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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924959/effects-of-ramadan-fasting-on-body-composition-and-arterial-stiffness
#1
Yusuf Sezen, Ibrahim Halil Altiparmak, Muslihittin Emre Erkus, Aydemir Kocarslan, Zekeriya Kaya, Ozgur Gunebakmaz, Recep Demirbag
OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects of Ramadan fasting on body composition, arterial stiffness and resting heart rate. METHODS: This prospective study was conducted at the Department of Cardiology, Harran University, Sanliurfa, Turkey, during Ramadan 2015, and comprised overweight and obese males. Body composition, arterial stiffness and echocardiography were assessed before and after Ramadan. Body composition was assessed by bioelectrical impedance analysis using segmental body composition analyser...
December 2016: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924806/abdominal-fat-distribution-differently-affects-muscle-strength-of-the-upper-and-lower-extremities-in-women
#2
L Otten, A Bosy-Westphal, J Ordemann, E Rothkegel, N Stobäus, U Elbelt, K Norman
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: In obese subjects, reduced muscle mass and strength are associated with impaired functional and metabolic capacity. We therefore investigated the association between abdominal fat distribution, fat mass index and maximum muscle strength of upper and lower extremities in obese patients. SUBJECTS/METHODS: One hundred and fifty five outpatients with a body mass index (BMI)⩾30 kg/m(2) (105 women; 45.1±14.6 years; BMI 43.5±8.2 kg/m(2)) were included in the study...
December 7, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919297/fluid-intelligence-and-the-cross-frequency-coupling-of-neuronal-oscillations
#3
Adam Chuderski
Several existing theoretical models predict that the individual capacity of working memory and abstract reasoning (fluid intelligence) strongly depends on certain features of neuronal oscillations, especially their cross-frequency coupling. Empirical evidence supporting these predictions is still scarce, but it makes the future studies on oscillatory coupling a promising line of research that can uncover the physiological underpinnings of fluid intelligence. Cross-frequency coupling may serve as the optimal level of description of neurocognitive processes, integrating their genetic, structural, neurochemical, and bioelectrical underlying factors with explanations in terms of cognitive operations driven by neuronal oscillations...
December 6, 2016: Spanish Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919271/prospective-associations-of-meat-consumption-during-childhood-with-measures-of-body-composition-during-adolescence-results-from-the-giniplus-and-lisaplus-birth-cohorts
#4
Carla Harris, Anette Buyken, Andrea von Berg, Dietrich Berdel, Irina Lehmann, Barbara Hoffmann, Sibylle Koletzko, Berthold Koletzko, Joachim Heinrich, Marie Standl
BACKGROUND: Higher meat and protein intakes have been associated with increased body weight in adults, but studies evaluating body composition are scarce. Furthermore, our knowledge in adolescents is limited. This study aimed to investigate the prospective associations of intakes of different meat types, and their respective protein contents during childhood, with body composition during adolescence. METHODS: Dietary (using food frequency questionnaires) and body composition (measured by bioelectrical impedance) data were collected from the 10- and 15-year follow-up assessments respectively, of the GINIplus and LISAplus birth cohort studies...
December 5, 2016: Nutrition Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914295/sarcopenia-and-post-hospital-outcomes-in-older-adults-a-longitudinal-study
#5
Mario Ulises Pérez-Zepeda, Aldo Sgaravatti, Elsa Dent
INTRODUCTION: Sarcopenia poses a significant problem for older adults, yet very little is known about this medical condition in the hospital setting. The aims of this hospital-based study were to determine: (i) the prevalence of sarcopenia; (ii) factors associated with sarcopenia; and (iii) the association of sarcopenia with adverse clinical outcomes post-hospitalisation. METHODS: This is a longitudinal analysis of consecutive patients aged ≥70 years admitted to a Geriatric Management and Evaluation Unit (GEMU) ward...
