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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217830/relationship-between-alcohol-metabolism-and-chemotherapy-induced-emetic-events-in-breast-cancer-patients
#1
Toshitaka Uomori, Yoshiya Horimoto, Kaoru Mogushi, Joe Matsuoka, Mitsue Saito
BACKGROUND: Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) can negatively affect quality of life and treatment compliance in breast cancer patients. Habitual alcohol consumption reportedly shows an inverse correlation with CINV, though the underlying mechanism is unknown. Acetaldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2), one of the two ALDH isozymes, is reportedly the major factor among several genetic polymorphisms possibly affecting alcohol metabolism. More than 40% of Japanese have ALDH2 mutations, while almost all Westerners have the wild type...
February 20, 2017: Breast Cancer: the Journal of the Japanese Breast Cancer Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212028/photoisomerization-kinetics-and-mechanical-stress-in-azobenzene-containing-materials
#2
Vladimir Petrovich Toshchevikov, Jaroslav M Ilnytskyi, Marina Grenzer Saphiannikova
Kinetics of photoisomerization and time evolution of ordering in azobenzene-containing materials are studied theoretically and by using computer simulations. Starting from kinetic equations of photoisomerization, we show that the influence of light is equivalent to the action of the effective potential which reorients chromophores perpendicularly to polarization direction. The strength of the potential is defined by optical and viscous characteristics of the material. The potential generates photomechanical stress of giant values ~GPa, in accordance with recent experimental findings for azobenzene materials deep in a glassy state...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166390/emollients-and-moisturisers-for-eczema
#3
REVIEW
Esther J van Zuuren, Zbys Fedorowicz, Robin Christensen, Adriana Lavrijsen, Bernd Arents
BACKGROUND: Eczema is a chronic skin disease characterised by dry skin, intense itching, inflammatory skin lesions, and a considerable impact on quality of life. Moisturisation is an integral part of treatment, but it is unclear if moisturisers are effective. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of moisturisers for eczema. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the following databases to December 2015: Cochrane Skin Specialised Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, LILACS, the GREAT database...
6, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159516/tumor-targeted-ph-redox-dual-sensitive-unimolecular-nanoparticles-for-efficient-sirna-delivery
#4
Guojun Chen, Yuyuan Wang, Ruosen Xie, Shaoqin Gong
A unique pH/redox dual-sensitive cationic unimolecular nanoparticle (NP) enabling excellent endosomal/lysosomal escape and efficient siRNA decomplexation inside the target cells was developed for tumor-targeted delivery of siRNA. siRNA was complexed into the cationic core of the unimolecular NP through electrostatic interactions. The cationic core used for complexing siRNA contained reducible disulfide bonds that underwent intracellular reduction owing to the presence of high concentrations of reduced glutathione (GSH) inside the cells, thereby facilitating the decomplexation of siRNA from the unimolecular NPs...
January 31, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154853/enhanced-bioreduction-responsive-biodegradable-diselenide-containing-poly-ester-urethane-nanocarriers
#5
Chao Wei, Yan Zhang, Zhongchen Song, Yiru Xia, Heng Xu, Meidong Lang
Stimuli-responsive nanocarriers have been limited for bench-to-bedside translation mainly because the stimuli sensitivity and responsive rate are not high enough to ensure sufficient drug concentration at the target sites for superior therapeutic benefits. Herein, we reported an enhanced bioreduction-responsive and biodegradable nanocarrier based on the amphiphilic poly(ester urethane) copolymers (PAUR-SeSe) bearing multiple diselenide groups on the backbone. The copolymer could spontaneously self-assemble into stable micelles in aqueous medium with an average diameter of 68 nm, which could be rapidly disassembled in a reductive environment as a result of the reduction-triggered cleavage of diselenide groups...
