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Staphylococcal biofilm

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902390/virulence-determinants-in-clinical-staphylococcus-aureus-from-monomicrobial-and-polymicrobial-infections-of-diabetic-foot-ulcers
#1
Kavitha Shettigar, Spoorthi Jain, Deepika V Bhat, Raviraj Acharya, Lingadakai Ramachandra, Kapaettu Satyamoorthy, T S Murali
Antibiotic resistance in Staphylococcus aureus is a major public health concern and Methicillin Resistant S. aureus has emerged as an important pathogen. We characterized S. aureus isolates from monomicrobial and polymicrobial wound infections from 200 diabetic individuals with foot ulcers to understand their underlying diversity and pathogenicity. Staphylococcal Cassette Chromosome mec typing was performed and genes coding for production of biofilm, Panton-Valentine Leukocidin, Toxic Shock Syndrome Toxin, Leukotoxins DE and M were screened...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889140/genotyping-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-mrsa-isolated-from-milk-and-dairy-products-in-south-italy
#2
M G Basanisi, G La Bella, G Nobili, I Franconieri, G La Salandra
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a pathogen emerging in hospitals as well as community and livestock. MRSA is a significant and costly public health concern because it may enter the human food chain and contaminate milk and dairy products causing foodborne illness. This study aimed to determine the occurrence and the characteristics of MRSA isolated from 3760 samples of milk and dairy products in a previous survey conducted in southern Italy during 2008-2014. Overall out of 484 S. aureus strains isolated, 40 (8...
April 2017: Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872164/functional-consequences-of-b-repeat-sequence-variation-in-the-staphylococcal-biofilm-protein-aap-deciphering-the-assembly-code
#3
Catherine L Shelton, Deborah G Conrady, Andrew B Herr
Staphylococcus epidermidis is an opportunistic pathogen that can form robust biofilms that render the bacteria resistant to antibiotic action and immune responses. Intercellular adhesion in S. epidermidis biofilms is mediated by the cell wall-associated Accumulation-Associated Protein (Aap), via zinc-mediated self-assembly of its B-repeat region. This region contains up to 17 nearly-identical sequence repeats, with each repeat assumed to be functionally equivalent. However, Aap B-repeats exist as two subtypes, defined by a cluster of consensus or variant amino acids...
November 21, 2016: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859922/cadexomer-iodine-provides-superior-efficacy-against-bacterial-wound-biofilms-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#4
Daniel J Fitzgerald, Paul J Renick, Emma C Forrest, Shannon P Tetens, David N Earnest, Jillian McMillan, Brett M Kiedaisch, Lei Shi, Eric D Roche
Examination of clinical samples indicates bacterial biofilms are present in the majority of chronic wounds, and substantial evidence suggests biofilms contribute significantly to delayed healing. Bacteria in biofilms are highly tolerant of antimicrobials, and little data exist to guide the choice of anti-biofilm wound therapy. Cadexomer Iodine (CI) was recently reported to have superior efficacy compared to diverse wound dressings against Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms in an ex vivo model. In the current study, the strong performance of CI versus P...
November 17, 2016: Wound Repair and Regeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856272/comparative-evaluation-of-aggressiveness-traits-in-staphylococcal-strains-from-severe-infections-versus-nasopharyngeal-carriage
#5
Oana Săndulescu, Coralia Bleotu, Lilia Matei, Anca Streinu-Cercel, Mihaela Oprea, Elena Carmina Drăgulescu, Mariana Carmen Chifiriuc, Alexandru Rafila, Daniel Pirici, Daniela Tălăpan, Olga Mihaela Dorobăţ, Alina Cristina Neguţ, Dan Oţelea, Ioana Berciu, Daniela Adriana Ion, Irina Codiţă, Petre Iacob Calistru, Adrian Streinu-Cercel
Despite their commensal status, staphylococci can become problematic pathogens expressing multiple and redundant virulence factors. This study aimed to evaluate aggressiveness markers comparatively in staphylococcal strains isolated from severe infections versus asymptomatic carriage in order to identify clinically relevant bacterial traits that could easily be detected in clinical practice and could be suggestive for particular host-pathogen interactions such as cyto-adhesion or biofilm formation, ultimately orienting the clinical decision-making process...
