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Iêda Maria Martinez Paino, Fabrício Santos, Valtencir Zucolotto
Graphene Oxide (GO) has received enormous attention regarding its possible applications in medical areas including cancer treatment. Nevertheless, graphene biocompatibility and its interactions with cancer, normal and immune system cells still remain a major issue. In the current study, we focused on the immunological impact of GO in the oxidative burst by GO produced in fresh isolated primary human neutrophils, the most abundant leukocyte of immune system. We also studied the GO cytotoxicity, cell uptake and genotoxicity in fresh isolated primary human monocyte, neutrophil, human carcinoma cervical (HeLa) and L929 cells...
October 22, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
Daniel A Patten, Garrick K Wilson, Dalan Bailey, Robert K Shaw, Sirpa Jalkanen, Marko Salmi, Antal Rot, Christopher J Weston, David H Adams, Shishir Shetty
: The recruitment of lymphocytes via the hepatic sinusoidal channels and positioning within liver tissue is a critical event in the development and persistence of chronic inflammatory liver diseases. The hepatic sinusoid is a unique vascular bed lined by hepatic sinusoidal endothelial cells (HSEC), a functionally and phenotypically distinct sub-population of endothelial cells. Using flow based adhesion assays to study the migration of lymphocytes across primary human HSEC, we found that lymphocytes enter into HSEC, confirmed by electron microscopy demonstrating clear intracellular localization of lymphocytes in vitro and by studies in human liver tissues...
October 22, 2016: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
Junsik Park, Minsuk Kwon, Eui-Cheol Shin
During immune responses antigen-specific T cells are regulated by several mechanisms, including through inhibitory receptors and regulatory T cells, to avoid excessive or persistent immune responses. These regulatory mechanisms, which are called 'immune checkpoints', suppress T cell responses, particularly in patients with chronic viral infections and cancer where viral antigens or tumor antigens persist for a long time and contribute to T cell exhaustion. Among these regulatory mechanisms, cytotoxic T lymphocyte associated protein-4 (CTLA-4) and programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) are the most well-known receptors and both have been targeted for drug development...
October 21, 2016: Archives of Pharmacal Research
Marek Sierzega, Marzena Lenart, Magdalena Rutkowska, Marta Surman, Bozenna Mytar, Andrzej Matyja, Maciej Siedlar, Jan Kulig
BACKGROUND: Neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), and lymphocyte-monocyte ratio (LMR) may serve as a simple index of the immune function. The aim of this study was to investigate the prognostic significance of NLR, PLR, and LMR in patients with resectable pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) and to verify whether such biomarkers are associated with changes in populations of lymphoid cells. METHODS: The prognostic implications of blood count parameters were evaluated in a retrospective cohort of 442 subjects undergoing pancreatic resections for PDAC...
October 21, 2016: Annals of Surgical Oncology
Danielle Aberdein, John S Munday, Barbara Gandolfi, Keren E Dittmer, Richard Malik, Dorian J Garrick, Leslie A Lyons
British shorthair (BSH) kittens in multiple litters died as a result of a severe non-neoplastic lymphoproliferative disease that showed many similarities with human autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS). Human ALPS is caused by inherited defects in FAS-mediated lymphocyte apoptosis and the possibility of similar defects was investigated in BSH cats. The whole genomes of two affected kittens were sequenced and compared to 82 existing cat genomes. Both BSH kittens had homozygous insertions of an adenine within exon 3 of the FAS-ligand gene...
October 21, 2016: Mammalian Genome: Official Journal of the International Mammalian Genome Society
Joseph M Obeid, Nolan A Wages, Yinin Hu, Donna H Deacon, Craig L Slingluff
INTRODUCTION: Infiltration of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) by CD8(+) T lymphocytes predicts improved patient survival; however, heterogeneity of intratumoral localization complicates this assessment. Strategies for tumor sampling may not accurately represent the whole tumor. We hypothesized that sampling strategies may alter the identification of tumors with high CD8 density and affect the prognostic significance. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Twenty-three primary NSCLC tumors were immunohistochemically stained for CD8 and were assessed using automated software with eight different sampling strategies or the whole tumor...
October 21, 2016: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
Mustafa Topuz, Fahrettin Oz, Oguz Akkus, Omer Sen, Ayse Nur Topuz, Atilla Bulut, Suleyman Ozbicer, Sefa Okar, Mevlut Koc, Mustafa Gur
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the compliance of plasma apelin-12 levels to show angiographic properties and hospital MACE in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). MATERIAL AND METHODS: The association of apelin-12 levels with the N/L ratio on admission was assessed in 170 consecutive patients with primary STEMI undergoing primary PCI. All patient SYNTAX scores and thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) flow grades were also assessed...
