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Staphylococcal biofilm

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815023/antibiotic-resistance-ability-to-form-biofilm-and-susceptibility-to-copper-alloys-of-selected-staphylococcal-strains-isolated-from-touch-surfaces-in-polish-hospital-wards
#1
Anna Różańska, Agnieszka Chmielarczyk, Dorota Romaniszyn, Małgorzata Bulanda, Monika Walkowicz, Piotr Osuch, Tadeusz Knych
BACKGROUND: Despite the employment of sanitary regimes, contact transmission of the aetiological agents of hospital infections is still exceedingly common. The issue of microbe transmission becomes particularly important when facing multidrug-resistant microorganisms such as methicillin-resistant staphylococci. In the case of deficiencies in cleaning and disinfection procedures, hospital equipment made of copper alloys can play an important role, complementing traditional hospital hygiene procedures...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795230/improved-multiplex-pcr-primers-for-rapid-identification-of-coagulase-negative-staphylococci
#2
Jonguk Kim, Jisoo Hong, Jeong-A Lim, Sunggi Heu, Eunjung Roh
Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) are opportunistic pathogens that are currently emerging as causative agents of human disease. Though CNS are widespread in the clinic and food, their precise identification at species level is important. Here, using 16S rRNA sequencing, 55 staphylococcal isolates were identified as S. capitis, S. caprae, S. epidermidis, S. haemolyticus, S. pasteuri, S. saprophyticus, S. warneri, and S. xylosus. Although 16S rRNA sequencing is universally accepted as a standard for bacterial identification, the method did not effectively discriminate closely related species, and additional DNA sequencing was required...
August 9, 2017: Archives of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783429/characterization-of-livestock-associated-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-cc398-and-mecc-positive-cc130-from-zoo-animals-in-the-united-kingdom
#3
Alessio Bortolami, Ranieri Verin, Julian Chantrey, Michela Corrò, Ian Ashpole, Javier Lopez, Dorina Timofte
Little is known about the characteristics and diseases associated with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in nondomestic animals. Four presumptive MRSA isolates, obtained from clinical (n = 3) and surveillance specimens (n = 1) from dwarf (Helogale parvula) and yellow mongooses (Cynictis penicillata) from a United Kingdom zoo, were analyzed by PCR for detection of mecA and mecC-mediated methicillin resistance, and virulence genes. Isolates were genotyped by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) and spa sequence typing...
August 7, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782178/staphylococcal-biofilm-gene-expression-on-biomaterials-a-methodological-study
#4
Annika Juhlin, Sara Svensson, Peter Thomsen, Margarita Trobos
The combination of increased healthcare access, universal aging, and infallible therapy demands, synergistically drive the need for the development of biomaterial technologies that mitigate the challenge of biomaterial-associated infections (BAI). Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus account for the majority of BAI due to their ability to accumulate in adherent multilayered biofilm. This investigation details the development of gene expression assays to evaluate the genetic processes of attachment, accumulation, maturation, and dispersal phases on biomaterials in vitro, while abiding by the Minimum Information for Publication of Quantitative Real-Time PCR Experiments (MIQE) guidelines...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771954/influence-of-biofilm-lubricity-on-shear-induced-transmission-of-staphylococcal-biofilms-from-stainless-steel-to-silicone-rubber
#5
Niar Gusnaniar, Jelmer Sjollema, Ed D Jong, Willem Woudstra, Joop de Vries, Titik Nuryastuti, Henny C van der Mei, Henk J Busscher
In real-life situations, bacteria are often transmitted from biofilms growing on donor surfaces to receiver ones. Bacterial transmission is more complex than adhesion, involving bacterial detachment from donor and subsequent adhesion to receiver surfaces. Here, we describe a new device to study shear-induced bacterial transmission from a (stainless steel) pipe to a (silicone rubber) tube and compare transmission of EPS-producing and non-EPS-producing staphylococci. Transmission of an entire biofilm from the donor to the receiver tube did not occur, indicative of cohesive failure in the biofilm rather than of adhesive failure at the donor-biofilm interface...