November 14, 2016: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855069/activity-of-tedizolid-in-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-epidermidis-experimental-foreign-body-associated-osteomyelitis
#6
Kyung-Hwa Park, Kerryl E Greenwood-Quaintance, Audrey N Schuetz, Jayawant N Mandrekar, Robin Patel
We developed a rat model of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE) foreign body-associated osteomyelitis and used it to compare tedizolid alone and in combination with rifampin, against rifampin alone, vancomycin plus rifampin, and vancomycin alone. A clinical strain of MRSE was inoculated into the proximal tibia and a stainless-steel wire with precolonized MRSE biofilm was implanted. Following a one-week infection period, 92 rats received either no treatment (n=17) or 14 days of intraperitoneal tedizolid (n=15), tedizolid plus rifampin (n=15), rifampin (n=15), vancomycin plus rifampin (n=15), or vancomycin (n=15)...
November 14, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855064/rifampin-based-combination-therapy-is-active-in-foreign-body-osteomyelitis-after-prior-rifampin-monotherapy
#7
Cassandra L Brinkman, Suzannah M Schmidt-Malan, Jayawant N Mandrekar, Robin Patel
Staphylococcal prosthetic joint infections (PJIs) are associated with biofilm formation, making them difficult to treat; if managed with débridement and implant retention, rifampin-based therapy is usually employed. Rifampin resistance potentially challenges PJI treatment. In investigating the effects of rifampin monotherapy on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) foreign body osteomyelitis in rats, we previously demonstrated that rifampin resistance was selected but that it disappeared 14 days following rifampin monotherapy (1) and that rifampin resistance occurred less frequently following two rounds than one round of rifampin monotherapy (2)...
November 14, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836851/the-behavior-of-staphylococcus-aureus-dual-species-biofilms-treated-with-bacteriophage-phiipla-rodi-depends-on-the-accompanying-microorganism
#8
Silvia González, Lucía Fernández, Ana Belén Campelo, Diana Gutiérrez, Beatriz Martínez, Ana Rodríguez, Pilar García
: The use of bacteriophages as antimicrobials against pathogenic bacteria offers a promising alternative to traditional antibiotics and disinfectants. Significantly, phages may help to remove biofilms, which are notoriously resistant to commonly used eradication methods. However, the successful development of novel antibiofilm strategies must take into account that real-life biofilms usually consist of mixed-species populations. Within this context, this study aimed to explore the effectiveness of bacteriophage-based sanitation procedures for removing polymicrobial biofilms from food industry surfaces...
November 11, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821454/sustained-nitric-oxide-releasing-nanoparticles-interfere-with-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-adhesion-and-biofilm-formation-in-a-rat-central-venous-catheter-model
#9
Mircea Radu Mihu, Vitor Cabral, Rodney Pattabhi, Moses T Tar, Kelvin P Davies, Adam J Friedman, Luis R Martinez, Joshua D Nosanchuk
Staphylococcus aureus is frequently isolated in the setting of infections of indwelling medical devices, which are mediated by the microbe's ability to form biofilms on a variety of surfaces. Biofilm-embedded bacteria are more resistant to antimicrobial agents than their planktonic counterparts and often cause chronic infections and sepsis, particularly in patients with prolonged hospitalizations. In this study, we demonstrate that sustained nitric oxide-releasing nanoparticles (NO-np) interfere with S. aureus adhesion and prevent biofilm formation on a rat central venous catheters (CVCs) model of infection...
November 7, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27800133/staphylococcal-cassette-chromosome-mec-types-among-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-in-northern-iran
#10
Akram Taherirad, Roghayeh Jahanbakhsh, Fatemeh Shakeri, Shaghayegh Anvary, Ezzat Allah Ghaemi
BACKGROUND: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a common cause of nosocomial and community-acquired infections around the world. Staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) typing methods are often used to study MRSA molecular epidemiology. OBJECTIVES: The current study was designed to explore the distribution profiles of different SCCmec types among methicillin-resistant S. aureus strains isolated from hospitals in Gorgan, in northern Iran, and to correlate the types into observed bacterial virulence factors...
