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Staphylococcal biofilm

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463662/antibiotic-susceptibility-of-planktonic-and-biofilm-grown-staphylococci-isolated-from-implant-associated-infections-should-mbec-and-nature-of-biofilm-formation-replace-mic
#1
Aaron J Brady, Garry Laverty, Deirdre F Gilpin, Patricia Kearney, Michael Tunney
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to develop an alternative, more clinically relevant approach to susceptibility reporting for implant-associated infections. Using 20 staphylococcal isolates, isolated from clinical implant infections, the majority (85 %) demonstrated biofilm-forming capabilities. A significantly increased minimum biofilm eradication concentration (MBEC) compared to minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) breakpoint was obtained, with MBEC values greater than 256 µg ml-1 for the majority of bacteria...
April 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461319/bacteriophage-lysin-cf-301-a-potent-anti-staphylococcal-biofilm-agent
#2
Raymond Schuch, Babar K Khan, Assaf Raz, Jimmy A Rotolo, Michael Wittekind
Biofilms pose a unique therapeutic challenge because of the antibiotic tolerance of constituent bacteria. Treatments for biofilm-based infections represent a major unmet medical need, requiring novel agents to eradicate mature biofilms. Our objective was to evaluate bacteriophage lysin CF-301 as a new agent to target Staphylococcus aureus biofilms. We used minimum biofilm eradicating concentration (MBEC) assays on ninety-five S. aureus strains to obtain a MBEC90 value of ≤0.25 μg/ml for CF-301. Mature biofilms of coagulase-negative staphylococci, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Streptococcus agalactiae were also sensitive to disruption, with MBEC90 values ranging from 0...
May 1, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429266/corr-insights-%C3%A2-does-extracellular-dna-production-vary-in-staphylococcal-biofilms-isolated-from-infected-implants-versus-controls
#3
Devendra H Dusane
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 20, 2017: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416559/a-novel-non-antibiotic-nitroglycerin-based-catheter-lock-solution-for-the-prevention-of-intraluminal-central-venous-catheter-infections-in-cancer-patients
#4
Anne-Marie Chaftari, Ray Hachem, Ariel Szvalb, Mahnaz Taremi, Bruno Granwehr, George Michael Viola, Amin Sapna, Andrew Assaf, Numan Yazan, Pankil Shah, Ketevan Gasitashvili, Elizabeth Natividad, Ying Jiang, Rebecca Slack, Ruth Reitzel, Joel Rosenblatt, Elie Mouhayar, Issam Raad
Background: For long-term central lines (CL), the lumen is the major source of central line associated bloodstream infections (CLABSI). Current standard of care for maintaining catheter patency includes flushing the CL with saline or heparin. Neither agent has any antimicrobial activity. Furthermore heparin may enhance staphylococcal biofilm formation. We evaluated the safety and efficacy of a novel non-antibiotic catheter lock solution for the prevention of CLABSI.Patients and Methods: Between November 2015, and February 2016, we enrolled 60 patients with hematologic malignancies who had peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) to receive the study lock solution...
April 17, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411222/effect-of-antimicrobial-and-physical-treatments-on-growth-of-multispecies-staphylococcal-biofilms
#5
Elizabeth J Stewart, David E Payne, Tianhui Maria Ma, J Scott VanEpps, Blaise R Boles, John G Younger, Michael J Solomon
The prevalence and structure of Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis within multispecies biofilms was found to depend sensitively on physical environment and antibiotic dosage. Although these species commonly infect similar sites, such as orthopedic implants, little is known about their behavior in multispecies communities, particularly in response to treatment. This research establishes that S. aureus is much more prevalent than S. epidermidis when simultaneously seeded and grown in unstressed conditions (pH = 7, 37°C) in both laboratory and clinical strains...