August 3, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767074/comparative-study-on-antistaphylococcal-activity-of-lipopeptides-in-various-culture-media
#6
Maciej Jaśkiewicz, Damian Neubauer, Wojciech Kamysz
Staphylococcus aureus bacteria are one of the leading microorganisms responsible for nosocomial infections as well as being the primary causative pathogen of skin and wound infections. Currently, the therapy of staphylococcal diseases faces many difficulties, due to a variety of mechanisms of resistance and virulence factors. Moreover, a number of infections caused by S. aureus are connected with biofilm formation that impairs effectiveness of the therapy. Short cationic lipopeptides that are designed on the basis of the structure of antimicrobial peptides are likely to provide a promising alternative to conventional antibiotics...
August 2, 2017: Antibiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758016/norgestimate-inhibits-staphylococcal-biofilm-formation-and-resensitizes-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-to-%C3%AE-lactam-antibiotics
#7
Yutaka Yoshii, Ken-Ichi Okuda, Satomi Yamada, Mari Nagakura, Shinya Sugimoto, Tetsuo Nagano, Takayoshi Okabe, Hirotatsu Kojima, Takeo Iwamoto, Kazuyoshi Kuwano, Yoshimitsu Mizunoe
Formation of bacterial biofilms on medical devices can cause severe or fatal infectious diseases. In particular, biofilm-associated infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus are difficult to eradicate because the biofilm is strongly resistant to antibiotics and the host immune response. There is no effective treatment for biofilm-associated infectionss, except for surgical removal of contaminated medical devices followed by antibiotic therapy. Here we show that norgestimate, an acetylated progestin, effectively inhibits biofilm formation by staphylococcal strains, including methicillin-resistant S...
2017: NPJ Biofilms and Microbiomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705677/hyicin-4244-the-first-sactibiotic-described-in-staphylococci-exhibits-an-anti-staphylococcal-biofilm-activity
#8
Andreza Freitas de Souza Duarte, Hilana Ceotto-Vigoder, Emile Santos Barrias, Thaïs Cristina Baeta Soares Souto-Padrón, Ingolf Figved Nes, Maria do Carmo de Freire Bastos
Hyicin 4244 is a small antimicrobial peptide with a broad-spectrum of activity found in the culture supernatant of Staphylococcus hyicus 4244, whose genome was then sequenced. The bacteriocin gene cluster (hyiSABCDEFG) was mined from its single chromosome and exhibited a genetic organization similar to that of subtilosin A. All genes involved in hyicin 4244 biosynthesis proved to be transcribed and encode proteins that share at least 42 % similarity to proteins encoded by the subtilosin A gene cluster. Due to its resemblance to subtilosin A and the presence of three thioether bonds in its structure, hyicin 4244 is assumed to be a 35 amino acid circular sactibiotic, the first to be described in staphylococci...
July 10, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700050/characterization-of-biofilm-formation-antimicrobial-resistance-and-staphylococcal-cassette-chromosome-mec-analysis-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-hominis-from-blood-cultures-of-children
#9
Setareh Soroush, Fereshteh Jabalameli, Morovat Taherikalani, Mohammad Amin Eslampour, Reza Beigverdi, Mohammad Emaneini
INTRODUCTION: Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus hominis (MRSHo) has been recognized as an important human pathogen, particularly in immunocompromised patients. METHODS: A total of 19 S. hominis isolates were collected from children at the Children's Medical Centre, Tehran, Iran, from March 2012 to February 2013. MRSHo susceptibility against 13 antimicrobial and 3 antiseptic agents was determined using disk diffusion (DAD) and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), respectively...
May 2017: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695218/determination-of-the-nano-scaled-contact-area-of-staphylococcal-cells
#10
Christian Spengler, Nicolas Thewes, Philipp Jung, Markus Bischoff, Karin Jacobs
Bacterial adhesion is a crucial step during the development of infections as well as the formation of biofilms. Hence, fundamental research of bacterial adhesion mechanisms is of utmost importance. So far, less is known about the size of the contact area between bacterial cells and a surface. This gap will be filled by this study using a single-cell force spectroscopy-based method to investigate the contact area between a single bacterial cell of Staphylococcus aureus and a solid substrate. The technique relies on the strong influence of the hydrophobic interaction on bacterial adhesion: by incrementally crossing a very sharp hydrophobic/hydrophilic interface while performing force-distance curves with a single bacterial probe, the bacterial contact area can be determined...