August 2016: Jundishapur Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795393/mechanical-strength-and-inhibition-of-the-staphylococcus-aureus-collagen-binding-protein-cna
#11
Philippe Herman-Bausier, Claire Valotteau, Giampiero Pietrocola, Simonetta Rindi, David Alsteens, Timothy J Foster, Pietro Speziale, Yves F Dufrêne
: The bacterial pathogen Staphylococcus aureus expresses a variety of cell surface adhesion proteins that bind to host extracellular matrix proteins. Among these, the collagen (Cn)-binding protein Cna plays important roles in bacterium-host adherence and in immune evasion. While it is well established that the A region of Cna mediates ligand binding, whether the repetitive B region has a dedicated function is not known. Here, we report the direct measurement of the mechanical strength of Cna-Cn bonds on living bacteria, and we quantify the antiadhesion activity of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) targeting this interaction...
October 25, 2016: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27779811/biofilm-formation-and-antimicrobial-susceptibility-of-staphylococci-and-enterococci-from-osteomyelitis-associated-with-percutaneous-orthopaedic-implants
#12
Magdalena Zaborowska, Jonatan Tillander, Rickard Brånemark, Lars Hagberg, Peter Thomsen, Margarita Trobos
Staphylococci and enterococci account for most deep infections associated with bone-anchored percutaneous implants for amputation treatment. Implant-associated infections are difficult to treat; therefore, it is important to investigate if these infections have a biofilm origin and to determine the biofilm antimicrobial susceptibility to improve treatment strategies. The aims were: (i) to test a novel combination of the Calgary biofilm device and a custom-made susceptibility MIC plate (Sensititre(®) ), (ii) to determine the biofilm formation and antimicrobial resistance in clinical isolates causing implant-associated osteomyelitis, and (iii) to describe the associated clinical outcome...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761465/in-vitro-and-in-vivo-biofilm-characterization-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-from-patients-associated-with-pharyngitis-infection
#13
Shanmugaraj Gowrishankar, Arumugam Kamaladevi, Krishnaswamy Balamurugan, Shunmugiah Karutha Pandian
The present investigation was deliberately aimed at evaluating the biofilm-forming ability of 63 clinical MRSA isolates recovered from pharyngitis patients through different phenotypic assays. The molecular detection of adhesion (icaA/icaD/icaB/icaC), adhesins (fnbA/fnbB, clfA, and cna), staphylococcal accessory regulator (sarA), and α-toxin (hla) genes was done by employing polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Out of 63 isolates, 49 (77.8%) were found slime positive by the Congo red agar (CRA) method and 44 (69...
2016: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27708403/dissecting-the-contribution-of-staphylococcus-aureus-%C3%AE-phenol-soluble-modulins-to-biofilm-amyloid-structure
#14
Patrizia Marinelli, Irantzu Pallares, Susanna Navarro, Salvador Ventura
The opportunistic pathogen Staphylococcus aureus is recognized as one of the most frequent causes of biofilm-associated infections. The recently discovered phenol soluble modulins (PSMs) are small α-helical amphipathic peptides that act as the main molecular effectors of staphylococcal biofilm maturation, promoting the formation of an extracellular fibril structure with amyloid-like properties. Here, we combine computational, biophysical and in cell analysis to address the specific contribution of individual PSMs to biofilm structure...
