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Daniel Załuski, Rafał Kuźniewski, Zbigniew Janeczko
Human body is constantly generating free radicals, which causes oxidative stress. Despite naturally occurring antioxidant systems in human body, free radicals cause lipid, proteins and DNA oxidation. New antioxidants are still urgent as well as their mechanisms of action should be explained. In this study, we investigated the mechanism by which eleutherosides B, E and E1 may act as antioxidants, identified eleutherosides in Eleutherococcus lasiogyne and Eleutherococcus giraldii , and explained in vitro the absorption of eleutheroside E1 based on passive transport...
March 2018: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
Geir Bjørklund, Maryam Dadar, Natália Martins, Salvatore Chirumbolo, Bey Hing Goh, Kateryna Smetanina, Roman Lysiuk
Several studies have reported that nature-derived antioxidants may prevent free radicals over-production and therefore control the onset and prevent the exacerbation of different kinds of diseases caused by oxidative stress and redox-derived stressors, including ageing, fundamentally by suppressing the oxidative byproducts-mediated degradation. Naturally derived antioxidants exert their anti-ageing action via a panoply of signalling systems, many of which engaging reactive oxygen (ROS) and nitrogen (RNS) species scavenging, with the Nrf2/Keap1-ARE system and improving the many survival genes and functions (such as the pathway mTOR/Foxo/SIRT1) able to slow cellular senescence...
January 25, 2018: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
Chun Gon Kim, Verónica Castro-Aceituno, Ragavendran Abbai, Hyun A Lee, Shakina Yesmin Simu, Yaxi Han, Joon Hurh, Yeon-Ju Kim, Deok Chun Yang
Siberian ginseng (Eleutherococcus senticosus) was used for the synthesis of an ecofriendly silver nanoparticle (Sg-AgNP), which has exhibited antibacterial, antioxidant effect and lower cytotoxicity to normal cells in comparison to human cancer cells. Although, the potential anticancer activity of Sg-AgNP has not been determined. In this study, two cancer cell lines were used to evaluate the cytotoxicity and apoptotic effect of Sg-AgNP along with the determination of the role of the Caspase-3 / p38 MAPK pathways...
March 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Rimi Tsuchiya, Yasuyuki Taira, Makiko Orita, Yoshiko Fukushima, Yuukou Endo, Shunichi Yamashita, Noboru Takamura
Kawauchi Village, in Fukushima Prefecture, is located within a 30-km radius of the nuclear disaster site of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP). "Sansai" (edible wild plants) in this village have been evaluated by gamma spectrometry after the residents had returned to their homes, to determine the residents' risk of internal exposure to artificial radionuclides due to consumption of these plants. The concentrations of radiocesium (cesium-134 and cesium-137) were measured in all 364 samples collected in spring 2015...
2017: PloS One
Markus Ruhsam, Peter M Hollingsworth
Siberian ginseng (Eleutherococcus senticosus, Araliaceae) and roseroot (Rhodiola rosea, Rosaceae) are popular herbal supplements which have been shown to improve resilience to conditions such as stress and exhaustion. Using DNA barcoding methods we tested 25 Siberian ginseng and 14 roseroot products which are widely available to UK customers to test whether the herbal ingredient stated on the label is also in the product. All Siberian ginseng supplements contained E. senticosus, however, 36% also contained an Eleutherococcus species other than E...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Jungbin Song, Donghun Lee, Byoungjae Min, Jin-Sook Bae, Gyu Tae Chang, Hocheol Kim
BACKGROUND: Astragalus extract mixture HT042 is a combination of three standardized extracts from Astragalus membranaceus root, Eleutherococcus senticosus stem, and Phlomis umbrosa root, which has proven to stimulate children's height growth. PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to demonstrate the safety of HT042 and its three constituent herbs when administered orally. METHODS: Acute and sub-chronic oral toxicity studies were conducted using male and female Sprague-Dawley rats...
August 15, 2017: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
Daniel Załuski, Marta Olech, Rafał Kuźniewski, Robert Verpoorte, Renata Nowak, Helena D Smolarz
Nature is a source of many plant-based molecules used as pro- or drugs. Eleutherococcus species are native to Asia and the North Russia, and are traditionally used to treat various diseases. In turn, neither secondary metabolites of the species cultivated in the West Europe nor the bioactivity is known. No differences in the phenols and flavonoids content in the inflorescences were found. The richest in polyphenols was E. giraldii (5.18 mg/g), while in flavonoids it was E. gracilistylus (1.80 mg/g). Using LC-ESI-MS/MS, protocatechuic and trans-caffeic acids have been identified as the most abundant compounds in E...