October 20, 2016: Perfusion
Ayşegül İdil Soylu, Sümeyra Arıkan Cortcu, Fatih Uzunkaya, Yunus Oktay Atalay, Tumay Bekçi, Levent Güngör, Ümit Belet
OBJECTIVES: Platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio is a novel biomarker, recently shown to be correlated with atherosclerotic inflammation. This study investigated the role of platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio in patients with carotid artery stenosis and stroke. METHODS: Patients, who underwent carotid angiography with Multiple Detector Computed Tomography Angiography at our hospital, were retrospectively screened. Patients enrolled were divided into three groups based on the platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio...
October 20, 2016: Vascular
Verena Clarissa Samara, Adam de Havenon
Acute myelopathy is a rare presentation of systemic T-cell lymphoma. We present the case of a man aged 68 years with a diffuse erythematous maculopapular rash, followed by lower extremity paresthesias and progressive lower extremity weakness. Spinal MRI showed longitudinally extensive T2 hyperintensity with diffuse contrast enhancement. An atypical clonal T-lymphocyte population was identified in cerebrospinal fluid, peripheral blood and bone marrow aspirate, indicating a malignant T-cell lymphoproliferative disorder...
October 21, 2016: BMJ Case Reports
Yasuhiko Hayashi, Masahiro Oishi, Issei Fukui, Yasuo Sasagawa, Yasuhiro Aida, Mitsutoshi Nakada
BACKGROUND: In Rathke cleft cysts (RCCs), inflammation by the cyst contents infrequently spreads to the surrounding structures. Calcification, which is regarded as a consequence of chronic inflammation of the cyst wall, can rarely be found in RCCs, and moreover, ossification is extremely rare. CLINICAL PRESENTATION: A 60-year-old woman presented with headaches, fatigue and weight loss due to panhypopituitarism. Magnetic Resonance imaging revealed a mass lesion in the sellar region, which was comprised of two different parts, with hypointensity anteriorly and hyperintensity posteriorly on T1-weighted image (WI), and the rim with significant hypointensity entirely on T2-WI...
October 18, 2016: World Neurosurgery
Magdalena Szejk, Tomasz Poplawski, Joanna Sarnik, Izabela Pawlaczyk-Graja, Franciszek Czechowski, Alicja Klaudia Olejnik, Roman Gancarz, Halina Malgorzata Zbikowska
Radioprotective effects of the water-soluble polyphenolic glycoconjugates, isolated from flowers of Sanguisorba officinalis L.(SO) and Erigeron canadensis L.(EC), and from leaves of Fragaria vesca L. (FV) and Rubus plicatus Whe. Et N. E. (RP), against γ-radiation-induced toxicity in human peripheral blood lymphocytes were investigated. Cell treatment with glycoconjugates (1, 5, 25μg/ml) prior exposure to 10/15Gy radiation resulted in concentration-dependent reduction of DNA damage including oxidative DNA lesions (comet assay), substantial inhibition of lipid peroxidation (TBARS) and restoration of superoxide dismutase and S-glutathione transferase activities...
October 18, 2016: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Eric L Scholten, Roy Semaan, Peter Illei, Christopher Mallow, Sixto Arias, David Feller-Kopman, Karen Oakjones-Burgess, Bernice Frimpong, Ricardo Ortiz, Hans Lee, Lonny Yarmus
BACKGROUND: Endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) of thoracic structures is a commonly performed tissue sampling technique. The usage of an inner-stylet in the EBUS needle has never been rigorously evaluated, and may be unnecessary. METHODS: In a prospective randomized single blinded controlled clinical trial, patients with a clinical indication for EBUS-TBNA underwent lymph node sampling using both with-stylet and without-stylet techniques...
October 18, 2016: Chest
Kristine Moltu, Karen Henjum, Nikolaus G Oberprieler, Bjørn A Bjørnbeth, Kjetil Taskén
Patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) have been shown to have elevated levels of circulating prostaglandin E2(PGE2) which promotes cancer progression and suppresses T-cell immune responses. In this study we evaluated whether signaling responses in T lymphocytes obtained from peripheral blood of CRC patients were affected by the sustained exposure to increased levels of PGE2. The phosphorylation status of an extended panel of proteins involved in downstream signaling cascades in T cells was profiled at a single cell level both in naïve and antigen-experienced cells after triggering T cell-, prostaglandin- and interleukin-2 receptors...
October 18, 2016: Human Immunology
C Franklin, E Livingstone, A Roesch, B Schilling, D Schadendorf
Malignant melanoma contributes the majority of skin cancer related deaths and shows an increasing incidence in the past years. Despite all efforts of early diagnosis, metastatic melanoma still has a poor prognosis and remains a challenge for treating physicians. In recent years, improved knowledge of the pathophysiology and a better understanding of the role of the immune system in tumour control have led to the development and approval of several immunotherapies. Monoclonal antibodies against different immune checkpoints have been revolutionizing the treatment of metastatic and unresectable melanoma...
