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Keiichi Mochida, Tetsuya Sakurai, Hikaru Seki, Takuhiro Yoshida, Kotaro Takahagi, Satoru Sawai, Hiroshi Uchiyama, Toshiya Muranaka, Kazuki Saito
Chinese liquorice/licorice (Glycyrrhiza uralensis) is a leguminous plant species whose roots and rhizomes have been widely used as a herbal medicine and natural sweetener. Whole-genome sequencing is essential for gene discovery studies and molecular breeding in liquorice. Here, we report a draft assembly of the approximately 379-Mb whole-genome sequence of strain 308-19 of G. uralensis; this assembly contains 34 445 predicted protein-coding genes. Comparative analyses suggested well-conserved genomic components and collinearity of gene loci (synteny) between the genome of liquorice and those of other legumes such as Medicago and chickpea...
October 24, 2016: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Juliane Wagner, Michael Granvogl, Peter Schieberle
Application of the molecular sensory science concept including aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) on the basis of gas chromatography-olfactometry combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry elucidated the key odorants of raw licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra L.). Fifty aroma-active compounds were located via AEDA, 16 thereof were identified in raw licorice for the first time. γ-Nonalactone, 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethylfuran-3(2H)-one, and 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde showed the highest flavor dilution (FD) factor of 1024...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Chi-Hao Wu, Hsin-Yuan Chen, Chia-Woei Wang, Tzong-Ming Shieh, Tsui-Chin Huang, Li-Chun Lin, Kai-Lee Wang, Shih-Min Hsia
Endometrial cancer is the most common cancer in women, typically with onset after menopause. Isoliquiritigenin (ISL), a licorice flavonoid, was previously shown to have anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and tumor suppression effects. In this study, we investigated the anti-tumor effect of ISL on human endometrial cancer both in vitro and in vivo. We used telomerase-immortalized human endometrial stromal cells (T-HESCs) and human endometrial cancer cell lines (Ishikawa, HEC-1A, and RL95-2 cells) as targets. The effects of ISL on cell proliferation, cell cycle regulation, and apoptosis or autophagy-related protein expression were examined...
September 30, 2016: Oncotarget
Guannan Li, Dejan Nikolic, Richard B van Breemen
Defined as the roots and underground stems of principally three Glycyrrhiza species, G. glabra L., G.uralensis Fish. ex DC. and G. inflata Batalin, licorice has been used as a medicinal herb for millennia and is marketed as root sticks, powders and extracts. Identity tests described in most pharmacopeial monographs enabled the distinction of Glycyrrhiza species. Accordingly, an ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) assay using the method of standard addition was developed to quantify 14 licorice components (liquiritin, isoliquiritin, liquiritin apioside, isoliquiritin apioside, licuraside, liquiritigenin, isoliquiritigenin, glycyrrhizin, glycyrrhetinic acid, glabridin, glycycoumarin, licoricidin, licochalcone A, and p-hydroxybenzylmalonic acid), representing several natural product classes including chalcones, flavanones, saponins, and isoflavonoids...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Haruyoshi Seino, Yukari Arai, Norio Nagao, Noriyasu Ozawa, Kazuhiko Hamada
Partially myristoylated chitosan pyrrolidone carboxylate (PMCP) is a cationic amphiphilic chitosan derivative. Glabridin (Glab) from licorice root extracts is a hydrophobic antimelanogenic agent. Here we assessed the effects of cationic Glab-containing polymeric micelles derived from PMCP (Glab/PMCP-PM) on the ability of Glab to penetrate the skin and inhibit melanogenesis using a human skin model. The amount of Glab absorbed 24 h after the application of Glab/PMCP-PM was approximately four times higher than that of conventional oil-in-water micelles (control) prepared using Tween 60...
2016: PloS One
Ahmad Abu-Awwad, Tawfiq Arafat, Oliver J Schmitz
Nicotine-diet interactions have a particular importance on human health. Some food substances are subject to change hepatic CYP2A6 metabolism rate for nicotine and its levels in smokers consequently. This study investigates the effect of pomegranate and licorice drinks on nicotine metabolism, by a new developed and validated method for simultaneous determination of nicotine with its major metabolites (cotinine and nicotine N-oxide) in human urine, utilizing LC ESI-orbitrap-MS. Twenty-four Jordanian healthy and smoker volunteers were participated in two equal groups, crossover design for each of pomegranate and licorice test drink...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Debrabata Chanda, Jesus Prieto-Lloret, Arjun Singh, Hina Iqbal, Pankaj Yadav, Vladimir Snetkov, Philip I Aaronson
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Glabridin is a major flavonoid in Glycyrrhiza glabra (licorice) root, a traditional Asian medicine. Glabridin is reported to have anti-atherogenic, anti-inflammatory and anti-nephritic properties; however its effects on vascular tone remain unexplored. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: We examined the effect of glabridin on rat main mesenteric artery using isometric myography and also ELISA to measure cGMP levels. KEY RESULTS: Glabridin (30μM) relaxed arteries pre-constricted with the thromboxane A2 analog U46619 (0...
