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Staphylococcal biofilm

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086793/methicillin-resistance-and-virulence-genes-in-invasive-and-nasal-staphylococcus-epidermidis-isolates-from-neonates
#1
Vivian Carolina Salgueiro, Natalia Lopes Pontes Iorio, Marcelle Cristina Ferreira, Raiane Cardoso Chamon, Kátia Regina Netto Dos Santos
BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus epidermidis is an opportunistic pathogen involved in hospital-acquired infections, particularly in those related to medical devices. This study characterized 50 genetically unrelated S. epidermidis isolates from bloodstream infections (BSIs, n = 31) and nares (n = 19) of neonates in relation to staphylococcal chromosomal cassette mec (SCCmec) type, biofilm production and associated genes, and the arginine catabolic mobile elements (ACME), in order to detect virulence factors that could discriminate a potential invasiveness isolate or predict an increasing pathogenicity...
January 13, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081265/the-plasmin-sensitive-protein-pls-in-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-mrsa-is-a-glycoprotein
#2
Isabelle Bleiziffer, Julian Eikmeier, Gottfried Pohlentz, Kathryn McAulay, Guoqing Xia, Muzaffar Hussain, Andreas Peschel, Simon Foster, Georg Peters, Christine Heilmann
Most bacterial glycoproteins identified to date are virulence factors of pathogenic bacteria, i.e. adhesins and invasins. However, the impact of protein glycosylation on the major human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus remains incompletely understood. To study protein glycosylation in staphylococci, we analyzed lysostaphin lysates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains by SDS-PAGE and subsequent periodic acid-Schiff's staining. We detected four (>300, ∼250, ∼165, and ∼120 kDa) and two (>300 and ∼175 kDa) glycosylated surface proteins with strain COL and strain 1061, respectively...
January 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28036310/comparison-of-hrm-analysis-and-three-rep-pcr-genomic-fingerprint-methods-for-rapid-typing-of-mrsa-at-a-brazilian-hospital
#3
Giovana Carolina Bodnar, Heloísa Moreira Martins, Caio Ferreira De Oliveira, Alexandre Tadachi Morey, Eliandro Reis Tavares, Juscélio Donizete Cardoso, Marcia Regina Eches Perugini, Lucy Megumi Yamauchi Lioni, Sueli Fumie Yamada-Ogatta, Renata Katsuko Takayama Kobayashi, Gerson Nakazato
INTRODUCTION: Infections caused by multidrug-resistant bacteria are increasingly common and represent a serious problem for public health. Staphylococcus aureus is one of the major agents of infections, and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) has spread worldwide. The aim of this study was to phenotypically and genotypically characterize 55 MRSAs isolated in the University Hospital of Londrina, Paraná, Brazil, during 2010. METHODOLOGY: Bacterial isolates were characterized based on their antimicrobial susceptibility profile, biofilm production capacity, and staphylococcal chromosome cassette mec (SCCmec) type...
December 30, 2016: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011203/small-molecule-mimics-of-dftamp1-a-database-designed-anti-staphylococcal-peptide
#4
Yuxiang Dong, Tamara Lushnikova, Radha M Golla, Xiaofang Wang, Guangshun Wang
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are important templates for developing new antimicrobial agents. Previously, we developed a database filtering technology that enabled us to design a potent anti-Staphylococcal peptide DFTamP1. Using this same design approach, we now report the discovery of a new class of bis-indole diimidazolines as AMP small molecule mimics. The best compound killed multiple S. aureus clinical strains in both planktonic and biofilm forms. The compound appeared to target bacterial membranes with antimicrobial activity and membrane permeation ability similar to daptomycin...
