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Staphylococcal biofilm

Shanmugaraj Gowrishankar, Arumugam Kamaladevi, Krishnaswamy Balamurugan, Shunmugiah Karutha Pandian
The present investigation was deliberately aimed at evaluating the biofilm-forming ability of 63 clinical MRSA isolates recovered from pharyngitis patients through different phenotypic assays. The molecular detection of adhesion (icaA/icaD/icaB/icaC), adhesins (fnbA/fnbB, clfA, and cna), staphylococcal accessory regulator (sarA), and α-toxin (hla) genes was done by employing polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Out of 63 isolates, 49 (77.8%) were found slime positive by the Congo red agar (CRA) method and 44 (69...
2016: BioMed Research International
Patrizia Marinelli, Irantzu Pallares, Susanna Navarro, Salvador Ventura
The opportunistic pathogen Staphylococcus aureus is recognized as one of the most frequent causes of biofilm-associated infections. The recently discovered phenol soluble modulins (PSMs) are small α-helical amphipathic peptides that act as the main molecular effectors of staphylococcal biofilm maturation, promoting the formation of an extracellular fibril structure with amyloid-like properties. Here, we combine computational, biophysical and in cell analysis to address the specific contribution of individual PSMs to biofilm structure...
October 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
Diana Gutiérrez, Claudio Hidalgo-Cantabrana, Ana Rodríguez, Pilar García, Patricia Ruas-Madiedo
Bacteria found in diverse ecosystems grow in a community of aggregated cells that favors their survival and colonization. Different extracellular polymeric substances are used to entrap this multispecies community forming a biofilm, which can be associated to biotic and abiotic surfaces. This widespread and successful way of bacterial life, however, can lead to negative effects for human activity since many pathogen and spoiling bacteria form biofilms which are not easy to eradicate. Therefore, the search for novel anti-biofilm bio-active molecules is a very active research area for which simple, reliable, and fast screening methods are demanded...
2016: PloS One
Sandhya Nair, Srividya Desai, Nethravathi Poonacha, Aradhana Vipra, Umender Sharma
P128 is an anti-staphylococcal protein comprising a cell wall-degrading enzymatic region and a Staphylococcus-specific binding region, which possesses specific and potent bactericidal activity against sensitive and drug resistant strains of S. aureus To explore P128's ability to kill S. aureus in a range of environments relevant to clinical infection, we investigated the anti-S. aureus activity of P128 alone and in combination with the standard of care antibiotics on planktonic and biofilm-embedded cells. P128 was found to have potent anti-biofilm activity on pre-formed S...
September 26, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Cristina El Haj, Oscar Murillo, Alba Ribera, Dolors Garcia-Somoza, Fe Tubau, Carmen Cabellos, Javier Cabo, Javier Ariza
Using a tissue cage infection rat model, we test the anti-biofilm effect of clarithromycin on the efficacy of daptomycin and a daptomycin + rifampicin combination against methicillin-susceptible (MSSA) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). In vitro: kill curves, daptomycin exposure studies and clarithromycin activity against biofilm were studied. In vivo: the efficacies of clarithromycin, daptomycin or daptomycin + clarithromycin, daptomycin + rifampicin and daptomycin + rifampicin + clarithromycin combinations were evaluated...
September 17, 2016: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
P Martijn den Reijer, Marjan Sandker, Susan V Snijders, Mehri Tavakol, Antoni P A Hendrickx, Willem J B van Wamel
Currently, little is known about the in vivo human immune response against Staphylococcus aureus during a biofilm-associated infection, such as osteomyelitis, and how this relates to protein production in biofilms in vitro. Therefore, we characterized IgG responses in 10 patients with chronic osteomyelitis against 50 proteins of S. aureus, analyzed the presence of these proteins in biofilms of the infecting isolates on polystyrene (PS) and human bone in vitro, and explored the relation between in vivo and in vitro data...
September 14, 2016: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
Jessica Amber Jennings, Karen E Beenken, Robert A Skinner, Daniel G Meeker, Mark S Smeltzer, Warren O Haggard, Karen S Troxel
AIM: To test antibiotic-loaded coating for efficacy in reducing bacterial biofilm and development of osteomyelitis in an orthopaedic model of implant infection. METHODS: Phosphatidylcholine coatings loaded with 25% vancomycin were applied to washed and sterilized titanium wires 20 mm in length. A 10 mm segment was removed from rabbit radius (total = 9; 5 coated, 4 uncoated), and the segment was injected with 1 × 10(6) colony forming units (CFUs) of Staphylococcus aureus (UAMS-1 strain)...