November 17, 2016: Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898642/manipulation-of-muscle-creatine-and-glycogen-changes-dxa-estimates-of-body-composition
#6
Julia L Bone, Megan L Ross, Kristyen A Tomcik, Nikki A Jeacocke, Will G Hopkins, Louise M Burke
: Standardising a dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) protocol is thought to provide a reliable measurement of body composition. PURPOSE: We investigated the effects of manipulating muscle glycogen and creatine content independently and additively on DXA estimates of lean mass. METHOD: Eighteen well-trained male cyclists undertook a parallel group application of creatine loading (n=9) (20 g/d for 5 d loading; 3 g/d maintenance) or placebo (n=9) with crossover application of glycogen loading (12 v 6 g/kg BM/d for 48 h) as part of a larger study involving a glycogen-depleting exercise protocol...
November 28, 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897415/sarcopenia-among-patients-receiving-hemodialysis-weighing-the-evidence
#7
Piyawan Kittiskulnam, Juan J Carrero, Glenn M Chertow, George A Kaysen, Cynthia Delgado, Kirsten L Johansen
BACKGROUND: There is no consensus on how best to define low muscle mass in patients with end-stage renal disease. Use of muscle mass normalized to height-squared has been suggested by geriatric societies but may underestimate sarcopenia, particularly in the setting of excess adiposity. We compared four definitions of low muscle mass in a prevalent hemodialysis cohort. METHODS: ACTIVE/ADIPOSE enrolled prevalent patients receiving hemodialysis from the San Francisco and Atlanta areas from June 2009 to August 2011...
August 11, 2016: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892802/longitudinal-changes-and-correlations-of-bio-impedance-and-anthropometric-measurements-in-pregnancy-simple-possible-bed-side-tools-to-assess-pregnancy-evolution
#8
Gabriele Piuri, Enrico Ferrazzi, Camilla Bulfoni, Luciana Mastricci, Daniela Di Martino, Attilio Francesco Speciani
PURPOSE: the aim of this study was to assess longitudinal changes of bio-impedance analysis compared with anthropometric measurements in low risk pregnant woman recruited in the first trimester, and to observe possible differences in these indices in women who developed high risk pregnancies. MATERIAL AND METHODS: bio-impedance indices, for the three trimesters of pregnancies were calculated separately for uneventful pregnancies delivered of newborns > the 10(th) centile...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890490/fragmentation-of-daily-rhythms-associates-with-obesity-and-cardiorespiratory-fitness-in-adolescents-the-helena-study
#9
Marta Garaulet, Antonio Martinez-Nicolas, Jonatan R Ruiz, Kenn Konstabel, Idoia Labayen, Marcela González-Gross, Ascensión Marcos, Dénes Molnar, Kurt Widhalm, Jose Antonio Casajús, Stefaan De Henauw, Anthony Kafatos, Christina Breidenassel, Michael Sjöström, Manuel J Castillo, Luis A Moreno, Juan A Madrid, Francisco B Ortega
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Chronobiology studies periodic changes in living organisms and it has been proposed as a promising approach to investigate obesity. We analyze the association of the characteristics of the rest-activity rhythms with obesity, cardiorespiratory fitness and metabolic risk in adolescents from nine European countries. METHODS: 1044 adolescents (12.5-17.5 y) were studied. Circadian health was evaluated by actigraphy with accelerometers (Actigraph GT1M)...
November 5, 2016: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890489/spinal-muscular-atrophy-types-i-and-ii-what-are-the-differences-in%C3%A2-body-composition-and-resting-energy-expenditure
#10
Simona Bertoli, Ramona De Amicis, Chiara Mastella, Giulia Pieri, Ester Giaquinto, Alberto Battezzati, Alessandro Leone, Giovanni Baranello
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Different neuromuscular functional domains in types I and II Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMAI and SMAII) could lead to differences in body composition (BC) and resting energy expenditure (REE). Their identification could provide the key to defining appropriate strategies in clinical dietary management, but data comparing SMAI and SMAII in terms of BC and REE are not yet available. We measured total and regional fat (FM), lean (LBM), mineral (BMC) masses, body water (total, intra- and extra-cellular, TBW, ICW, ECW) and REE in a sample of SMAI and II children, matched for age and sex, and also adjusting for body size to compare these features of the two SMA phenotypes...