November 30, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005941/norlichexanthone-reduces-virulence-gene-expression-and-biofilm-formation-in-staphylococcus-aureus
#5
Mara Baldry, Anita Nielsen, Martin S Bojer, Yu Zhao, Cathrine Friberg, Dan Ifrah, Nina Glasser Heede, Thomas O Larsen, Hanne Frøkiær, Dorte Frees, Lixin Zhang, Huanqin Dai, Hanne Ingmer
Staphylococcus aureus is a serious human pathogen and antibiotic resistant, community-associated strains, such as the methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strain USA300, continue to spread. To avoid resistance, anti-virulence therapy has been proposed where toxicity is targeted rather than viability. Previously we have shown that norlichexanthone, a small non-reduced tricyclic polyketide produced by fungi and lichens, reduces expression of hla encoding α-hemolysin as well as the regulatory RNAIII of the agr quorum sensing system in S...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999062/5-hydroxyethyl-3-tetradecanoyltetramic-acid-represents-a-novel-treatment-for-intravascular-catheter-infections-due-to-staphylococcus-aureus
#6
Marta Zapotoczna, Ewan J Murray, Siobhan Hogan, James P O'Gara, Siri R Chhabra, Weng C Chan, Eoghan O'Neill, Paul Williams
OBJECTIVES: Biofilm infections of intravascular catheters caused by Staphylococcus aureus may be treated with catheter lock solutions (CLSs). Here we investigated the antibacterial activity, cytotoxicity and CLS potential of 5-hydroxyethyl-3-tetradecanoyltetramic acid (5HE-C14-TMA) compared with the related compounds 3-tetradecanoyltetronic (C14-TOA) and 3-tetradecanoylthiotetronic (C14-TTA), which are variants of quorum sensing signalling molecules produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa METHODS: Antibacterial activity and mechanism of action of 5HE-C14-TMA, C14-TOA and C14-TTA were determined via MIC, bacterial killing, membrane potential and permeability assays...
December 20, 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997732/the-metalloprotease-sepa-governs-processing-of-accumulation-associated-protein-and-shapes-intercellular-adhesive-surface-properties-in-staphylococcus-epidermidis
#7
Alexandra E Paharik, Marta Kotasinska, Anna Both, Tra-My Hoang, Henning Büttner, Paroma Roy, Paul D Fey, Alexander R Horswill, Holger Rohde
The otherwise harmless skin inhabitant Staphylococcus epidermidis is a major cause of healthcare-associated medical device infections. The species' selective pathogenic potential depends on its production of surface adherent biofilms. Cell wall-anchored protein Aap promotes biofilm formation in S. epidermidis, independently from the polysaccharide intercellular adhesin PIA. Aap requires proteolytic cleavage to act as an intercellular adhesin. Whether and which staphylococcal proteases account for Aap processing is yet unknown...
December 20, 2016: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965455/staphylococcus-aureus-and-influenza-a-virus-partners-in-coinfection
#8
Michelle E Mulcahy, Rachel M McLoughlin
Nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus is a significant risk factor for secondary staphylococcal pneumonia in influenza A virus (IAV)-infected hosts. However, little research has been undertaken to define the environmental and physiological changes that cause S. aureus to shift from commensal to pathogenic organism in this setting. The ability of virus-driven danger signals to cause S. aureus to transition from commensalism to pulmonary infection was explored in a recent study by Reddinger et al. R. M. Reddinger, N...
December 13, 2016: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922945/staphylococcal-biofilms-and-immune-polarization-during-prosthetic-joint-infection
#9
Casey M Gries, Tammy Kielian
Staphylococcal species are a leading cause of community- and nosocomial-acquired infections, where the placement of foreign materials increases infection risk. Indwelling medical devices and prosthetic implants are targets for staphylococcal cell adherence and biofilm formation. Biofilm products actively suppress proinflammatory microbicidal responses, as evident by macrophage polarization toward an anti-inflammatory phenotype and the recruitment of myeloid-derived suppressor cells. With the rise in prosthetic hip and knee arthroplasty procedures, together with the recalcitrance of biofilm infections to antibiotic therapy, it is imperative to better understand the mechanism of crosstalk between biofilm-associated bacteria and host immune cells...
December 5, 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902390/virulence-determinants-in-clinical-staphylococcus-aureus-from-monomicrobial-and-polymicrobial-infections-of-diabetic-foot-ulcers
#10
Kavitha Shettigar, Spoorthi Jain, Deepika V Bhat, Raviraj Acharya, Lingadakai Ramachandra, Kapaettu Satyamoorthy, Thokur Sreepathy Murali
Antibiotic resistance in Staphylococcus aureus is a major public health concern, and methicillin-resistant S. aureus has emerged as an important pathogen. We characterized S. aureus isolates from monomicrobial and polymicrobial wound infections from 200 diabetic individuals with foot ulcers to understand their underlying diversity and pathogenicity. Staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec typing was performed, and genes coding for production of biofilm, Panton-Valentine leukocidin, toxic shock syndrome toxin and leukotoxins DE and M were screened...