April 14, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408903/anti-bacterial-and-anti-biofilm-evaluation-of-thiazolopyrimidinone-derivatives-targeting-the-histidine-kinase-yycg-protein-of-staphylococcus-epidermidis
#6
Zhihui Lv, Dan Zhao, Jun Chang, Huayong Liu, Xiaofei Wang, Jinxin Zheng, Renzheng Huang, Zhiwei Lin, Yongpeng Shang, Lina Ye, Yang Wu, Shiqing Han, Di Qu
Staphylococcus epidermidis is one of the most important opportunistic pathogens in nosocomial infections. The main pathogenicity associated with S. epidermidis involves the formation of biofilms on implanted medical devices, biofilms dramatically decrease the efficacy of conventional antibiotics and the host immune system. This emphasizes the urgent need for designing novel anti-staphylococcal biofilm agents. Based on the findings that compound 5, targeting the histidine kinase domain of S. epidermidis YycG, possessed bactericidal activity against staphylococci, 39 derivatives of compound 5 with intact thiazolopyrimidinone core structures were newly designed, 7 derivatives were further screened to explore their anti-bacterial and anti-biofilm activities...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387349/targeting-microbial-biofilms-using-ficin-a-nonspecific-plant-protease
#7
Diana R Baidamshina, Elena Y Trizna, Marina G Holyavka, Mikhail I Bogachev, Valeriy G Artyukhov, Farida S Akhatova, Elvira V Rozhina, Rawil F Fakhrullin, Airat R Kayumov
Biofilms, the communities of surface-attached bacteria embedded into extracellular matrix, are ubiquitous microbial consortia securing the effective resistance of constituent cells to environmental impacts and host immune responses. Biofilm-embedded bacteria are generally inaccessible for antimicrobials, therefore the disruption of biofilm matrix is the potent approach to eradicate microbial biofilms. We demonstrate here the destruction of Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilms with Ficin, a nonspecific plant protease...
April 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327271/novel-anti-staphylococcal-and-anti-biofilm-properties-of-two-anti-malarial-compounds-mmv665953-1-3-chloro-4-fluorophenyl-3-3-4-dichlorophenyl-urea-and-mmv665807-5-chloro-2-hydroxy-n-3-trifluoromethyl-phenyl-benzamide
#8
Marta Zapotoczna, Nabila Boksmati, Sinead Donohue, Baizurina Bahtiar, Ahmad Boland, Hamzah Al Somali, Alysia Cox, Hilary Humphreys, James P O'Gara, Marian Brennan, Eoghan O'Neill
PURPOSE: The treatment of device-related infections is challenging and current anti-microbial compounds have poor anti-biofilm activity. We aimed to identify and characterize novel compounds effective in the eradication of Staphylococcus aureus biofilms. METHODOLOGY: Two novel compounds, MMV665953 {1-(3-chloro-4-fluorophenyl)-3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)urea} and MMV665807{5-chloro-2-hydroxy-N-[3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]benzamide}, effective in killing S. aureus biofilms, were identified by screening of the open access 'malaria box' chemical library...
March 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325766/staphylococcal-%C3%AE-toxin-modulates-human-aortic-endothelial-cell-and-platelet-function-through-sphingomyelinase-and-biofilm-ligase-activities
#9
Alfa Herrera, Katarina Kulhankova, Vijay K Sonkar, Sanjana Dayal, Aloysius J Klingelhutz, Wilmara Salgado-Pabón, Patrick M Schlievert
Staphylococcus aureus causes many infections, such as skin and soft tissue, pneumonia, osteomyelitis, and infective endocarditis (IE). IE is an endovascular infection of native and prosthetic valves and the lining of the heart; it is characterized by the formation of cauliflower-like "vegetations" composed of fibrin, platelets, other host factors, bacteria, and bacterial products. β-Toxin is an S. aureus virulence factor that contributes to the microorganism's ability to cause IE. This cytolysin has two enzymatic activities: sphingomyelinase (SMase) and biofilm ligase...
March 21, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320940/molecular-interactions-and-inhibition-of-the-staphylococcal-biofilm-forming-protein-sdrc
#10
Cécile Feuillie, Cécile Formosa-Dague, Leanne M C Hays, Ophélie Vervaeck, Sylvie Derclaye, Marian P Brennan, Timothy J Foster, Joan A Geoghegan, Yves F Dufrêne
Staphylococcus aureus forms biofilms on indwelling medical devices using a variety of cell-surface proteins. There is growing evidence that specific homophilic interactions between these proteins represent an important mechanism of cell accumulation during biofilm formation, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are still not well-understood. Here we report the direct measurement of homophilic binding forces by the serine-aspartate repeat protein SdrC and their inhibition by a peptide. Using single-cell and single-molecule force measurements, we find that SdrC is engaged in low-affinity homophilic bonds that promote cell-cell adhesion...