November 16, 2016: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886975/in-vitro-metabolic-engineering-of-bioelectricity-generation-by-the-complete-oxidation-of-glucose
#11
Zhiguang Zhu, Y-H Percival Zhang
The direct generation of electricity from the most abundant renewable sugar, glucose, is an appealing alternative to the production of liquid biofuels and biohydrogen. However, enzyme-catalyzed bioelectricity generation from glucose suffers from low yields due to the incomplete oxidation of the six-carbon compound glucose via one or few enzymes. Here, we demonstrate a synthetic ATP- and CoA-free 12-enzyme pathway to implement the complete oxidation of glucose in vitro. This pathway is comprised of glucose phosphorylation via polyphosphate glucokinase, NADH generation catalyzed by glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGDH), electron transfer from NADH to the anode, and glucose 6-phosphate regeneration via the non-oxidative pentose phosphate pathway and gluconeogenesis...
November 23, 2016: Metabolic Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885532/whey-protein-supplementation-enhances-body-fat-and-weight-loss-in-women-long-after-bariatric-surgery-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#12
Daniela Lopes Gomes, Milene Moehlecke, Fernanda Bassan Lopes da Silva, Eliane Said Dutra, Beatriz D'Agord Schaan, Kenia Mara Baiocchi de Carvalho
BACKGROUND: The ideal nutritional approach for weight regain after bariatric surgery remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to assess the effect of whey protein supplementation on weight loss and body composition of women who regained weight 24 or more months after bariatric surgery. METHODS: This is a 16-week open-label, parallel-group, randomized controlled trial of women who regained at least 5 % of their lowest postoperative weight after a Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB)...
November 24, 2016: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885226/association-between-the-nutritional-status-and-the-severity-of-sarcopenia-among-community-dwelling-elderly-japanese-people
#13
Satsuki Komai, Yutaka Watanabe, Yoshinori Fujiwara, Hunkyung Kim, Ayako Edahiro, Hisashi Kawai, Hideyo Yoshida, Shuichi Obuchi, Yayoi Tanaka, Hirohiko Hirano
AIM: To investigate the association between nutritional evaluation indices (body mass index, albumin, and weight loss) and sarcopenia severity among community-dwelling elderly people in Japan. METHODS: The subjects consisted of 758 community-dwelling elderly people ≥65 years of age, categorized into two groups by based on Operation of long life medical care system (medical care system for elderly in the latter stage of life), the cut-off value for age used was 75...
2016: Nihon Ronen Igakkai Zasshi. Japanese Journal of Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881807/sarcopenia-is-highly-prevalent-in-older-medical-patients-with-mobility-limitation-comparisons-according-to-ambulatory-status
#14
Keisuke Maeda, Hiroshi Shamoto, Hidetaka Wakabayashi, Junji Akagi
BACKGROUND: The association of sarcopenia with disability with ambulatory status is uncertain because most studies have targeted people who could walk independently. This study explored the prevalence of sarcopenia regardless of ambulatory status and the impact of ambulatory status on sarcopenia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In total, 778 consecutive patients, aged ≥65 years and admitted to a hospital, were enrolled. Ambulatory status was divided into 4 grades according to mobility as described in the Barthel index...
November 23, 2016: Nutrition in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875767/enhanced-bioelectricity-generation-and-azo-dye-treatment-in-a-reversible-photo-bioelectrochemical-cell-by-using-novel-anthraquinone-2-6-disulfonate-aqds-mnox-doped-polypyrrole-film-electrodes
#15
Jian Sun, Bihai Cai, Wenjing Xu, Yu Huang, Yaping Zhang, Yenping Peng, Kenlin Chang, Jiahong Kuo, Kufan Chen, Xunan Ning, Guoguang Liu, Yujie Wang, Zuoyi Yang, Jingyong Liu
A novel anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate/MnOx-doped polypyrrole film (AQDS/Mn/PPy) electrode was prepared by one-step electropolymerization method and was used to improve performance of a reversible photo-bioelectrochemical cell (RPBEC). The RPBEC was operated in polarity reversion depended on dark/light reaction of alga Chlorella vulgaris by which sequential decolorization of azo dye and mineralization of decolorization products coupled with bioelectricity generation can be achieved. The results showed that formation of uniform AQDS/Mn/PPy film significantly enhanced electroactive surface area and electrocatalytic activity of carbon electrode...