July 2017: Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal: SPJ: the Official Publication of the Saudi Pharmaceutical Society
Arkadiy Reunov, Galina Reunova, Dmitry Atopkin, Yulia Reunova, Tamara Muzarok, Evgeny Zakharov, Yury Zhuravlev
The genetic barcode ITS2 (ITS: internal transcribed spacer) and pollen morphology were used for the identification of the pharmacologically valuable wild Araliaceae species Panax ginseng, Oplopanax elatus, Aralia elata, Aralia continentalis, Eleutherococcus senticosus , and Eleutherococcus sessiliflorus inhabiting the natural forests of Primorye, Russia. The ITS2 locus successfully identified all six species, which supports the use of ITS2 as a standard barcode for medicinal plants. However, the ITS2 locus was insufficient for intra-specific discrimination in these species, neither within Primorye nor from other world representatives within GenBank...
January 2018: Planta Medica
Kyunghee Kim, Van Binh Nguyen, Jingzhou Dong, Ying Wang, Jee Young Park, Sang-Choon Lee, Tae-Jin Yang
We produced complete sequences and conducted comparative analysis of the maternally inherited chloroplast (cp) genomes and bi-parentally inherited 45S nuclear ribosomal RNA genes (nrDNA) from ten Araliaceae species to elucidate the genetic diversity and evolution in that family. The cp genomes ranged from 155,993 bp to 156,730 bp with 97.1-99.6% similarity. Complete 45S nrDNA units were about 11 kb including a 5.8-kb 45S cistron. Among 79 cp protein-coding genes, 74 showed nucleotide variations among ten species, of which infA, rpl22, rps19 and ndhE genes showed the highest Ks values and atpF, atpE, ycf2 and rps15 genes showed the highest Ka/Ks values...
July 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
Le Zhang, Ban-Ban Li, Hao-Ze Li, Xiao Meng, Xin Lin, Yi-Yu Jiang, Jong-Seog Ahn, Long Cui
Four new compounds, erythro-7'E-4-hydroxy-3,3'-dimethoxy-8,5'-oxyneoligna-7'-ene-7,9-diol-9'-al (1), (7S,8S)-4-hydroxy-3,1',3'-trimethoxy-4',7-epoxy-8,5'-neolign-9-ol (5), (7S,8S,7'E)-5-hydroxy-3,3'-dimethoxy-4',7-epoxy-8,5'-neolign-7'-ene-9,9'-diol (6) and (7S,8S,7'E)-5-hydroxy-3,3',9'-trimethoxy-4'-7-epoxy-8,5'-neolign-7'-ene-9-ol (7). Along with four known compounds (2-4, 8) were isolated from the EtOAc-soluble extract of Eleutherococcus senticosus. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic and physicochemical analyses...
September 2017: Fitoterapia
Jungbin Song, Sung Hyun Lee, Donghun Lee, Hocheol Kim
Astragalus extract mixture HT042 is a standardized multiherbal mixture comprising Astragalus membranaceus, Eleutherococcus senticosus, and Phlomis umbrosa, which has proven to promote children's height growth. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of HT042 on longitudinal bone growth, bone mass, and bone microstructure in growing rats using a high-resolution microcomputed tomography system. Four-week-old female rats were fed an HT042-containing diet for 2 weeks. Tibial length was measured at baseline and weekly in vivo...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Atsuyoshi Nishina, Masaya Itagaki, Yuusuke Suzuki, Mamoru Koketsu, Masayuki Ninomiya, Daisuke Sato, Takashi Suzuki, Satoshi Hayakawa, Makoto Kuroda, Hirokazu Kimura
Eleutherococcus sieboldianus (Makino) Koidz. is a local product from the area in and around Yonezawa City in Yamagata Prefecture, Japan. It has been used as a medicinal plant for a long time. We isolated and identified four types of flavonoid glycosides [astragalin (1), isoquercetin (2), rhamnocitrin 3-O-glucoside (3), and nicotiflorin (4)], a triterpene [methyl hederagenin (5)], and three types of triterpene glycosides [δ-hederin (6), echinocystic acid 3-O-arabinoside (7), and cauloside B (8)] from the methanol extract of E...
April 22, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Chunmei Zhai, Mei Wang, Vijayasankar Raman, Junaid U Rehman, Yonghai Meng, Jianping Zhao, Bharathi Avula, Yan-Hong Wang, Zhenkun Khan, Ikhlas A Khan
The roots of Eleutherococcus senticosus (Rupr. & Maxim.) Maxim., a well-known medicinal plant from Eastern Asia, are used worldwide for their known beneficial medicinal properties. Recently, the leaves have been used as an alternative to the roots. The present study was aimed at exploring the leaf essential oil as a potential source of compounds for mosquito management. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis of the leaf essential oil revealed 87 compounds, constituting 95.2% of the oil. α-Bisabolol (26...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Medical Entomology
Rafał Kuźniewski, Daniel Załuski, Marta Olech, Piotr Banaszczak, Renata Nowak
Neither secondary metabolites of the spring leaves nor the autumn leaves of Eleutherococcus senticosus species cultivated in Poland, or the bioactivity are known. The richest in polyphenols was the autumn leaves (171.1 mg/g DE), while in flavonoids the spring leaves (107.9 mg/g DE). Using LC-ESI-MS/MS, protocatechuic acid has been identified as the most abundant compound in the spring and autumn leaves (200 and 70 μg/g DE, respectively). Amongst flavonoids, naringenin 7-O-glucoside occurred in the largest amount (20 and 10 mg/g DE in the spring and autumn leaves, respectively)...