September 2, 2016: European Journal of Surgical Oncology
Man Chu, Lai Shan Tam, Jing Zhu, Delong Jiao, De Hua Liu, Zhe Cai, Jie Dong, Christopher Wei Kai Lam, Chun Kwok Wong
The newly named interleukin (IL)-36 subfamily member IL-38 has been shown to exert anti-inflammatory activity. However, the in vivo immunomodulatory activity of IL-38 was poorly investigated in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We have investigated the expression of CD4(+)IL-17(+) Th17, CD4(+)IFN-γ(+) Th1 and CD3(+)CD4(-)CD8(-) double negative (DN) T cells and the related immunopathological mechanisms in female MRL/lpr mice model of spontaneous lupus-like disease, with or without IL-38 treatment. Intravenous administration of murine recombinant IL-38 into MRL/lpr mice can ameliorate the lupus-like clinical symptoms including proteinuria, leukocyteuria and skin lesions...
October 17, 2016: Immunobiology
Eiji Matsuura, Yoshimi Enose-Akahata, Karen Yao, Unsong Oh, Yuetsu Tanaka, Hiroshi Takashima, Steven Jacobson
Pathology of HTLV-1 associated myelopathy/Tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) is believed to be the result of "bystander damage" involving effector CD8 (+) T lymphocytes (CTLs) killing of virus infected cells. But the specific cellular events leading up to tissue injury are still unclear. Here, we developed the Microscopy Imaging of Cytotoxic T lymphocyte assay with Fluorescence emission (MI-CaFé), an optimized visualization analysis to explore the interactions between CTLs and virus infected or viral antigen presenting target cells...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Neuroimmunology
K Kajikhina, M Tsuneto, F Melchers
Early in embryonic development of mice, from day 12.5 after conception, myeloid-lymphoid bipotent progenitors, expressing receptors both for IL7 and CSF-1, migrate from embryonic blood into developing fetal liver. These progenitors also express multiple chemokine receptors, i.e., CCR7, CXCR3, CXCR4, and CXCR5, all on one cell. Their migration through LYVE-1+ vascular endothelium is guided by CCR7, recognizing the chemokine CCL19, and by CXCR3, recognizing CXCL10/11, chemokines which are both produced by the endothelium...
2016: Advances in Immunology
Greg Hodge, Eugene Roscioli, Hubertus Jersmann, Hai B Tran, Mark Holmes, Paul N Reynolds, Sandra Hodge
BACKGROUND: Corticosteroid resistance is a major barrier to effective treatment of COPD. We have shown that the resistance is associated with decreased expression of glucocorticoid receptor (GCR) by senescent CD28nullCD8+ pro-inflammatory lymphocytes in peripheral blood of COPD patients. GCR must be bound to molecular chaperones heat shock proteins (Hsp) 70 and Hsp90 to acquire a high-affinity steroid binding conformation, and traffic to the nucleus. We hypothesized a loss of Hsp70/90 from these lymphocytes may further contribute to steroid resistance in COPD...
October 21, 2016: Respiratory Research
Wohn-Jenn Leu, Sharada Prasanna Swain, She-Hung Chan, Jui-Ling Hsu, Shih-Ping Liu, Mei-Ling Chan, Chia-Chun Yu, Lih-Ching Hsu, Yen-Lin Chou, Wei-Ling Chang, Duen-Ren Hou, Jih-Hwa Guh
A series of triazole-based small molecules that mimic FTY720-mediated anticancer activity but minimize its immunosuppressive effect have been produced. SPS-7 is the most effective derivative displaying higher activity than FTY720 in anti-proliferation against human hormone-refractory prostate cancer (HRPC). It induced G1 arrest of cell cycle and subsequent apoptosis in thymidine block-mediated synchronization model. The data were supported by a decrease of cyclin D1 expression, a dramatic increase of p21 expression and an associated decrease in RB phosphorylation...
October 19, 2016: Oncotarget
Berna Akıncı Özyürek, Özlem Özmen, Tuğçe Şahin Özdemirel, Yurdanur Erdoğan, Bekir Kaplan, Tuğba Kaplan
The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship of the pre-treatment blood neutrophil/lymphocyte count ratio (NLR) with the maximum standard uptake value (SUVmax) of primary masses on positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) taken before treatment in patients diagnosed with malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) and to evaluate the contribution to prognosis. A retrospective evaluation was made of 73 patients diagnosed with MPM in our hospital between January 2006 and January 2014. The SUVmax value of the primary mass on pre-treatment PET/CT, the haemogram parameters (Hb, Hct, NLR, MPV, PLT) at the time of diagnosis, the progression history, the date of the final visit and the date of death of exitus patients was recorted from patient files PET/CT...
October 21, 2016: Clinical Respiratory Journal
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