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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819323/excessive-body-fat-linked-to-blunted-somatosensory-cortex-response-to-general-reward-in-adolescents
#1
J F Navas, A Barros-Loscertales, V Costumero-Ramos, J Verdejo-Román, R Vilar-López, A Verdejo-García
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The brain reward system is key to understanding adolescent obesity in the current obesogenic environment, rich in highly appetising stimuli, to which adolescents are particularly sensitive. We aimed to examine the association between body fat levels and brain reward system responsivity to general (monetary) rewards in male and female adolescents. METHOD: Sixty-eight adolescents (34 females; mean age [standard deviation]=16.56 [1.35]) were measured for body fat levels with bioelectric impedance, and underwent a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scan during the Monetary Incentive Delay (MID) task...
August 18, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816432/an-integrated-microsystem-for-real-time-detection-and-threshold-activated-treatment-of-bacterial-biofilms
#2
Sowmya Subramanian, Ekaterina I Tolstaya, Thomas Winkler, William E Bentley, Reza Ghodssi
Bacterial biofilms are the primary cause of infections in medical implants and catheters. Delayed detection of biofilm infections contributes to the widespread use of high doses of antibiotics, leading to the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains. Accordingly, there is an urgent need for systems that can rapidly detect and treat biofilm infections in situ. As a step towards this goal, in this work we have developed for the first time a threshold-activated feedback-based impedance sensor-treatment system for combined real-time detection and treatment of biofilms...
August 17, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814531/patients-with-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-have-a-low-response-rate-to-vitamin-d-supplementation
#3
Jaividhya Dasarathy, Rony Varghese, Abram Feldman, Amer Khiyami, Arthur J McCullough, Srinivasan Dasarathy
Background: Hypovitaminosis D is associated with an increased severity of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), but reports on the response to cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) supplementation are conflicting.Objective: The objective of this study was to determine if standard vitamin D3 supplementation is effective in NAFLD with hypovitaminosis D.Methods: Sixty-five well-characterized adults [age (mean ± SD): 51.6 ± 12.3 y] with biopsy-proven NAFLD were screened. Forty-two patients (the ratio of men to women was 13:29) had hypovitaminosis D (plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] <30 ng/mL)...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814064/electrical-properties-assessed-by-bioelectrical-impedance-spectroscopy-as-biomarkers-of-age-related-loss-of-skeletal-muscle-quantity-and-quality
#4
Yosuke Yamada, Bjoern Buehring, Diane Krueger, Rozalyn M Anderson, Dale A Schoeller, Neil Binkley
Skeletal muscle, in addition to being comprised of a heterogeneous muscle fiber population, also includes extracellular components that do not contribute to positive tensional force production. Here we test segmental bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy (S-BIS) to assess muscle intracellular mass and composition. S-BIS can evaluate electrical properties that may be related to muscle force production. Muscle fiber membranes separate the intracellular components from the extracellular environment and consist of lipid bilayers which act as an electrical capacitor...
September 1, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811785/estimation-of-body-fat-in-pakistani-adult-a-comparison-of-equations-based-upon-skinfold-thickness-measurements
#5
Hafeeza Naz, Kinza Mushtaq, Bilal Azeem Butt, Khadija Irfan Khawaja
OBJECTIVE: To compare three different body fats estimation equations using skin fold measurements with bioelectrical impedance analysis. METHODS: A total of 130 subjects were included from Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Services Hospital, Lahore from 1(st) April 2016 to 30(th) Sep. 2016. The triceps, biceps, subscapular, chest, thigh, abdominal, suprailiac skinfold thickness of the subjects was measured with skin-fold calipers (Harpenden) on non-dominant side...
May 2017: Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810989/comparison-of-circumference-body-composition-measurements-and-eight-point-bioelectrical-impedance-analysis-to-dual-energy-x-ray-absorptiometry-to-measure-body-fat-percentage
#6
Travis M Combest, Robin S Howard, Anne M Andrews
BACKGROUND: To compare the circumference measurement (CM) body composition method and 8-point segmental bioelectrical impedance analysis (DSM-BIA) to dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) in military members. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to compare three body composition methods. Our hypothesis was the CM is as accurate as DSM-BIA and DEXA in assessing body fat percentage (%BF). DESIGN: Cross sectional, observational study. PARTICIPANTS/SETTING: Healthy active duty military males and nonpregnant females...
July 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810220/effectiveness-of-piggery-waste-treatment-using-microbial-fuel-cells-coupled-with-elutriated-phased-acid-fermentation
#7
K Chandrasekhar, Young-Ho Ahn
The present study evaluates the feasibility of increased power generation in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) coupled with acid elutriation fermentation. Raw piggery waste (RPW) and acid elutriation effluents (AEE) of piggery waste were used to generate bioelectricity in single-chambered air-cathode MFCs. RPW-fed MFCs exhibited stable performance after 12-days of operation, generating 540mV of open circuit voltage (OCV). RPW fed-MFCs displayed peak potential and maximal power density (PDmax) of 0.364V and 192mW/m(2) with 980Ω external resistance (Rext), respectively...