August 18, 2016: World Journal of Orthopedics
Li Qin, Joshua W McCausland, Gordon Y C Cheung, Michael Otto
PSM-mec is a secreted virulence factor that belongs to the phenol-soluble modulin (PSM) family of amphipathic, alpha-helical peptide toxins produced by Staphylococcus species. All known PSMs are core genome-encoded with the exception of PSM-mec, whose gene is found in specific sub-types of SCCmec methicillin resistance mobile genetic elements present in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci. In addition to the cytolytic translational product, PSM-mec, the psm-mec locus encodes a regulatory RNA...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Mohamed El-Azizi, Nancy Khardori
BACKGROUND: Biofilm formation inside inserted medical devices leads to their failure and acts as a source of refractory infections. The ultraviolet C (UVC) light is a potential therapy that can be used against the biofilm of bacterial pathogens. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the efficacy of sublethal dose of UVC light with anti-staphylococcal antibiotics against biofilms made from 30 isolates of methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant S...
2016: Infection and Drug Resistance
Zunhua Yang, Yan Liu, Jongsam Ahn, Zhen Qiao, Jennifer L Endres, Nagsen Gautam, Yunlong Huang, Jerry Li, Jialin Zheng, Yazen Alnouti, Kenneth W Bayles, Rongshi Li
Staphylococcus aureus (SA) is a major cause of hospital- and community-associated bacterial infections in the U.S. and around the world. These infections have become increasingly difficult to treat due to the propensity to develop antibiotic resistance and form biofilm. To date, no antibiofilm agents are available for clinical use. To add to the repertoire of antibiotics for clinical use and to provide novel agents for combating both SA and biofilm infections, we previously reported marinopyrroles as potent anti-SA agents...
August 12, 2016: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Prodipta Sarkar, Saurabh Acharyya, Anirban Banerjee, Amarendra Patra, Karthika Thankamani, Hemanta Koley, Prasanta K Bag
Staphylococcus aureus is a leading etiologic agent of nosocomial and community acquired infectious diseases worldwide. The public health concern regarding staphylococcal infections is inflated by the increasing occurrence of multidrug-resistant strains e.g. multi-drug and methicillin resistant S. aureus (MDR MRSA). This study was designed to evaluate the intracellular killing, membrane-damaging and biofilm-inhibitory activities of nimbolide isolated from Azadirachta indica against MDR MRSA. In vitro antibacterial activity of nimbolide was determined by performing MIC, MBC and time-kill kinetic studies...
August 23, 2016: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Agapi I Doulgeraki, Pierluigi Di Ciccio, Adriana Ianieri, George-John E Nychas
There is increasing concern about the public health impact of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Food and animal are vectors of transmission, but the contribution of a contaminated environment is not well characterized. With regard to this, staphylococcal biofilms serve as a virulence factor, allowing MRSA strains to adhere to surfaces and other materials used in the food industry. Methicillin resistance and biofilm-forming capacity may contribute to the success of S. aureus as a human pathogen in both health care and community settings and the food production chain...
August 17, 2016: Research in Microbiology
Alina Cristina Neguț, Mariana-Carmen Chifiriuc, Oana Săndulescu, Anca Streinu-Cercel, Mihaela Oprea, Elena Carmina Drăgulescu, Irina Gheorghe, Ioana Berciu, Coralia Bleotu, Marcela Popa, Dan Oțelea, Daniela Tălăpan, Olga Dorobăț, Irina Codiță, Mircea Ioan Popa, Adrian Streinu-Cercel
The increasing burden of invasive biofilm-related staphylococcal infections led to a dire need for new agents to prevent biofilm formation. Bacteriophages may hypothetically alter biofilm through several mechanisms, including induction of depolymerizing enzymes, and lysis of persistent bacteria. We have assessed the influence of commercially-available bacteriophage cocktails on Staphylococcus spp. clinical strains viability and biofilm formation. We analyzed 83 staphylococcal strains from patients consecutively admitted to a Romanian infection reference center from October 2014 through May 2015; the strains were characterized by phenotypic and genetic tools for their resistance and virulence features and for their phyliation...