November 10, 2016: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875499/impact-of-acute-dietary-manipulations-on-dxa-and-bia-body-composition-estimates
#16
Grant M Tinsley, Flor E Morales, Jeffrey S Forsse, Peter W Grandjean
PURPOSE: To examine the effects of acute pre-assessment diets on body composition estimates obtained by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). METHODS: In a counterbalanced design, 48 males and females were provided with two one-day diets: high-carbohydrate diet (9 g CHO/kg) and very low-carbohydrate diet (1 to 1.5 g CHO/kg). For each condition, body composition was assessed in the morning after an overnight fast, in the afternoon after feeding, and the following morning after a second overnight fast...
November 21, 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875280/malnutrition-identified-by-the-academy-of-nutrition-and-dietetics-and-american-society-for-parenteral-and-enteral-nutrition-consensus-criteria-and-other-bedside-tools-is-highly-prevalent-in-a-sample-of-individuals-undergoing-treatment-for-head-and-neck-cancer
#17
Urvashi Mulasi, David M Vock, Adam J Kuchnia, Gautam Jha, Naomi Fujioka, Venkatesh Rudrapatna, Manish R Patel, Levi Teigen, Carrie P Earthman
BACKGROUND: Using the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics and American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (Academy/ASPEN) Consensus malnutrition definition, we estimated malnutrition prevalence in a sample of individuals with head and neck cancer (HNC) and compared it with the Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment (PG-SGA). We also investigated the utility of the 50-kHz phase angle (PA) and 200-kHz/5-kHz impedance ratio (IR) to identify malnutrition. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Nineteen individuals (18 males, 1 female) scheduled to undergo chemoradiotherapy were seen at 5 time points during and up to 3 months after treatment completion...
October 7, 2016: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874295/mechanism-of-low-level-microwave-radiation-effect-on-nervous-system
#18
Hiie Hinrikus, Maie Bachmann, Denis Karai, Jaanus Lass
The aim of this study is to explain the mechanism of the effect of low-level modulated microwave radiation on brain bioelectrical oscillations. The proposed model of excitation by low-level microwave radiation bases on the influence of water polarization on hydrogen bonding forces between water molecules, caused by this the enhancement of diffusion and consequences on neurotransmitters transit time and neuron resting potential. Modulated microwave radiation causes periodic alteration of the neurophysiologic parameters and parametric excitation of brain bioelectric oscillations...
November 22, 2016: Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871764/-the-rs4285184-polymorphism-of-the-mgat1-gene-as-a-risk-factor-for-obesity-in-the-mexican-population
#19
José C Tapia-Rivera, Luz M Baltazar-Rodríguez, Martha I Cárdenas-Rojas, Alan Álvarez, Rafael Bustos-Saldaña, Iván Delgado-Enciso, Laura L Valdez-Velázquez, José Guzmán-Esquivel, Mario Ramírez-Flores
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Obesity is a factor that contributes to the morbidity of certain diseases and to worldwide mortality. MGAT1 is a glycosyltransferase involved in the synthesis of protein-bound and lipid-bound oligosaccharides and its polymorphisms are possibly involved in the etiology of obesity. We investigated the association of the rs4285184 polymorphism of the MGAT1 gene with obesity in adults in the State of Colima, Mexico. METHODS: A case-control study was conducted that included 244 subjects...
November 18, 2016: Medicina Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869360/association-between-ratio-indexes-of-body-composition-phenotypes-and-metabolic-risk-in-italian-adults
#20
M Powell, J Lara, G Mocciaro, C M Prado, A Battezzati, A Leone, A Tagliabue, R de Amicis, L Vignati, S Bertoli, M Siervo
The ratio between fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM) has been used to discriminate individual differences in body composition and improve prediction of metabolic risk. Here, we evaluated whether the use of a visceral adipose tissue-to-fat-free mass index (VAT:FFMI) ratio was a better predictor of metabolic risk than a fat mass index to fat-free mass index (FMI:FFMI) ratio. This is a cross-sectional study including 3441 adult participants (age range 18-81; men/women: 977/2464). FM and FFM were measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis and VAT by ultrasonography...
November 21, 2016: Clinical Obesity
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