April 4, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289031/downregulation-of-autolysin-encoding-genes-by-phage-derived-lytic-proteins-inhibits-biofilm-formation-in-staphylococcus-aureus
#11
Lucía Fernández, Silvia González, Ana Belén Campelo, Beatriz Martínez, Ana Rodríguez, Pilar García
Phage-derived lytic proteins are a promising alternative to conventional antimicrobials. One of their most interesting properties is that they do not readily select for resistant strains, which is likely due to the fact that their targets are essential for the viability of the bacterial cell. Moreover, genetic engineering allows the design of new "tailor-made" proteins that may exhibit improved antibacterial properties. One example of this is the chimeric protein CHAPSH3b, which consists of a catalytic domain from the virion-associated peptidoglycan hydrolase of phage vB_SauS-phiIPLA88 (HydH5) and the cell wall binding domain of lysostaphin...
May 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261188/marine-sponge-derived-streptomyces-sp-sbt343-extract-inhibits-staphylococcal-biofilm-formation
#12
Srikkanth Balasubramanian, Eman M Othman, Daniel Kampik, Helga Stopper, Ute Hentschel, Wilma Ziebuhr, Tobias A Oelschlaeger, Usama R Abdelmohsen
Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus are opportunistic pathogens that cause nosocomial and chronic biofilm-associated infections. Indwelling medical devices and contact lenses are ideal ecological niches for formation of staphylococcal biofilms. Bacteria within biofilms are known to display reduced susceptibilities to antimicrobials and are protected from the host immune system. High rates of acquired antibiotic resistances in staphylococci and other biofilm-forming bacteria further hamper treatment options and highlight the need for new anti-biofilm strategies...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259672/the-staphylococcus-epidermidis-gdps-regulates-biofilm-formation-independently-of-its-protein-coding-function
#13
Tao Zhu, Yanfeng Zhao, Yang Wu, Di Qu
The second messenger cyclic di-guanylate (c-di-GMP) plays an important role in controlling the switch between planktonic and biofilm lifestyles. The synthesis of c-di-GMP is catalyzed by di-guanylate cyclases (DGCs) and the enzymes are characterized by the presence of a conserved GGDEF domain. In the sequenced staphylococcal genomes, gdpS is the only gene encoding a GGDEF domain-containing protein. Previous studies have shown that gdpS contributes to staphylococcal biofilm formation, but its effect remains under debate...
April 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242178/biofilm-and-infectious-agents-present-at-the-time-of-penile-prosthesis-revision-surgery-times-are-a-changing
#14
REVIEW
Lauren E Dawn, Gerard D Henry, Gary K Tan, Steven K Wilson
INTRODUCTION: Although infection rates have decreased with the use of antibiotic-coated implants and other enhancements, the risk of infection is still considered a serious concern in penile implant revision surgeries. AIM: To review the literature for advances made in inflatable penile prosthesis (IPP) revision surgery and organisms found at the time of revision, the significance of biofilm in prosthetic infection, and the bacteriology of infection. METHODS: PubMed was reviewed for articles spanning the past three decades that discussed micro-organisms and biofilm in relation to penile implant revision surgery...
February 24, 2017: Sexual Medicine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238217/antibacterial-and-anti-biofilm-effects-of-sodium-hypochlorite-against-staphylococcus-aureus-isolates-derived-from-patients-with-atopic-dermatitis
#15
S Eriksson, M J A van der Plas, M Mörgelin, A Sonesson
INTRODUCTION: Atopic dermatitis (AD) is characterised by an increased susceptibility for skin infections. Staphylococcus aureus is reported to dominate in AD lesions and reports have revealed the presence of staphylococcal biofilms. These infections contribute to aggravating the eczema. Sodium hypochlorite is known to reduce bacterial load of skin lesions as well as disease severity in AD patients but the effect on biofilms is unknown. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial and anti-biofilm effects of sodium hypochlorite against S...