February 3, 2017: Biomaterials Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128920/steering-asymmetric-lewis-acid-catalysis-exclusively-with-octahedral-metal-centered-chirality
#6
Lilu Zhang, Eric Meggers
Catalysts for asymmetric synthesis must be chiral. Metal-based asymmetric catalysts are typically constructed by assembling chiral ligands around a central metal. In this Account, a new class of effective chiral Lewis acid catalysts is introduced in which the octahedral metal center constitutes the exclusive source of chirality. Specifically, the here discussed class of catalysts are composed of configurationally stable, chiral-at-metal Λ-configured (left-handed propeller) or Δ-configured (right-handed propeller) iridium(III) or rhodium(III) complexes containing two bidentate cyclometalating 5-tert-butyl-2-phenylbenzoxazole (dubbed IrO and RhO) or 5-tert-butyl-2-phenylbenzothiazole (dubbed IrS and RhS) ligands in addition to two exchange-labile acetonitriles...
January 27, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125208/shape-recovery-with-concomitant-mechanical-strengthening-of-amphiphilic-shape-memory-polymers-in-warm-water
#7
Ben Zhang, Janae E DeBartolo, Jie Song
Maintaining adequate or enhancing mechanical properties of shape memory polymers (SMPs) after shape recovery in an aqueous environment are greatly desired for biomedical applications of SMPs as self-fitting tissue scaffolds or minimally invasive surgical implants. Here we report stable temporary shape fixing and facile shape recovery of biodegradable triblock amphiphilic SMPs containing a poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) center block and flanking poly(lactic acid) or poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) blocks in warm water, accompanied by concomitant enhanced mechanical strengths...
January 26, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097872/dual-responsive-bola-type-supra-amphiphile-constructed-from-water-soluble-pillar-5-arene-and-naphthalimide-containing-amphiphile-for-intracellular-drug-delivery
#8
Xin Liu, Keke Jia, Yichen Wang, Wei Shao, Chenhao Yao, Luming Peng, Dongmei Zhang, Xiao-Yu Hu, Leyong Wang
Supramolecular construction of multistimuli platform for drug delivery is a challenging task. In this work, a pH and GSH (glutathione) dual-responsive bola-type supramolecular amphiphile was successfully fabricated by the complexation between a water-soluble pillar[5]arene (WP5) and a bolaform naphthalimide guest (G) in water. The resulting bola-type amphiphile further self-assembled into supramolecular binary vesicles, which could be disassembled by low pH, a high-GSH-concentration environment, or both. Furthermore, the results of drug loading and releasing tests showed that doxorubicin (DOX), the hydrophobic anticancer drug, could be successfully encapsulated into the Stern region of the obtained supramolecular vesicles and generated the DOX-loaded vesicles with good drug-loading efficiency...
January 30, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090593/ultralm-and-minilm-locator-tools-for-smart-tracking-of-fluorescent-cells-in-correlative-light-and-electron-microscopy
#9
Elisabeth Brama, Christopher J Peddie, Gary Wilkes, Yan Gu, Lucy M Collinson, Martin L Jones
In-resin fluorescence (IRF) protocols preserve fluorescent proteins in resin-embedded cells and tissues for correlative light and electron microscopy, aiding interpretation of macromolecular function within the complex cellular landscape. Dual-contrast IRF samples can be imaged in separate fluorescence and electron microscopes, or in dual-modality integrated microscopes for high resolution correlation of fluorophore to organelle. IRF samples also offer a unique opportunity to automate correlative imaging workflows...
December 13, 2016: Wellcome Open Res
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079384/hypoxia-and-h2o2-dual-sensitive-vesicles-for-enhanced-glucose-responsive-insulin-delivery
#10
Jicheng Yu, Chenggen Qian, Yuqi Zhang, Zheng Cui, Yong Zhu, Qundong Shen, Frances S Ligler, John B Buse, Zhen Gu
A glucose-responsive closed-loop insulin delivery system mimicking pancreas activity without long-term side effect has the potential to improve diabetic patients' health and quality of life. Here, we developed a novel glucose-responsive insulin delivery device using a painless microneedle-array patch containing insulin-loaded vesicles. Formed by self-assembly of hypoxia and H2O2 dual-sensitive diblock copolymer, the glucose-responsive polymersome-based vesicles (d-GRPs) can disassociate and subsequently release insulin triggered by H2O2 and hypoxia generated during glucose oxidation catalyzed by glucose specific enzyme...