August 7, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805347/bioelectricity-electromicrobiology-and-sustainability
#8
Kenneth H Nealson
Electromicrobiology is the domain of those prokaryotes able to interact with charged electrodes, using them as electron donors and/or electron acceptors. This is performed via a process called extracellular electron transport, in which outer membrane cytochromes are used to oxidize and/or reduce otherwise unavailable insoluble electron acceptors. EET-capable bacteria can thus be used for a variety of purposes, ranging from small power sources, water reclamation, to pollution remediation and electrosynthesis...
August 14, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804512/engineering-shewanella-oneidensis-enables-xylose-fed-microbial-fuel-cell
#9
Feng Li, Yuanxiu Li, Liming Sun, Xiaofei Li, Changji Yin, Xingjuan An, Xiaoli Chen, Yao Tian, Hao Song
BACKGROUND: The microbial fuel cell (MFC) is a green and sustainable technology for electricity energy harvest from biomass, in which exoelectrogens use metabolism and extracellular electron transfer pathways for the conversion of chemical energy into electricity. However, Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, one of the most well-known exoelectrogens, could not use xylose (a key pentose derived from hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass) for cell growth and power generation, which limited greatly its practical applications...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802792/fat-mass-fat-free-mass-and-resting-metabolic-rate-in-weight-stable-sleeve-gastrectomy-patients-compared-with-weight-stable-nonoperated-patients
#10
Luigi Schiavo, Giuseppe Scalera, Vincenzo Pilone, Gabriele De Sena, Antonio Iannelli, Alfonso Barbarisi
BACKGROUND: There is evidence that body composition and resting metabolic rate (RMR) in weight-stable patients after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and duodenal switch is similar to that of nonoperated individuals within the same body mass index (BMI) interval. Currently, data concerning fat mass (FM), fat-free mass (FFM), and RMR on weight-stable patients after sleeve gastrectomy (SG) are lacking. OBJECTIVES: To assess FM, FFM, and RMR, in a selected and homogenous population of weight-stable SG patients (WSSG) and compare them with those obtained from healthy normal weight-stable nonoperated (WSNO) volunteers controls of similar sex, age, and BMI...
July 1, 2017: Surgery for Obesity and related Diseases: Official Journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802294/serum-25-hydroxyvitamin-d-and-elderly-skeletal-muscle-mass-and-function-in-urban-north-china
#11
Liping Meng, Qingqing Man, Linhong Yuan, Lingxia Shen, Weimin Li, Guiyuan Guo, Lixiang Li, Shanshan Jia, Yixiong Gao, Pengkun Song, Jian Zhang
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) with skeletal muscle mass (SMM) and function among the elderly in an urban area in northern China. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: A total of 912 participants (316 men, 596 women) aged more than 60 years from 4 communities in Beijing were enrolled. Serum concentrations of 25(OH)D were measured through radioimmunoassay. SMM was assessed through bioelectrical impendence analysis, whereas skeletal muscle function was assessed through grip strength and 4-m regular gait speed measurements...
2017: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800558/aqds-immobilized-solid-phase-redox-mediators-and-their-role-during-bioelectricity-generation-and-rr2-decolorization-in-air-cathode-single-chamber-microbial-fuel-cells
#12
Claudia M Martinez, Xiuping Zhu, Bruce E Logan
The application of immobilized redox mediators (RMs) in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) is an emerging technology for electricity generation with simultaneous azo dye decolorization due to facilitated electrons transfer from bacteria to anodes and azo dyes. The use of immobilized RMs avoids the requirement of their continuous dosing in MFCs, which has been the main limitation for practical applications. Two strategies of anthraquinones-2,6-disulphonic salt (AQDS) immobilization, AQDS immobilized with polyvinyl alcohol particles and AQDS immobilized on anodes by electropolymerization, were evaluated and compared to achieve simultaneous reactive red 2 (RR2) dye reduction and bioelectricity generation...
July 26, 2017: Bioelectrochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799180/accuracy-of-octa-polar-bioelectrical-impedance-analysis-for-the-assessment-of-total-and-appendicular-body-composition-in-children-and-adolescents-with-hiv-comparison-with-dual-energy-x-ray-absorptiometry-and-air-displacement-plethysmography
#13
J A C de Castro, L R A de Lima, D A S Silva
BACKGROUND: Body composition analysis has been used to investigate fat mass (FM) and bone mineral content (BMC) in children and adolescents diagnosed with HIV. Investigating the validity of bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is interesting with respect to testing useful techniques for monitoring body composition in children and adolescents in clinical practice. The present study aimed to determine the validity of body composition analysis by BIA compared to dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and air displacement plethysmography (ADP) in children and adolescents an HIV diagnosis...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics: the Official Journal of the British Dietetic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795437/bioinspired-energy-conversion-in-nanofluidics-a-paradigm-of-material-evolution
#14
REVIEW
Yaping Feng, Weiwei Zhu, Wei Guo, Lei Jiang
Well-developed structure-function relationships in living systems have become inspirations for the design and application of innovative materials. Building artificial nanofluidic systems for energy conversion undergoes three essential steps of structural and functional development with the uptake of separate biological inspirations. This research field started from the mimicking of the bioelectric function of electric eels, wherein a transmembrane ion concentration gradient is converted into ultrastrong electrical impulses via membrane-protein-regulated ion transport...