February 26, 2017: British Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235706/the-lytic-activity-of-recombinant-phage-lysin-lysk%C3%AE-amidase-against-staphylococcal-strains-associated-with-bovine-and-human-infections-in-the-jiangsu-province-of-china
#16
Yan Zhou, Hui Zhang, Hongduo Bao, Xiaomeng Wang, Ran Wang
We investigated the lytic activity of the bacteriophage endolysin (lysin) LysKΔamidase against live methicillin-resistant and-susceptible staphylococcal strains clinically isolated from bovine milk and humans from different origins of China. Antibiotic resistance patterns, multilocus sequence typing and SCCmec type of 137 staphylococcal strains isolated from bovine milk associated with bovine mastitis and human diseases were studied. A lytic enzyme, LysKΔamidase, was constructed by fusing the N-terminal 220 amino acids with the C-terminal 105 amino acids of staphylococcal phage lysin LysK...
April 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194715/does-extracellular-dna-production-vary-in-staphylococcal-biofilms-isolated-from-infected-implants-versus-controls
#17
Beata Zatorska, Marion Groger, Doris Moser, Magda Diab-Elschahawi, Luigi Segagni Lusignani, Elisabeth Presterl
BACKGROUND: Prosthetic implant infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus and epidermidis are major challenges for early diagnosis and treatment owing to biofilm formation on the implant surface. Extracellular DNA (eDNA) is actively excreted from bacterial cells in biofilms, contributing to biofilm stability, and may offer promise in the detection or treatment of such infections. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: (1) Does DNA structure change during biofilm formation? (2) Are there time-dependent differences in eDNA production during biofilm formation? (3) Is there differential eDNA production between clinical and control Staphylococcal isolates? (4) Is eDNA production correlated to biofilm thickness? METHODS: We investigated eDNA presence during biofilm formation in 60 clinical and 30 control isolates of S aureus and S epidermidis...
February 13, 2017: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150103/purification-biochemical-characterization-and-amino-acid-sequence-of-a-novel-type-of-lectin-from-aplysia-dactylomela-eggs-with-antibacterial-antibiofilm-potential
#18
Rômulo Farias Carneiro, Renato Cézar Farias Torres, Renata Pinheiro Chaves, Mayron Alves de Vasconcelos, Bruno Lopes de Sousa, André Castelo Rodrigues Goveia, Francisco Vassiliepe Arruda, Maria Nágila Carneiro Matos, Helena Matthews-Cascon, Valder Nogueira Freire, Edson Holanda Teixeira, Celso Shiniti Nagano, Alexandre Holanda Sampaio
A new lectin from Aplysia dactylomela eggs (ADEL) was isolated by affinity chromatography on HCl-activated Sepharose™ media. Hemagglutination caused by ADEL was inhibited by several galactosides, mainly galacturonic acid (Ka = 6.05 × 10(6) M(-1)). The primary structure of ADEL consists of 217 residues, including 11 half-cystines involved in five intrachain and one interchain disulfide bond, resulting in a molecular mass of 57,228 ± 2 Da, as determined by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry...
February 2017: Marine Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105272/novel-potentiators-for-vancomycin-in-the-treatment-of-biofilm-related-mrsa-infections-via-a-mix-and-match-approach
#19
Arno Vermote, Gilles Brackman, Martijn D P Risseeuw, Davie Cappoen, Paul Cos, Tom Coenye, Serge Van Calenbergh
A library of 52 hamamelitannin analogues was synthesized and investigated for its ability to potentiate the effect of vancomycin toward Staphylococcus aureus biofilms. Several compounds were found to effectively increase the susceptibility of staphylococcal biofilms toward this glycopeptide. The most active analogue identified in this study showed an EC50 value of 0.26 μM.
January 12, 2017: ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086793/methicillin-resistance-and-virulence-genes-in-invasive-and-nasal-staphylococcus-epidermidis-isolates-from-neonates
#20
Vivian Carolina Salgueiro, Natalia Lopes Pontes Iorio, Marcelle Cristina Ferreira, Raiane Cardoso Chamon, Kátia Regina Netto Dos Santos
BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus epidermidis is an opportunistic pathogen involved in hospital-acquired infections, particularly in those related to medical devices. This study characterized 50 genetically unrelated S. epidermidis isolates from bloodstream infections (BSIs, n = 31) and nares (n = 19) of neonates in relation to staphylococcal chromosomal cassette mec (SCCmec) type, biofilm production and associated genes, and the arginine catabolic mobile elements (ACME), in order to detect virulence factors that could discriminate a potential invasiveness isolate or predict an increasing pathogenicity...
January 13, 2017: BMC Microbiology
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