September 26, 2016: Life Sciences
Hwan Hee Lee, Seulki Lee, Yu Su Shin, Miyeon Cho, Hyojeung Kang, Hyosun Cho
Licorice extracts have been widely used in herbal and folk medications. Glycyrrhiza contains diverse range of biological compounds including triterpenes (glycyrrhizin, glycyrrhizic acid) and flavonoids (quercetin, liquiritin, liquiritigenin, glabridin, licoricidin, isoliquiritigenin). The flavonoids in licorice are known to have strong anti-cancer activities. Quercetin, the most abundant flavonoid, has been shown to have anti-ulcer, anti-cancer, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties. Latent Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection can lead to serious malignancies, such as, Burkitt's lymphoma, Hodgkin's disease and gastric carcinoma(GC), and (Epstein-Barr virus associated gastric carcinoma) EBVaGC is one of the most common EBV-associated cancers...
2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Birgit M Dietz, Atieh Hajirahimkhan, Tareisha L Dunlap, Judy L Bolton
Botanical dietary supplements are increasingly popular for women's health, particularly for older women. The specific botanicals women take vary as a function of age. Younger women will use botanicals for urinary tract infections, especially Vaccinium macrocarpon (cranberry), where there is evidence for efficacy. Botanical dietary supplements for premenstrual syndrome (PMS) are less commonly used, and rigorous clinical trials have not been done. Some examples include Vitex agnus-castus (chasteberry), Angelica sinensis (dong quai), Viburnum opulus/prunifolium (cramp bark and black haw), and Zingiber officinale (ginger)...
October 2016: Pharmacological Reviews
Jinmei Chen, Weijian Zhang, Lurong Zhang, Jiemin Zhang, Xiuying Chen, Meichun Yang, Ting Chen, Jinsheng Hong
Radiation-induced lung injury (RILI) is a common complication of thoracic radiotherapy, but efficacious therapy for RILI is lacking. This study ascertained whether glycyrrhetinic acid (GA; a functional hydrolyzed product of glycyrrhizic acid, which is extracted from herb licorice) can protect against RILI and investigated its relationship to the transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1/Smads signaling pathway. C57BL/6 mice were divided into four groups: a control group, a GA group and two irradiation (IR) groups...
September 26, 2016: Journal of Radiation Research
Rui Yang, Bo-Chuan Yuan, Yong-Sheng Ma, Shan Zhou, Ying Liu
CONTEXT: Increasing incidence and impact of inflammatory diseases have encouraged the search of new pharmacological strategies to face them. Licorice has been used to treat inflammatory diseases since ancient times in China. OBJECTIVE: To summarize the current knowledge on anti-inflammatory properties and mechanisms of compounds isolated from licorice, to introduce the traditional use, modern clinical trials and officially approved drugs, to evaluate the safety and to obtain new insights for further research of licorice...
September 21, 2016: Pharmaceutical Biology
Jianli Li, Shujie Liu, Juan Wang, Jing Li, Jinxin Li, Wenyuan Gao
This study reports the best culture conditions for roots growth and accumulation of active components by optimizing the parameters. Glycyrrhiza uralensis adventitious roots metabolites were significantly increased after adding Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Meyerozyma guilliermondii. The highest contents of polysaccharide, glycyrrhizic acid, glycyrrhetinic acid and total flavonoids were obtained in Meyerozyma guilliermondii group, the content of glycyrrhizic acid was 5.3-fold higher than the control. In control and treatment groups, twelve compounds were identified by high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS),among which, some new compounds have been detected in elicitor groups including 5,7-Dihydroxyflavanone, glycyrrhisoflavanone, licorice saponin J2, uralsaponin B, (3R)-vestitol, uralenol...
September 20, 2016: Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry
Tetsu Kinoshita, Akio Matsumoto, Kazuhiro Yoshino, Shinya Furukawa
BACKGROUND: The current study evaluated the effects of licorice flavonoid oil (LFO) on increasing the muscle mass of elderly populations using a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Fifty participants aged 54-90 (male 7, female 43), who underwent rehabilitation treatment for osteoarthritis of the knee, were examined and assigned to either the LFO group (n = 26) or the placebo group (n = 24). The LFO group consumed 300 mg of LFO per day, while the placebo group consumed one placebo capsule per day for 16 weeks...