January 12, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029761/switchable-photonic-crystals-using-one-dimensional-confined-liquid-crystals-for-photonic-device-application
#11
Seong Ho Ryu, Min-Jun Gim, Wonsuk Lee, Suk-Won Choi, Dong Ki Yoon
Photonic crystals (PCs) have recently attracted considerable attention, with much effort devoted to photonic bandgap (PBG) control for varying the reflected color. Here, fabrication of a modulated one-dimensional (1D) anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) PC with a periodic porous structure is reported. The PBG of the fabricated PC can be reversibly changed by switching the ultraviolet (UV) light on/off. The AAO nanopores contain a mixture of photoresponsive liquid crystals (LCs) with irradiation-activated cis/trans photoisomerizable azobenzene...
January 10, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011995/delivery-of-foreign-cytotoxic-t-lymphocyte-epitopes-to-tumor-tissues-for-effective-antitumor-immunotherapy-against-pre-established-solid-tumors-in-mice
#12
Herbert W Kavunja, Shuyao Lang, Suttipun Sungsuwan, Zhaojun Yin, Xuefei Huang
Cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) can have remarkable abilities to kill tumor cells. However, the establishment of successful CTL-based anticancer therapy has met with many challenges. Within tumor cells, there exist subpopulations with low or no expression of the targeted antigen (termed as antigen-loss variants). In addition, tumor cells can downregulate the levels of major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) molecules on cell surface due to immune pressure. As a result, some tumor cells can escape the immune pressure bestowed by CTLs, resulting in treatment failure...
December 23, 2016: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998111/carbon-dot-coated-alginate-beads-as-a-smart-stimuli-responsive-drug-delivery-system
#13
Sristi Majumdar, Gargee Krishnatreya, Neelam Gogoi, Debajit Thakur, Devasish Chowdhury
In this work, we report a smart stimuli-responsive drug delivery system (DDS) that can release drug depending upon the amount of pathogen (MRSA) present in the target. A greater amount of MRSA in the system will lead to more release of drug and vice versa. Carbon-dot-coated novel alginate beads (CA-CD) exhibiting superior stability was successfully used as smart drug delivery vehicle. Garlic extract (GE), which contains allicin, was taken as model drug system to demonstrate the phenomena. It was observed that GE loading was 19 and 78% with CA and CA-CD, respectively...
December 21, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27996002/tunable-molecular-separation-by-nanoporous-membranes
#14
Zhengbang Wang, Alexander Knebel, Sylvain Grosjean, Danny Wagner, Stefan Bräse, Christof Wöll, Jürgen Caro, Lars Heinke
Metal-organic frameworks offer tremendous potential for efficient separation of molecular mixtures. Different pore sizes and suitable functionalizations of the framework allow for an adjustment of the static selectivity. Here we report membranes which offer dynamic control of the selectivity by remote signals, thus enabling a continuous adjustment of the permeate flux. This is realized by assembling linkers containing photoresponsive azobenzene-side-groups into monolithic, crystalline membranes of metal-organic frameworks...
December 20, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986812/barbiturates-bind-in-the-glic-ion-channel-pore-and-cause-inhibition-by-stabilizing-a-closed-state
#15
Zaineb Fourati, Reinis Reinholds Ruza, Duncan Laverty, Emmanuelle Drège, Sandrine Delarue-Cochin, Delphine Joseph, Patrice Koehl, Trevor Smart, Marc Delarue
Barbiturates induce anesthesia by modulating the activity of anionic and cationic pentameric ligand-gated ion channels (pLGICs). Despite more than a century of use in clinical practice, the prototypic binding site for this class of drugs within pLGICs is yet to be described. In this study, we present the first X-ray structures of barbiturates bound to GLIC, a cationic prokaryotic pLGIC with excellent structural homology to other relevant channels sensitive to general anesthetics and, as shown here, to barbiturates, at clinically relevant concentrations...