October 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27695058/monitoring-in-real-time-the-formation-and-removal-of-biofilms-from-clinical-related-pathogens-using-an-impedance-based-technology
#15
Diana Gutiérrez, Claudio Hidalgo-Cantabrana, Ana Rodríguez, Pilar García, Patricia Ruas-Madiedo
Bacteria found in diverse ecosystems grow in a community of aggregated cells that favors their survival and colonization. Different extracellular polymeric substances are used to entrap this multispecies community forming a biofilm, which can be associated to biotic and abiotic surfaces. This widespread and successful way of bacterial life, however, can lead to negative effects for human activity since many pathogen and spoiling bacteria form biofilms which are not easy to eradicate. Therefore, the search for novel anti-biofilm bio-active molecules is a very active research area for which simple, reliable, and fast screening methods are demanded...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27671070/antibiofilm-activity-and-synergistic-inhibition-of-staphylococcus-aureus-biofilms-by-bactericidal-protein-p128-in-combination-with-antibiotics
#16
Sandhya Nair, Srividya Desai, Nethravathi Poonacha, Aradhana Vipra, Umender Sharma
P128 is an antistaphylococcal protein, comprising a cell wall-degrading enzymatic region and a Staphylococcus-specific binding region, which possesses specific and potent bactericidal activity against sensitive and drug-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus To explore P128's ability to kill S. aureus in a range of environments relevant to clinical infection, we investigated the anti-S. aureus activity of P128 alone and in combination with standard-of-care antibiotics on planktonic and biofilm-embedded cells...
December 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27639707/the-anti-biofilm-effect-of-macrolides-in-a-rat-model-of-s-aureus-foreign-body-infection-might-it-be-of-clinical-relevance
#17
Cristina El Haj, Oscar Murillo, Alba Ribera, Dolors Garcia-Somoza, Fe Tubau, Carmen Cabellos, Javier Cabo, Javier Ariza
Using a tissue cage infection rat model, we test the anti-biofilm effect of clarithromycin on the efficacy of daptomycin and a daptomycin + rifampicin combination against methicillin-susceptible (MSSA) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). In vitro: kill curves, daptomycin exposure studies and clarithromycin activity against biofilm were studied. In vivo: the efficacies of clarithromycin, daptomycin or daptomycin + clarithromycin, daptomycin + rifampicin and daptomycin + rifampicin + clarithromycin combinations were evaluated...
September 17, 2016: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27629411/combining-in-vitro-protein-detection-and-in-vivo-antibody-detection-identifies-potential-vaccine-targets-against-staphylococcus-aureus-during-osteomyelitis
#18
P Martijn den Reijer, Marjan Sandker, Susan V Snijders, Mehri Tavakol, Antoni P A Hendrickx, Willem J B van Wamel
Currently, little is known about the in vivo human immune response against Staphylococcus aureus during a biofilm-associated infection, such as osteomyelitis, and how this relates to protein production in biofilms in vitro. Therefore, we characterized IgG responses in 10 patients with chronic osteomyelitis against 50 proteins of S. aureus, analyzed the presence of these proteins in biofilms of the infecting isolates on polystyrene (PS) and human bone in vitro, and explored the relation between in vivo and in vitro data...
September 14, 2016: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27622146/antibiotic-loaded-phosphatidylcholine-inhibits-staphylococcal-bone-infection
#19
Jessica Amber Jennings, Karen E Beenken, Robert A Skinner, Daniel G Meeker, Mark S Smeltzer, Warren O Haggard, Karen S Troxel
AIM: To test antibiotic-loaded coating for efficacy in reducing bacterial biofilm and development of osteomyelitis in an orthopaedic model of implant infection. METHODS: Phosphatidylcholine coatings loaded with 25% vancomycin were applied to washed and sterilized titanium wires 20 mm in length. A 10 mm segment was removed from rabbit radius (total = 9; 5 coated, 4 uncoated), and the segment was injected with 1 × 10(6) colony forming units (CFUs) of Staphylococcus aureus (UAMS-1 strain)...
August 18, 2016: World Journal of Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27597849/psm-mec-a-virulence-determinant-that-connects-transcriptional-regulation-virulence-and-antibiotic-resistance-in-staphylococci
#20
REVIEW
Li Qin, Joshua W McCausland, Gordon Y C Cheung, Michael Otto
PSM-mec is a secreted virulence factor that belongs to the phenol-soluble modulin (PSM) family of amphipathic, alpha-helical peptide toxins produced by Staphylococcus species. All known PSMs are core genome-encoded with the exception of PSM-mec, whose gene is found in specific sub-types of SCCmec methicillin resistance mobile genetic elements present in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci. In addition to the cytolytic translational product, PSM-mec, the psm-mec locus encodes a regulatory RNA...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
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