September 19, 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Hui-Lei Wan, Hui-Zhi Chen, Xiu-Qin Shi
OBJECTIVE: To study the effects of Traditional Chinese Medicine Jianpi Chushi decoction and ointment on chronic eczema. METHODS: DNCB acetone solution was used to sensitize the skin of back and ears of 36 rats in order to establish chronic eczema model. A total of 36 rats were divided into four groups of 9 randomly including oral medicine group, external inunctum group, combination therapy group, and model control group respectively. Besides, the blank group of 4 healthy rats were set...
September 2016: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine
Meike Paschke, Christoph Hutzler, Frank Henkler, Andreas Luch
According to European legislation, tobacco additives may not increase the toxicity or the addictive potency of the product, but there is an ongoing debate on how to reliably characterize and measure such properties. Further, too little is known on pyrolysis patterns of tobacco additives to assume that no additional toxicological risks need to be suspected. An on-line pyrolysis technique was used and coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) to identify the pattern of chemical species formed upon thermal decomposition of 19 different tobacco additives like raw cane sugar, licorice or cocoa...
September 4, 2016: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
Riad Awad, Eyad Mallah, Bayan Al Khawaja, Wael Abu Dayyih, Feras El-Hajji, Khalid Z Matalka, Tawfiq Arafat
OBJECTIVES: Food or drinks may significantly alter the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of drugs which may lead to adverse events. A drug such as metformin is widely used to regulate plasma glucose level and pomegranate and licorice have been identified to help in type-2 diabetes management. However, the interactions of the latter on metformin pharmacokinetics were not studied. Therefore, we aimed here to study the impact of pomegranate and licorice on metformin pharmacokinetics in rats...
July 12, 2016: Neuro Endocrinology Letters
Ali Akbar Haji Aghamohammadi, Ali Zargar, Sonia Oveisi, Rasoul Samimi, Sedigheh Reisian
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of licorice in H. pylori eradication in patients suffering from dyspepsia either with peptic ulcer disease (PUD) or non-ulcer dyspepsia (NUD) in comparison to the clarithromycin-based standard triple regimen. METHODS: In this randomized controlled clinical trial, 120 patients who had positive rapid urease test were included and assigned to two treatment groups: control group that received a clarithromycin-based triple regimen, and study group that received licorice in addition to the clarithromycin-based regimen for two weeks...
September 7, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
Xinhua Song, Shutao Yin, Enxiang Zhang, Lihong Fan, Min Ye, Yong Zhang, Hongbo Hu
Glycycoumarin (GCM) is a major bioactive coumarin compound isolated from licorice and the anti-cancer activity of GCM has not been scientifically addressed. In the present study, we have tested the anti-liver cancer activity of GCM using both in vitro and in vivo models and found for the first time that GCM possesses a potent activity against liver cancer evidenced by cell growth inhibition and apoptosis induction in vitro and tumor reduction in vivo. Mechanistically, GCM was able to bind to and inactivate oncogenic kinase T-LAK cell-originated protein kinase (TOPK), which in turn led to activation of p53 pathway...
August 25, 2016: Oncotarget
O Yu Selyutina, I E Apanasenko, A V Kim, E A Shelepova, S S Khalikov, N E Polyakov
Glycyrrhizic acid (GA) is a triterpene glycoside extracted from licorice root. Due to its amphiphilicity GA is capable of forming complexes with a variety of hydrophobic molecules, substantially increasing their solubility. GA can enhance the therapeutic effects of various drugs. It was hypothesized that the increased bioavailability of the drug by GA is not only due to increased solubility, but also to enhancement of drug permeability through cell membranes. In this study the interaction of GA with POPC liposomes and model DOPC, POPC and DPPC bilayers was investigated by NMR with addition of shift reagents and MD simulations...
November 1, 2016: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Jin Tao, Yan Nie, Yuanyuan Hou, Xiaoyao Ma, Guoyu Ding, Jie Gao, Min Jiang, Gang Bai
Jie-Geng-Tang (JGT), a classic and famous traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) prescription composed of Platycodon grandiflorum (Jacq.) A. DC. (PG) and Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch. (GU), is well known for "clearing heat and relieving toxicity" and its ability to "diffuse the lung and relieve sore throat." However, the mechanism underlying its action remains unclear. In this study, potential anti-inflammatory ingredients were screened and submitted to PharmMapper and the KEGG bioinformatics website to predict the target proteins and related pathways, respectively...
2016: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
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