of the most vulnerable regions in the brain in early stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD), a neurodegenerative disease with progressive memory impairments. Accumulating evidence from healthy behaving animals indicates gamma oscillations (30-100 Hz) as critical for mediating interactions in the circuit between EC and hippocampus. However, it is still unclear whether gamma oscillations have causal relationship with memory impairment in AD...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713246/differential-contribution-of-ca-2-dependent-mechanisms-to-hyperexcitability-in-layer-v-neurons-of-the-medial-entorhinal-cortex
#10
Eric C Lin, Crescent L Combe, Sonia Gasparini
Temporal lobe epilepsy is characterized by recurrent seizures in one or both temporal lobes of the brain; some in vitro models show that epileptiform discharges initiate in entorhinal layer V neurons and then spread into other areas of the temporal lobe. We previously found that, in the presence of GABAA receptor antagonists, stimulation of afferent fibers, terminating both at proximal and distal dendritic locations, initiated hyperexcitable bursts in layer V medial entorhinal neurons. We investigated the differential contribution of Ca(2+)-dependent mechanisms to the plateaus underlying these bursts at proximal and distal synapses...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709992/time-dependent-evolution-of-seizures-in-a-model-of-mesial-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#11
Charles Behr, Maxime Lévesque, Thomas Stroh, Massimo Avoli
Low-voltage fast (LVF) and hypersynchronous (HYP) - onset seizures occur in the EEG obtained with depth electrodes from mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) patients and animal models. In epileptic rats analyzed up to approximately two weeks after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE), these patterns are associated with specific high-frequency oscillation (HFO) content: ripples (80-200Hz) or fast-ripples (250-500Hz) predominate in LVF or HYP seizures, respectively. To establish whether these features change over the course of the disease, we recorded the EEG from the hippocampal CA3 subfield, subiculum, entorhinal cortex and dentate gyrus in two groups of pilocarpine-treated rats: the "early stage group" (n=8) was analyzed from day 3 to 20 post-SE while the "late stage group" (n=7) was studied from day 27 to 53 post-SE...
July 12, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702351/activation-of-dominant-hemisphere-association-cortex-during-naming-as-a-function-of-cognitive-performance-in-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-insights-into-mechanisms-of-lexical-access
#12
Mihai Popescu, John D Hughes, Elena-Anda Popescu, Judy Mikola, Warren Merrifield, Maria DeGraba, Gerard Riedy, Thomas J DeGraba
Patients with a history of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) and objective cognitive deficits frequently experience word finding difficulties in normal conversation. We sought to improve our understanding of this phenomenon by determining if the scores on standardized cognitive testing are correlated with measures of brain activity evoked in a word retrieval task (confrontational picture naming). The study participants (n = 57) were military service members with a history of mTBI. The General Memory Index (GMI) determined after administration of the Rivermead Behavioral Memory Test, Third Edition, was used to assign subjects to three groups: low cognitive performance (Group 1: GMI ≤ 87, n = 18), intermediate cognitive performance (Group 2: 88 ≤ GMI ≤ 99, n = 18), and high cognitive performance (Group 3: GMI ≥ 100, n = 21)...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701931/architecture-of-the-entorhinal-cortex-a-review-of-entorhinal-anatomy-in-rodents-with-some-comparative-notes
#13
REVIEW
Menno P Witter, Thanh P Doan, Bente Jacobsen, Eirik S Nilssen, Shinya Ohara
The entorhinal cortex (EC) is the major input and output structure of the hippocampal formation, forming the nodal point in cortico-hippocampal circuits. Different division schemes including two or many more subdivisions have been proposed, but here we will argue that subdividing EC into two components, the lateral EC (LEC) and medial EC (MEC) might suffice to describe the functional architecture of EC. This subdivision then leads to an anatomical interpretation of the different phenotypes of LEC and MEC. First, we will briefly summarize the cytoarchitectonic differences and differences in hippocampal projection patterns on which the subdivision between LEC and MEC traditionally is based and provide a short comparative perspective...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701481/place-and-grid-cells-in-a-loop-implications-for-memory-function-and-spatial-coding
#14
César Rennó-Costa, Adriano B L Tort
Place cells in the hippocampus and grid cells in the medial entorhinal cortex have different codes for space. However, how one code relates to the other is ill understood. Based on the anatomy of the entorhinal-hippocampal circuitry, we constructed a model of place and grid cells organized in a loop to investigate their mutual influence in the establishment of their codes for space. Using computer simulations, we first replicated experiments in rats that measured place and grid cell activity in different environments, and then assessed which features of the model account for different phenomena observed in neurophysiological data, such as pattern completion and pattern separation, global and rate remapping of place cells and realignment of grid cells...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697559/depressive-symptoms-and-tau-accumulation-in-the-inferior-temporal-lobe-and-entorhinal-cortex-in-cognitively-normal-older-adults-a-pilot-study
#15
Jennifer R Gatchel, Nancy J Donovan, Joseph J Locascio, Aaron P Schultz, J Alex Becker, Jasmeer Chhatwal, Kathryn V Papp, Rebecca E Amariglio, Dorene M Rentz, Deborah Blacker, Reisa A Sperling, Keith A Johnson, Gad A Marshall
BACKGROUND: Depressive symptoms are common in older adults and associated with increased morbidity and cognitive decline. These symptoms occur during preclinical and prodromal stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD), but their relationship to tau, one of the main AD proteinopathies, is poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate the cross-sectional association between depressive symptoms and cerebral tau [18F T807 (also known as 18F-AV-1451) tau positron emission tomography (PET) imaging] in cognitively normal (CN) older adults...
