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Staphylococcal biofilm

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915875/plectranthus-amboinicus-essential-oil-and-carvacrol-bioactive-against-planktonic-and-biofilm-of-oxacillin-and-vancomycin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus
#1
Sara Edwirgens Costa Benício Vasconcelos, Hider Machado Melo, Theodora Thays Arruda Cavalcante, Francisco Eduardo Aragão Catunda Júnior, Mário Geraldo de Carvalho, Francisca Gleire Rodrigues Menezes, Oscarina Viana de Sousa, Renata Albuquerque Costa
BACKGROUND: The emergence of multidrug-resistant bacteria is a worldwide concern and in order to find an alternative to this problem, the occurrence of antimicrobial compounds in Plectranthus amboinicus essential oil was investigated. Thus, this study aims to determine susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from food to antibiotics, P. amboinicus essential oil (PAEO) and carvacrol. METHODS: Leaves and stem of P. amboinicus were used for extraction of essential oil (PAEO) by hydrodistillation technique and EO chemical analysis was performed by gas chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometer...
September 16, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887200/purification-and-characterization-of-a-novel-anti-staphylococcal-peptide-asp-1-from-bacillus-sp-urid-12-1
#2
Ajay Ghosh Chalasani, Utpal Roy, Sushma Nema
A strong anti-methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) peptide (ASP-1) from the Bacillus subtilis URID 12.1 strain that is active against cefoxitin- and methicillin-resistant clinical isolates was purified to homogeneity by solvent extraction, silica gel-based adsorption chromatography and reversed phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography. The peptide sequence of ASP-1 as determined by MALDI-TOF/MS and ESI-FTICR MS was acetylated Phe-Thr-Ala-Val-Dhb-Phe-Ile/Leu. The peptide was further analyzed by alkaline hydrolysis, ESI-Q-TOF-MS and an ion mobility assay, which detected the presence of a lactone ring in the intact peptide and a cyclic nature, subsequently revealing the peptide sequence as acPhe-Thr-Val-Ala-Dhb-Phe-Ile/Leu...
September 5, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878860/draft-genome-sequences-of-two-opportunistic-pathogenic-strains-of-staphylococcus-cohnii-isolated-from-human-patients
#3
Soraya Mendoza-Olazarán, José F Garcia-Mazcorro, Rayo Morfín-Otero, Licet Villarreal-Treviño, Adrián Camacho-Ortiz, Eduardo Rodríguez-Noriega, Paola Bocanegra-Ibarias, Héctor J Maldonado-Garza, Scot E Dowd, Elvira Garza-González
Herein, we report the draft-genome sequences and annotation of two opportunistic pathogenic strains of Staphylococcus cohnii isolated from humans. One strain (SC-57) was isolated from blood from a male patient in May 2006 and the other (SC-532) from a catheter from a male patient in June 2006. Similar to other genomes of Staphylococcus species, most genes (42%) of both strains are involved in metabolism of amino acids and derivatives, carbohydrates and proteins. Eighty (4%) genes are involved in virulence, disease, and defense and both species show phenotypic low biofilm production and evidence of increased antibiotic resistance associated to biofilm production...
2017: Standards in Genomic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868925/structural-changes-in-s-epidermidis-biofilms-after-transmission-between-stainless-steel-surfaces
#4
Niar Gusnaniar, Jelmer Sjollema, Titik Nuryastuti, Brandon W Peterson, Betsy van de Belt-Gritter, Ed D de Jong, Henny C van der Mei, Henk J Busscher
Transmission is a main route for bacterial contamination, involving bacterial detachment from a donor and adhesion to receiver surfaces. This work aimed to compare transmission of an extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) producing and a non-EPS producing Staphylococcus epidermidis strain from biofilms on stainless steel. After transmission, donor surfaces remained fully covered with biofilm, indicating transmission through cohesive failure in the biofilm. Counter to the numbers of biofilm bacteria, the donor and receiver biofilm thicknesses did not add up to the pre-transmission donor biofilm thickness, suggesting more compact biofilms after transmission, especially for non-EPS producing staphylococci...