July 20, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675109/titanium-surfaces-immobilized-with-the-major-antimicrobial-fragment-fk-16-of-human-cathelicidin-ll-37-are-potent-against-multiple-antibiotic-resistant-bacteria
#11
Biswajit Mishra, Guangshun Wang
Infections on implanted medical devices are a challenging problem, especially when bacteria form difficult-to-treat biofilms. Antimicrobial peptides are considered to be a solution due to their potency against antibiotic-resistant superbugs. Previously, the authors' laboratory demonstrated the prevention of staphylococcal biofilm formation in an animal catheter model by injecting merecidin (formerly known as 17BIPHE2), a peptide engineered based on the only human cathelicidin. This study documents an alternative solution via covalent immobilization of FK-16, amino acid sequence FKRIVQRIKDFLRNLV-amide, which corresponds to the major antimicrobial region (residues 17-32) of LL-37...
July 4, 2017: Biofouling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656173/heparin-mimics-extracellular-dna-in-binding-to-cell-surface-localized-proteins-and-promoting-staphylococcus-aureus-biofilm-formation
#12
Surabhi Mishra, Alexander R Horswill
Staphylococcus aureus is a leading cause of catheter-related bloodstream infections. Biofilms form on these implants and are held together by a matrix composed of proteins, polysaccharides, and extracellular DNA (eDNA). Heparin is a sulfated glycosaminoglycan that is routinely used in central venous catheters to prevent thrombosis, but it has been shown to stimulate S. aureus biofilm formation through an unknown mechanism. Data presented here reveal that heparin enhances biofilm capacity in many S. aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococcal strains, and it is incorporated into the USA300 methicillin-resistant S...
May 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631399/into-the-storm-chasing-the-opportunistic-pathogen-staphylococcus-aureus-from-skin-colonisation-to-life-threatening-infections
#13
James P O'Gara
Colonisation of the human skin by Staphylococcus aureus is a precursor for a variety of infections ranging from boils to sepsis and pneumonia. The rapid emergence of methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) following the clinical introduction of this antimicrobial drug and reports of resistance to all currently used anti-staphylococcal drugs has added to its formidable reputation. S. aureus survival on the skin and in vivo virulence is underpinned by a remarkable environmental adaptability, made possible by highly orchestrated regulation of gene expression and a capacity to undertake genome remodelling...
June 19, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624271/coagulase-negative-staphylococci-species-affect-biofilm-formation-of-other-coagulase-negative-and-coagulase-positive-staphylococci
#14
Coralie Goetz, Yannick D N Tremblay, Daphnée Lamarche, Andréanne Blondeau, Annie M Gaudreau, Josée Labrie, François Malouin, Mario Jacques
Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) are considered to be commensal bacteria in humans and animals, but are now also recognized as etiological agents in several infections, including bovine mastitis. Biofilm formation appears to be an important factor in CNS pathogenicity. Furthermore, some researchers have proposed that CNS colonization of the intramammary environment has a protective effect against other pathogens. The mechanisms behind the protective effect of CNS have yet to be characterized. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of CNS isolates with a weak-biofilm phenotype on the biofilm formation of other staphylococcal isolates...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606544/mining-marine-shell-wastes-for-polyelectrolyte-chitosan-anti-biofoulants-fabrication-of-high-performance-economic-and-ecofriendly-anti-biofouling-coatings
#15
Reda F M Elshaarawy, Fatma H A Mustafa, Lasse van Geelen, Amaal E A Abou-Taleb, Hermine R Z Tadros, Rainer Kalscheuer, Christoph Janiak
Banning organotins as antifouling biocides in 2003 was the starting point for many researchers to search for novel economic and environmentally-friendly anti-fouling biocides. In our present contribution, we have successfully functionalized a natural biopolymer, chitosan (CS), isolated from marine wastes with polyelectrolyte brushes akin to ionic liquids. These antifouling biopolymers anchoring polyelectrolyte brushes were in vitro assessed for their ability to eradicate or inhibit the Staphylococcal/Escherichia biofilms...