July 4, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686374/-spatial-navigation-brief-overview-of-the-medicine-and-physiology-nobel-prize-2014
#16
Franciscus Boselie, Jean-Philippe Guyot
Various cells of the thalamus, hippocampus, and the medial entorhinal cortex plays a crucial role in spatial navigation ability. The highlighting of these cells and the understanding of their functioning by John O'Keefe, May-Britt and Edvard Moser have earned them the Nobel Prize for Medicine and Physiology in 2014. The vision, olfaction, and the vestibular system contribute to this complex system. These observations may well explain why patients with vestibular disorder complain of spatial disorientation, often a source of deep anxiety...
October 5, 2016: Revue Médicale Suisse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686137/using-a-large-scale-neural-model-of-cortical-object-processing-to-investigate-the-neural-substrate-for-managing-multiple-items-in-short-term-memory
#17
Qin Liu, Antonio Ulloa, Barry Horwitz
Many cognitive and computational models have been proposed to help understand working memory. In this article, we present a simulation study of cortical processing of visual objects during several working memory tasks using an extended version of a previously constructed large-scale neural model [Tagamets, M. A., & Horwitz, B. Integrating electrophysiological and anatomical experimental data to create a large-scale model that simulates a delayed match-to-sample human brain imaging study. Cerebral Cortex, 8, 310-320, 1998]...
July 7, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685167/medial-temporal-pathways-for-contextual-learning-network-c-fos-mapping-in-rats-with-or-without-perirhinal-cortex-lesions
#18
Lisa Kinnavane, Eman Amin, Cristian M Olarte-Sánchez, John P Aggleton
BACKGROUND: In the rat brain, context information is thought to engage network interactions between the postrhinal cortex, medial entorhinal cortex, and the hippocampus. In contrast, object information is thought to be more reliant on perirhinal cortex and lateral entorhinal cortex interactions with the hippocampus. METHOD: The 'context network' was explored by mapping expression of the immediate-early gene, c-fos, after exposure to a new spatial environment. RESULTS: Structural equation modelling of Fos counts produced networks of good fit that closely matched prior predictions based on anatomically-grounded functional models...
March 14, 2017: Brain and neuroscience advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682237/phasic-and-tonic-neuron-ensemble-codes-for-stimulus-environment-conjunctions-in-the-lateral-entorhinal-cortex
#19
Maryna Pilkiw, Nathan Insel, Younghua Cui, Caitlin Finney, Mark D Morrissey, Kaori Takehara-Nishiuchi
The lateral entorhinal cortex (LEC) is thought to bind sensory events with the environment where they took place. To compare the relative influence of transient events and temporally stable environmental stimuli on the firing of LEC cells, we recorded neuron spiking patterns in the region during blocks of a trace eyeblink conditioning paradigm performed in two environments and with different conditioning stimuli. Firing rates of some neurons were phasically selective for conditioned stimuli in a way that depended on which room the rat was in; nearly all neurons were tonically selective for environments in a way that depended on which stimuli had been presented in those environments...
July 6, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676574/aberrant-sodium-channel-currents-and-hyperexcitability-of-medial-entorhinal-cortex-neurons-in-a-mouse-model-of-scn8a-encephalopathy
#20
Matteo Ottolini, Bryan S Barker, Ronald P Gaykema, Miriam H Meisler, Manoj K Patel
SCN8A encephalopathy, or early infantile epileptic encephalopathy 13 (EIEE13), is caused predominantly by de novo gain-of-function mutations in the voltage-gated sodium (Na) channel Nav1.6. Affected individuals suffer from refractory seizures, developmental delay, cognitive disability and elevated risk of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP). A knock-in mouse model carrying the patient mutation p.Asn1768Asp (N1768D) reproduces many features of the disorder including spontaneous seizures and SUDEP. We used the mouse model to examine the effects of the mutation on layer II stellate neurons of the medial entorhinal cortex (mEC), which transmit excitatory input to the hippocampus...
July 4, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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