September 4, 2017: Biofouling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867522/do-amyloid-structures-formed-by-staphylococcus-aureus-phenol-soluble-modulins-have-a-biological-function
#5
Yue Zheng, Hwang-Soo Joo, Vinod Nair, Katherine Y Le, Michael Otto
Phenol-soluble modulins (PSMs) are alpha-helical, amphipathic peptides that have multiple functions in staphylococcal physiology and virulence. Recent research has suggested that PSMs form amyloid fibrils and amyloids are involved in PSM-mediated phenotypes such as cytolysis and biofilm stability. While we observed PSM amyloid formation using electron microscopy and dye assays, there were no apparent differences in the production of extracellular fibrous material between a PSM-deficient strain and the isogenic wild-type strain...
September 1, 2017: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859444/evaluation-of-combinations-of-putative-anti-biofilm-agents-and-antibiotics-to-eradicate-biofilms-of-staphylococcus-aureus-and-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#6
Katherine Belfield, Roger Bayston, Nadzieja Hajduk, Georgia Levell, John P Birchall, Matija Daniel
Objectives: To evaluate potential anti-biofilm agents for their ability to enhance the activity of antibiotics for local treatment of localized biofilm infections. Methods: Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in vitro biofilm models were developed. The putative antibiotic enhancers N-acetylcysteine, acetylsalicylic acid, sodium salicylate, recombinant human deoxyribonuclease I, dispersin B, hydrogen peroxide and Johnson's Baby Shampoo (JBS) were tested for their anti-biofilm activity alone and their ability to enhance the activity of antibiotics for 7 or 14 days, against 5 day old biofilms...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815023/antibiotic-resistance-ability-to-form-biofilm-and-susceptibility-to-copper-alloys-of-selected-staphylococcal-strains-isolated-from-touch-surfaces-in-polish-hospital-wards
#7
Anna Różańska, Agnieszka Chmielarczyk, Dorota Romaniszyn, Małgorzata Bulanda, Monika Walkowicz, Piotr Osuch, Tadeusz Knych
BACKGROUND: Despite the employment of sanitary regimes, contact transmission of the aetiological agents of hospital infections is still exceedingly common. The issue of microbe transmission becomes particularly important when facing multidrug-resistant microorganisms such as methicillin-resistant staphylococci. In the case of deficiencies in cleaning and disinfection procedures, hospital equipment made of copper alloys can play an important role, complementing traditional hospital hygiene procedures...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795230/improved-multiplex-pcr-primers-for-rapid-identification-of-coagulase-negative-staphylococci
#8
Jonguk Kim, Jisoo Hong, Jeong-A Lim, Sunggi Heu, Eunjung Roh
Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) are opportunistic pathogens that are currently emerging as causative agents of human disease. Though CNS are widespread in the clinic and food, their precise identification at species level is important. Here, using 16S rRNA sequencing, 55 staphylococcal isolates were identified as S. capitis, S. caprae, S. epidermidis, S. haemolyticus, S. pasteuri, S. saprophyticus, S. warneri, and S. xylosus. Although 16S rRNA sequencing is universally accepted as a standard for bacterial identification, the method did not effectively discriminate closely related species, and additional DNA sequencing was required...
August 9, 2017: Archives of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783429/characterization-of-livestock-associated-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-cc398-and-mecc-positive-cc130-from-zoo-animals-in-the-united-kingdom
#9
Alessio Bortolami, Ranieri Verin, Julian Chantrey, Michela Corrò, Ian Ashpole, Javier Lopez, Dorina Timofte
Little is known about the characteristics and diseases associated with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in nondomestic animals. Four presumptive MRSA isolates, obtained from clinical (n = 3) and surveillance specimens (n = 1) from dwarf (Helogale parvula) and yellow mongooses (Cynictis penicillata) from a United Kingdom zoo, were analyzed by PCR for detection of mecA and mecC-mediated methicillin resistance, and virulence genes. Isolates were genotyped by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) and spa sequence typing...