February 2018: Natural Product Research
Yue-Wei Ge, Shu Zhu, Kayo Yoshimatsu, Katsuko Komatsu
The targeted mass information of compounds accelerated their discovery in a large volume of untargeted MS data. An MS/MS similarity networking is advanced in clustering the structural analogues, which benefits the collection of mass information of similar compounds. The triterpene saponins extracted from Eleutherococcus senticosus leaves (ESL), a kind of functional tea, have shown promise in the relief of Alzheimer's disease. In this work, a target-precursor list (TPL) generated using MS/MS similarity networking was employed to rapidly trace 106 triterpene saponins from the aqueous extracts of ESL, of which 49 were tentatively identified as potentially new triterpene saponins...
July 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
Daniel Załuski, Marta Olech, Robert Verpoorte, Inamullah Khan, Rafał Kuźniewski, Renata Nowak
Eleutherococcus fruits have been consumed in Russia and Asia throughout the centuries. Currently, there is an increasing interest in these products by the community of Western Europe. Many people suffer from micronutrient deficiencies, known as malnutrition, which consequently influences body condition. The aim of this study was to investigate pharmaconutrition, proximate, mineral, and fatty acid composition, total phenolics content, and total flavonoids content of Eleutherococcus divaricatus and Eleutherococcus sessiliflorus fruits cultivated in Poland...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Yang Song, Chun-Juan Yang, Zhi-Bin Wang, Nan Zhao, Xue-Song Feng, Fan-Hao Meng
The present study was designed to investigate the chemical constituents and bioactivities of the roots of Eleutherococcus sessiliflorus (E. sessiliflorus). The compounds were isolated through various chromatography techniques and elucidated by mass spectrometric (MS), 1D- and 2D-NMR analyses. The sedative-hypnotic effect of E. sessiliflorus ethanol extract and its fractions (acetic ether, n-butanol and water fraction) were also investigated. In the chemical constituent study, one new compound, 3-ethyl-5-hydroxy-3-(hydroxymethyl) pentyl-3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl) acrylate and fourteen known compounds were isolated and identified...
September 2017: Natural Product Research
Ao Zhang, Zhongmin Liu, Lulu Sheng, Hui Wu
BACKGROUND: Syringin, a major active substance isolated from Eleutherococcus senticosus, has been found to have anti-inflammatory effect. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects and underlying mechanisms of syringin on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI) in mice. METHODS: We established an LPS-induced ALI model in mice. We also detected the lung wet-to-dry ratio, myeloperoxidase activity, and inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-6 to estimate the index of lung injury in mice...
March 2017: Journal of Surgical Research
Hye-Jeong Jo, Jung Yeon Han, Hwan-Su Hwang, Yong Eui Choi
Siberian ginseng (Eleutherococcus senticosus) is a woody medical shrub belonging to the Araliaceae family. E. senticosus contains various types of saponins, including oleanane, noroleanane, lupane, and 3,4-secolupane types, depending on the aglycone structure. Oleanane-type triterpenes are the major saponin components in E. senticosus. Two enzymes (β-amyrin synthase and β-amyrin 28-oxidase) are essential for oleanane-type saponin biosynthesis from 2,3-oxidosqualene. In the present study, two full-length cDNAs encoding EsBAS and CYP716A244 were isolated based on transcriptomics analysis of plant leaves...
March 2017: Phytochemistry
Fangfang Li, Ning Zhang, Qingqing Wu, Yuan Yuan, Zheng Yang, Mengqiao Zhou, Jinxiu Zhu, Qizhu Tang
Syringin, extracted from Eleutherococcus senticosus, is a major biologically active component of Chinese herbs. Studies have certified the multiple pharmacological properties of syringin. However, the role of syringin in cardiac hypertrophy and the mechanisms involved remain unclear. In this study, aortic banding was performed on mice in order to induce cardiac hypertrophy, and the animals were then treated with syringin for 7 weeks. Echocardiography and catheter-based measurements of hemodynamic parameters were performed to evaluate cardiac function at 8 weeks following aortic banding...
January 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
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