December 2016: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889140/genotyping-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-mrsa-isolated-from-milk-and-dairy-products-in-south-italy
#11
M G Basanisi, G La Bella, G Nobili, I Franconieri, G La Salandra
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a pathogen emerging in hospitals as well as community and livestock. MRSA is a significant and costly public health concern because it may enter the human food chain and contaminate milk and dairy products causing foodborne illness. This study aimed to determine the occurrence and the characteristics of MRSA isolated from 3760 samples of milk and dairy products in a previous survey conducted in southern Italy during 2008-2014. Overall out of 484 S. aureus strains isolated, 40 (8...
April 2017: Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872164/functional-consequences-of-b-repeat-sequence-variation-in-the-staphylococcal-biofilm-protein-aap-deciphering-the-assembly-code
#12
Catherine L Shelton, Deborah G Conrady, Andrew B Herr
Staphylococcus epidermidis is an opportunistic pathogen that can form robust biofilms that render the bacteria resistant to antibiotic action and immune responses. Intercellular adhesion in S. epidermidis biofilms is mediated by the cell wall-associated Accumulation-Associated Protein (Aap), via zinc-mediated self-assembly of its B-repeat region. This region contains up to 17 nearly-identical sequence repeats, with each repeat assumed to be functionally equivalent. However, Aap B-repeats exist as two subtypes, defined by a cluster of consensus or variant amino acids...
November 21, 2016: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859922/cadexomer-iodine-provides-superior-efficacy-against-bacterial-wound-biofilms-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#13
Daniel J Fitzgerald, Paul J Renick, Emma C Forrest, Shannon P Tetens, David N Earnest, Jillian McMillan, Brett M Kiedaisch, Lei Shi, Eric D Roche
Examination of clinical samples indicates bacterial biofilms are present in the majority of chronic wounds, and substantial evidence suggests biofilms contribute significantly to delayed healing. Bacteria in biofilms are highly tolerant of antimicrobials, and little data exist to guide the choice of anti-biofilm wound therapy. Cadexomer iodine (CI) was recently reported to have superior efficacy compared to diverse wound dressings against Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms in an ex vivo model. In the current study, the strong performance of CI vs...
November 17, 2016: Wound Repair and Regeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856272/comparative-evaluation-of-aggressiveness-traits-in-staphylococcal-strains-from-severe-infections-versus-nasopharyngeal-carriage
#14
Oana Săndulescu, Coralia Bleotu, Lilia Matei, Anca Streinu-Cercel, Mihaela Oprea, Elena Carmina Drăgulescu, Mariana Carmen Chifiriuc, Alexandru Rafila, Daniel Pirici, Daniela Tălăpan, Olga Mihaela Dorobăţ, Alina Cristina Neguţ, Dan Oţelea, Ioana Berciu, Daniela Adriana Ion, Irina Codiţă, Petre Iacob Calistru, Adrian Streinu-Cercel
Despite their commensal status, staphylococci can become problematic pathogens expressing multiple and redundant virulence factors. This study aimed to evaluate aggressiveness markers comparatively in staphylococcal strains isolated from severe infections versus asymptomatic carriage in order to identify clinically relevant bacterial traits that could easily be detected in clinical practice and could be suggestive for particular host-pathogen interactions such as cyto-adhesion or biofilm formation, ultimately orienting the clinical decision-making process...
January 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855069/activity-of-tedizolid-in-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-epidermidis-experimental-foreign-body-associated-osteomyelitis
#15
Kyung-Hwa Park, Kerryl E Greenwood-Quaintance, Audrey N Schuetz, Jayawant N Mandrekar, Robin Patel
We developed a rat model of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE) foreign body-associated osteomyelitis and used it to compare tedizolid alone and in combination with rifampin, against rifampin alone, vancomycin plus rifampin, and vancomycin alone. A clinical strain of MRSE was inoculated into the proximal tibia and a stainless-steel wire with precolonized MRSE biofilm was implanted. Following a one-week infection period, 92 rats received either no treatment (n=17) or 14 days of intraperitoneal tedizolid (n=15), tedizolid plus rifampin (n=15), rifampin (n=15), vancomycin plus rifampin (n=15), or vancomycin (n=15)...