August 11, 2016: FEMS Microbiology Letters
Ameya A Mashruwala, Shiven Bhatt, Saroj Poudel, Eric S Boyd, Jeffrey M Boyd
Proteins containing DUF59 domains have roles in iron-sulfur (FeS) cluster assembly and are widespread throughout Eukarya, Bacteria, and Archaea. However, the function(s) of this domain is unknown. Staphylococcus aureus SufT is composed solely of a DUF59 domain. We noted that sufT is often co-localized with sufBC, which encode for the Suf FeS cluster biosynthetic machinery. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that sufT was recruited to the suf operon, suggesting a role for SufT in FeS cluster assembly. A S. aureus ΔsufT mutant was defective in the assembly of FeS proteins...
August 2016: PLoS Genetics
Ryan M Reddinger, Nicole R Luke-Marshall, Anders P Hakansson, Anthony A Campagnari
UNLABELLED: Staphylococcus aureus is a ubiquitous opportunistic human pathogen and a major health concern worldwide, causing a wide variety of diseases from mild skin infections to systemic disease. S. aureus is a major source of severe secondary bacterial pneumonia after influenza A virus infection, which causes widespread morbidity and mortality. While the phenomenon of secondary bacterial pneumonia is well established, the mechanisms behind the transition from asymptomatic colonization to invasive staphylococcal disease following viral infection remains unknown...
2016: MBio
Bartlomiej Micota, Beata Sadowska, Anna Podsedek, Malgorzata Paszkiewicz, Dorota Sosnowska, Barbara Rozalska
The aim of the study was to determine whether Leonurus cardiaca L. herb extract (LCE) used at subinhibitory concentration modifies the characteristics of S. aureus, important in the pathogenesis of invasive infections originating from the bloodstream, in a way favorable for the human host. Polyphenol rich LCE, a common ingredient in the pharmaceutical products used for various cardiovascular and nervous system disorders, had shown interesting antibacterial and anti-biofilm properties in our previous studies...
August 8, 2016: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Yoonjee Chang, Sangryeol Ryu
Endolysin from Staphylococcus aureus phage SA97 (LysSA97) was cloned and investigated. LysSA97 specifically lyse the staphylococcal strains and effectively disrupted staphylococcal biofilms. Bioinformatic analysis of LysSA97 revealed a novel putative cell wall binding domain (CBD) as well as two enzymatically active domains (EADs) containing cysteine, histidine-dependent amidohydrolases/peptidases (CHAP, PF05257) and N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine amidase (Amidase-3, PF01520) domains. Comparison of 98 endolysin genes of S...
August 6, 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Anirudha Dutta, Sudipta Bhattacharyya, Anirban Kundu, Debabrata Dutta, Amit Kumar Das
Staphylococcus aureus is a commensal and opportunistic pathogen that causes lethal infections. Biofilm forming ability of S. aureus enhances its virulence since biofilm provides the bacteria protective shield against antibiotics and host immunity. Polysaccharide independent biofilm formation by several virulent S. aureus strains have been identified recently, where protein components substitute polysaccharide intercellular adhesin (PIA) involved in bacterial cell attachment. The suhB gene has been reported to be essential in staphylococcal PIA-independent biofilm formation...
October 2016: Biophysical Chemistry
K Majchrzak, E Mierzwinska-Nastalska, A Chmura, A Kwiatkowski, L Paczek, G Mlynarczyk, K Szymanek-Majchrzak
BACKGROUND: Biofilm occurring on removable prostheses is a reservoir of bacterial flora, consisting of both physiological and pathogenic multidrug-resistant microorganisms. Patients undergoing dialysis and organ transplantation are particularly prone to bacterial infections, which can have its source in denture plaque. This study was a comparison of the composition of staphylococcal flora within the surface of the pharyngeal mucous membrane as well as denture plaque in kidney transplant recipients...
June 2016: Transplantation Proceedings
K Majchrzak, E Mierzwinska-Nastalska, A Chmura, A Kwiatkowski, L Paczek, G Mlynarczyk, K Szymanek-Majchrzak
BACKGROUND: Removable dentures improve function and aesthetics of masticatory organ. Their proper scheme of use and hygiene procedures have an impact on biofilm formation. Microorganisms in biofilm are often resistant to many antibiotics and may pose a potential threat to patients treated with organ transplant. The study provided for evaluation of dental prostheses hygiene standards with reference to staphylococcal microflora in kidney transplant recipients. METHODS: The study involved 62 patients with removable prostheses...
June 2016: Transplantation Proceedings
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