August 7, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782178/staphylococcal-biofilm-gene-expression-on-biomaterials-a-methodological-study
#10
Annika Juhlin, Sara Svensson, Peter Thomsen, Margarita Trobos
The combination of increased healthcare access, universal aging, and infallible therapy demands, synergistically drive the need for the development of biomaterial technologies that mitigate the challenge of biomaterial-associated infections (BAI). Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus account for the majority of BAI due to their ability to accumulate in adherent multilayered biofilm. This investigation details the development of gene expression assays to evaluate the genetic processes of attachment, accumulation, maturation, and dispersal phases on biomaterials in vitro, while abiding by the Minimum Information for Publication of Quantitative Real-Time PCR Experiments (MIQE) guidelines...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771954/influence-of-biofilm-lubricity-on-shear-induced-transmission-of-staphylococcal-biofilms-from-stainless-steel-to-silicone-rubber
#11
Niar Gusnaniar, Jelmer Sjollema, Ed D Jong, Willem Woudstra, Joop de Vries, Titik Nuryastuti, Henny C van der Mei, Henk J Busscher
In real-life situations, bacteria are often transmitted from biofilms growing on donor surfaces to receiver ones. Bacterial transmission is more complex than adhesion, involving bacterial detachment from donor and subsequent adhesion to receiver surfaces. Here, we describe a new device to study shear-induced bacterial transmission from a (stainless steel) pipe to a (silicone rubber) tube and compare transmission of EPS-producing and non-EPS-producing staphylococci. Transmission of an entire biofilm from the donor to the receiver tube did not occur, indicative of cohesive failure in the biofilm rather than of adhesive failure at the donor-biofilm interface...
August 3, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767074/comparative-study-on-antistaphylococcal-activity-of-lipopeptides-in-various-culture-media
#12
Maciej Jaśkiewicz, Damian Neubauer, Wojciech Kamysz
Staphylococcus aureus bacteria are one of the leading microorganisms responsible for nosocomial infections as well as being the primary causative pathogen of skin and wound infections. Currently, the therapy of staphylococcal diseases faces many difficulties, due to a variety of mechanisms of resistance and virulence factors. Moreover, a number of infections caused by S. aureus are connected with biofilm formation that impairs effectiveness of the therapy. Short cationic lipopeptides that are designed on the basis of the structure of antimicrobial peptides are likely to provide a promising alternative to conventional antibiotics...
August 2, 2017: Antibiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758016/norgestimate-inhibits-staphylococcal-biofilm-formation-and-resensitizes-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-to-%C3%AE-lactam-antibiotics
#13
Yutaka Yoshii, Ken-Ichi Okuda, Satomi Yamada, Mari Nagakura, Shinya Sugimoto, Tetsuo Nagano, Takayoshi Okabe, Hirotatsu Kojima, Takeo Iwamoto, Kazuyoshi Kuwano, Yoshimitsu Mizunoe
Formation of bacterial biofilms on medical devices can cause severe or fatal infectious diseases. In particular, biofilm-associated infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus are difficult to eradicate because the biofilm is strongly resistant to antibiotics and the host immune response. There is no effective treatment for biofilm-associated infectionss, except for surgical removal of contaminated medical devices followed by antibiotic therapy. Here we show that norgestimate, an acetylated progestin, effectively inhibits biofilm formation by staphylococcal strains, including methicillin-resistant S...
2017: NPJ Biofilms and Microbiomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705677/hyicin-4244-the-first-sactibiotic-described-in-staphylococci-exhibits-an-anti-staphylococcal-biofilm-activity
#14
Andreza Freitas de Souza Duarte, Hilana Ceotto-Vigoder, Emile Santos Barrias, Thaïs Cristina Baeta Soares Souto-Padrón, Ingolf Figved Nes, Maria do Carmo de Freire Bastos
Hyicin 4244 is a small antimicrobial peptide with a broad-spectrum of activity found in the culture supernatant of Staphylococcus hyicus 4244, whose genome was then sequenced. The bacteriocin gene cluster (hyiSABCDEFG) was mined from its single chromosome and exhibited a genetic organization similar to that of subtilosin A. All genes involved in hyicin 4244 biosynthesis proved to be transcribed and encode proteins that share at least 42 % similarity to proteins encoded by the subtilosin A gene cluster. Due to its resemblance to subtilosin A and the presence of three thioether bonds in its structure, hyicin 4244 is assumed to be a 35 amino acid circular sactibiotic, the first to be described in staphylococci...
July 10, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700050/characterization-of-biofilm-formation-antimicrobial-resistance-and-staphylococcal-cassette-chromosome-mec-analysis-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-hominis-from-blood-cultures-of-children
#15
Setareh Soroush, Fereshteh Jabalameli, Morovat Taherikalani, Mohammad Amin Eslampour, Reza Beigverdi, Mohammad Emaneini
INTRODUCTION: Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus hominis (MRSHo) has been recognized as an important human pathogen, particularly in immunocompromised patients. METHODS: A total of 19 S. hominis isolates were collected from children at the Children's Medical Centre, Tehran, Iran, from March 2012 to February 2013. MRSHo susceptibility against 13 antimicrobial and 3 antiseptic agents was determined using disk diffusion (DAD) and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), respectively...