August 10, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792014/applicability-of-the-direct-parameters-of-bioelectrical-impedance-in-assessing-nutritional-status-and-surgical-complications-of-women-with-gynecological-cancer
#15
I C R Cardoso, M A Aredes, G V Chaves
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Bioelectrical impedance vector analysis (BIVA) has been considered a promising technique in monitoring the nutritional and hydration status of patients with different types of diseases. The aim of this study was to assess the nutritional status provided by direct parameters of bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), BIVA and phase angle (PA), in patients with cervical and endometrial cancer undergoing surgical treatment, associating to other parameters of nutritional status and surgical outcomes...
August 9, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783652/a-parametric-computational-analysis-into-galvanic-coupling-intrabody-communication
#16
M Amparo Callejon, P Del Campo, Javier Reina-Tosina, Laura M Roa
Intrabody Communication (IBC) uses the human body tissues as transmission media for electrical signals to interconnect personal health devices in wireless body area networks. The main goal of this work is to conduct a computational analysis covering some bioelectric issues that still have not been fully explained, such as the modeling of the skin-electrode impedance, the differences associated to the use of constant voltage or current excitation modes, or the influence on attenuation of the subject's anthropometrical and bioelectric properties...
August 2, 2017: IEEE Journal of Biomedical and Health Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782561/sex-differences-in-fitnessgram%C3%A2-health-risk-based-on-aerobic-capacity-and-body-composition-among-urban-public-elementary-school-children
#17
Susan B Racette, Mary L Uhrich, M Leanne White, Liyang Yu, B Ruth Clark
Children residing in urban, low-resource neighborhoods may be at increased risk for poor aerobic fitness and obesity. The objective of this collaborative project with an urban public school district was to quantify the combination of poor aerobic capacity and high percent body fat using FITNESSGRAM® Healthy Fitness Zone (HFZ) standards among urban, predominantly Black, public elementary school boys and girls. Measurements of aerobic capacity with the 20-m Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run (PACER) test and body composition by bioelectrical impedance analysis were completed on 1,775 fourth and fifth grade students in 45 public elementary schools in St...
August 4, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776929/consistency-of-a-mobile-body-composition-trailer-a-novel-portable-laboratory-assessment
#18
Gena R Gerstner, Eric D Ryan, Craig R Kleinberg, Andrew J Tweedell, Abbie E Smith-Ryan
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this investigation was to (i) assess the test-retest reliability and minimum difference (MD) values of air-displacement plethysmography (ADP) and the Siri 3-compartment (3-C) model in a mobile trailer, and (ii) identify any environmental fluctuations in the trailer. METHODS: percent body fat (%BF) was examined in 22 firefighters on two separate days in a climate-controlled mobile trailer using ADP. Total body water was examined in a subset of participants (n = 12) using bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy (BIS) to determine %BF using Siri's 3-C model...
September 2017: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776926/interdependence-of-physical-inactivity-loss-of-muscle-mass-and-low-dietary-intake-extrapulmonary-manifestations-in-older-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-patients
#19
Kazuya Yoshimura, Susumu Sato, Shigeo Muro, Minoru Yamada, Koichi Hasegawa, Hirofumi Kiyokawa, Michiaki Mishima, Tomoki Aoyama
AIM: Extrapulmonary manifestations, such as reductions in skeletal muscle and physical inactivity, are important clinical features of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and might depend on the severity of COPD. As it is still unclear whether the relationship between muscle loss and physical inactivity is dominated by a disease-specific relationship or caused by patient factors, including physiological aging, we aimed to investigate the pulmonary or extrapulmonary factors associated with physical inactivity among older COPD patients...
August 4, 2017: Geriatrics & Gerontology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772035/bioelectrical-signals-improve-cardiac-function-and-modify-gene-expression-of-extracellular-matrix-components
#20
Karin Macfelda, Barbara Kapeller, Alexander Holly, Bruno K Podesser, Udo Losert, Kersten Brandes, Peter Goettel, Johannes Mueller
AIMS: Beyond the influence of stimulating devices on cardiac excitation, their use in treating patients with heart failure has positive effects on the myocardium at the molecular level. Electrical signals can induce a wide spectrum of effects in living tissue. Therefore, we sought to determine whether applying electrical microcurrent directly to failing hearts leads to functional improvement. METHODS AND RESULTS: Sixteen male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) with heart failure underwent application of a patch electrode to the left ventricular epicardium and placement of a subcutaneous counter electrode...
August 2017: ESC Heart Failure
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