September 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588273/myricetin-protects-galleria-mellonella-against-staphylococcus-aureus-infection-and-inhibits-multiple-virulence-factors
#16
L N Silva, G C A Da Hora, T A Soares, M S Bojer, H Ingmer, A J Macedo, D S Trentin
Staphylococcus aureus is an opportunistic pathogen related to a variety of life-threatening infections but for which antimicrobial resistance is liming the treatment options. We report here that myricetin, but not its glycosylated form, can remarkably decrease the production of several S. aureus virulence factors, including adhesion, biofilm formation, hemolysis and staphyloxanthin production, without interfering with growth. Myricetin affects both surface proteins and secreted proteins which indicate that its action is unrelated to inhibition of the agr quorum sensing system...
June 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463662/antibiotic-susceptibility-of-planktonic-and-biofilm-grown-staphylococci-isolated-from-implant-associated-infections-should-mbec-and-nature-of-biofilm-formation-replace-mic
#17
Aaron J Brady, Garry Laverty, Deirdre F Gilpin, Patricia Kearney, Michael Tunney
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to develop an alternative, more clinically relevant approach to susceptibility reporting for implant-associated infections. Using 20 staphylococcal isolates, isolated from clinical implant infections, the majority (85 %) demonstrated biofilm-forming capabilities. A significantly increased minimum biofilm eradication concentration (MBEC) compared to minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) breakpoint was obtained, with MBEC values greater than 256 µg ml-1 for the majority of bacteria...
April 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461319/bacteriophage-lysin-cf-301-a-potent-antistaphylococcal-biofilm-agent
#18
Raymond Schuch, Babar K Khan, Assaf Raz, Jimmy A Rotolo, Michael Wittekind
Biofilms pose a unique therapeutic challenge because of the antibiotic tolerance of constituent bacteria. Treatments for biofilm-based infections represent a major unmet medical need, requiring novel agents to eradicate mature biofilms. Our objective was to evaluate bacteriophage lysin CF-301 as a new agent to target Staphylococcus aureus biofilms. We used minimum biofilm-eradicating concentration (MBEC) assays on 95 S. aureus strains to obtain a 90% MBEC (MBEC90) value of ≤0.25 μg/ml for CF-301. Mature biofilms of coagulase-negative staphylococci, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Streptococcus agalactiae were also sensitive to disruption, with MBEC90 values ranging from 0...
July 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429266/corr-insights-%C3%A2-does-extracellular-dna-production-vary-in-staphylococcal-biofilms-isolated-from-infected-implants-versus-controls
#19
Devendra H Dusane
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416559/a-novel-nonantibiotic-nitroglycerin-based-catheter-lock-solution-for-prevention-of-intraluminal-central-venous-catheter-infections-in-cancer-patients
#20
Anne-Marie Chaftari, Ray Hachem, Ariel Szvalb, Mahnaz Taremi, Bruno Granwehr, George Michael Viola, Amin Sapna, Andrew Assaf, Yazan Numan, Pankil Shah, Ketevan Gasitashvili, Elizabeth Natividad, Ying Jiang, Rebecca Slack, Ruth Reitzel, Joel Rosenblatt, Elie Mouhayar, Issam Raad
For long-term central lines (CL), the lumen is the major source of central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSI). The current standard of care for maintaining catheter patency includes flushing the CL with saline or heparin. Neither agent has any antimicrobial activity. Furthermore, heparin may enhance staphylococcal biofilm formation. We evaluated the safety and efficacy of a novel nonantibiotic catheter lock solution for the prevention of CLABSI. Between November 2015 and February 2016, we enrolled 60 patients with hematologic malignancies who had peripherally inserted central catheters (PICC) to receive the study lock solution...
July 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
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