May 2017: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695218/determination-of-the-nano-scaled-contact-area-of-staphylococcal-cells
#16
Christian Spengler, Nicolas Thewes, Philipp Jung, Markus Bischoff, Karin Jacobs
Bacterial adhesion is a crucial step during the development of infections as well as the formation of biofilms. Hence, fundamental research of bacterial adhesion mechanisms is of utmost importance. So far, less is known about the size of the contact area between bacterial cells and a surface. This gap will be filled by this study using a single-cell force spectroscopy-based method to investigate the contact area between a single bacterial cell of Staphylococcus aureus and a solid substrate. The technique relies on the strong influence of the hydrophobic interaction on bacterial adhesion: by incrementally crossing a very sharp hydrophobic/hydrophilic interface while performing force-distance curves with a single bacterial probe, the bacterial contact area can be determined...
July 20, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675109/titanium-surfaces-immobilized-with-the-major-antimicrobial-fragment-fk-16-of-human-cathelicidin-ll-37-are-potent-against-multiple-antibiotic-resistant-bacteria
#17
Biswajit Mishra, Guangshun Wang
Infections on implanted medical devices are a challenging problem, especially when bacteria form difficult-to-treat biofilms. Antimicrobial peptides are considered to be a solution due to their potency against antibiotic-resistant superbugs. Previously, the authors' laboratory demonstrated the prevention of staphylococcal biofilm formation in an animal catheter model by injecting merecidin (formerly known as 17BIPHE2), a peptide engineered based on the only human cathelicidin. This study documents an alternative solution via covalent immobilization of FK-16, amino acid sequence FKRIVQRIKDFLRNLV-amide, which corresponds to the major antimicrobial region (residues 17-32) of LL-37...
August 2017: Biofouling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656173/heparin-mimics-extracellular-dna-in-binding-to-cell-surface-localized-proteins-and-promoting-staphylococcus-aureus-biofilm-formation
#18
Surabhi Mishra, Alexander R Horswill
Staphylococcus aureus is a leading cause of catheter-related bloodstream infections. Biofilms form on these implants and are held together by a matrix composed of proteins, polysaccharides, and extracellular DNA (eDNA). Heparin is a sulfated glycosaminoglycan that is routinely used in central venous catheters to prevent thrombosis, but it has been shown to stimulate S. aureus biofilm formation through an unknown mechanism. Data presented here reveal that heparin enhances biofilm capacity in many S. aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococcal strains, and it is incorporated into the USA300 methicillin-resistant S...
May 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631399/into-the-storm-chasing-the-opportunistic-pathogen-staphylococcus-aureus-from-skin-colonisation-to-life-threatening-infections
#19
James P O'Gara
Colonisation of the human skin by Staphylococcus aureus is a precursor for a variety of infections ranging from boils to sepsis and pneumonia. The rapid emergence of methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) following the clinical introduction of this antimicrobial drug and reports of resistance to all currently used anti-staphylococcal drugs has added to its formidable reputation. S. aureus survival on the skin and in vivo virulence is underpinned by a remarkable environmental adaptability, made possible by highly orchestrated regulation of gene expression and a capacity to undertake genome remodelling...
June 19, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624271/coagulase-negative-staphylococci-species-affect-biofilm-formation-of-other-coagulase-negative-and-coagulase-positive-staphylococci
#20
Coralie Goetz, Yannick D N Tremblay, Daphnée Lamarche, Andréanne Blondeau, Annie M Gaudreau, Josée Labrie, François Malouin, Mario Jacques
Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) are considered to be commensal bacteria in humans and animals, but are now also recognized as etiological agents in several infections, including bovine mastitis. Biofilm formation appears to be an important factor in CNS pathogenicity. Furthermore, some researchers have proposed that CNS colonization of the intramammary environment has a protective effect against other pathogens. The mechanisms behind the protective effect of CNS have yet to be characterized. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of CNS isolates with a weak-biofilm phenotype on the biofilm formation of other staphylococcal isolates...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
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