November 14, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855064/rifampin-based-combination-therapy-is-active-in-foreign-body-osteomyelitis-after-prior-rifampin-monotherapy
#16
Cassandra L Brinkman, Suzannah M Schmidt-Malan, Jayawant N Mandrekar, Robin Patel
Staphylococcal prosthetic joint infections (PJIs) are associated with biofilm formation, making them difficult to treat; if managed with débridement and implant retention, rifampin-based therapy is usually employed. Rifampin resistance potentially challenges PJI treatment. In investigating the effects of rifampin monotherapy on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) foreign body osteomyelitis in rats, we previously demonstrated that rifampin resistance was selected but that it disappeared 14 days following rifampin monotherapy (1) and that rifampin resistance occurred less frequently following two rounds than one round of rifampin monotherapy (2)...
November 14, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836851/the-behavior-of-staphylococcus-aureus-dual-species-biofilms-treated-with-bacteriophage-phiipla-rodi-depends-on-the-accompanying-microorganism
#17
Silvia González, Lucía Fernández, Ana Belén Campelo, Diana Gutiérrez, Beatriz Martínez, Ana Rodríguez, Pilar García
: The use of bacteriophages as antimicrobials against pathogenic bacteria offers a promising alternative to traditional antibiotics and disinfectants. Significantly, phages may help to remove biofilms, which are notoriously resistant to commonly used eradication methods. However, the successful development of novel antibiofilm strategies must take into account that real-life biofilms usually consist of mixed-species populations. Within this context, this study aimed to explore the effectiveness of bacteriophage-based sanitation procedures for removing polymicrobial biofilms from food industry surfaces...
November 11, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821454/sustained-nitric-oxide-releasing-nanoparticles-interfere-with-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-adhesion-and-biofilm-formation-in-a-rat-central-venous-catheter-model
#18
Mircea Radu Mihu, Vitor Cabral, Rodney Pattabhi, Moses T Tar, Kelvin P Davies, Adam J Friedman, Luis R Martinez, Joshua D Nosanchuk
Staphylococcus aureus is frequently isolated in the setting of infections of indwelling medical devices, which are mediated by the microbe's ability to form biofilms on a variety of surfaces. Biofilm-embedded bacteria are more resistant to antimicrobial agents than their planktonic counterparts and often cause chronic infections and sepsis, particularly in patients with prolonged hospitalizations. In this study, we demonstrate that sustained nitric oxide-releasing nanoparticles (NO-np) interfere with S. aureus adhesion and prevent biofilm formation on a rat central venous catheter (CVC) model of infection...
January 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27800133/staphylococcal-cassette-chromosome-mec-types-among-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-in-northern-iran
#19
Akram Taherirad, Roghayeh Jahanbakhsh, Fatemeh Shakeri, Shaghayegh Anvary, Ezzat Allah Ghaemi
BACKGROUND: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a common cause of nosocomial and community-acquired infections around the world. Staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) typing methods are often used to study MRSA molecular epidemiology. OBJECTIVES: The current study was designed to explore the distribution profiles of different SCCmec types among methicillin-resistant S. aureus strains isolated from hospitals in Gorgan, in northern Iran, and to correlate the types into observed bacterial virulence factors...
August 2016: Jundishapur Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795393/mechanical-strength-and-inhibition-of-the-staphylococcus-aureus-collagen-binding-protein-cna
#20
Philippe Herman-Bausier, Claire Valotteau, Giampiero Pietrocola, Simonetta Rindi, David Alsteens, Timothy J Foster, Pietro Speziale, Yves F Dufrêne
: The bacterial pathogen Staphylococcus aureus expresses a variety of cell surface adhesion proteins that bind to host extracellular matrix proteins. Among these, the collagen (Cn)-binding protein Cna plays important roles in bacterium-host adherence and in immune evasion. While it is well established that the A region of Cna mediates ligand binding, whether the repetitive B region has a dedicated function is not known. Here, we report the direct measurement of the mechanical strength of Cna-Cn bonds on living bacteria, and we quantify the antiadhesion activity of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) targeting this interaction...
October 25, 2016: MBio
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