February 3, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27979747/dna-vaccination-for-cervical-cancer-a-novel-technology-platform-of-rala-mediated-gene-delivery-via-polymeric-microneedles
#16
A A Ali, C M McCrudden, J McCaffrey, J W McBride, G Cole, N J Dunne, T Robson, A Kissenpfennig, R F Donnelly, H O McCarthy
HPV subtypes (16, 18) are associated with the development of cervical cancer, with oncoproteins E6 and E7 responsible for pathogenesis. The goal of this study was to evaluate our 'smart system' technology platform for DNA vaccination against cervical cancer. The vaccination platform brings together two main components; a peptide RALA which condenses DNA into cationic nanoparticles (NPs), and a polymeric polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) microneedle (MN) patch for cutaneous delivery of the loaded NPs. RALA condensed E6/E7 DNA into NPs not exceeding 100nm in diameter, and afforded the DNA protection from degradation in PVP...
December 12, 2016: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27966641/resilin-microjoints-a-smart-design-strategy-to-avoid-failure-in-dragonfly-wings
#17
H Rajabi, A Shafiei, A Darvizeh, S N Gorb
Dragonflies are fast and manoeuvrable fliers and this ability is reflected in their unique wing morphology. Due to the specific lightweight structure, with the crossing veins joined by rubber-like resilin patches, wings possess strong deformability but can resist high forces and large deformations during aerial collisions. The computational results demonstrate the strong influence of resilin-containing vein joints on the stress distribution within the wing. The presence of flexible resilin in the contact region of the veins prevents excessive bending of the cross veins and significantly reduces the stress concentration in the joint...
December 14, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27958755/amphiphilic-ferrocene-containing-peg-block-copolymers-as-micellar-nanocarriers-and-smart-surfactants
#18
Arda Alkan, Sarah Wald, Benoit Louage, Bruno G De Geest, Katharina Landfester, Frederik R Wurm
An important and usually the only function of most surfactants in heterophase systems is stabilizing one phase in another, for example, droplets or particles in water. Surfactants with additional chemical or physical handles are promising in controlling the colloidal properties by external stimuli. The redox stimulus is an attractive feature; however, to date only a few ionic redox-responsive surfactants have been reported. Herein, the first nonionic and noncytotoxic ferrocene-containing block copolymers are prepared, carrying a hydrophilic poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) chain and multiple ferrocenes in the hydrophobic segment...
December 29, 2016: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936939/a-study-of-the-internal-construct-and-predictive-validity-of-the-smart-assessment-for-emergence-from-vegetative-state
#19
A Tennant, H Gill-Thwaites
OBJECTIVE: The Sensory Modality Assessment and Rehabilitation Technique (SMART) was developed to assess the levels of awareness, functional, sensory and communicative abilities of adults in vegetative (VS) or minimally-conscious states following severe brain injury. The current study seeks to ascertain if a total score can be derived from the individual assessments contained within SMART and to test the internal construct and predictive validity of that total score. SUBJECTS: Persons in VS were recruited over a 3-year period and current status was determined after a 17-year follow-up...
2017: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935003/a-temperature-ph-and-sugar-triple-stimuli-responsive-nanofluidic-diode
#20
Yu-Bin Zheng, Shuang Zhao, Shuo-Hui Cao, Sheng-Lin Cai, Xiu-Hong Cai, Yao-Qun Li
In this article, we have demonstrated for the first time a triple stimuli-responsive nanofluidic diode that can rectify ionic current under multiple external stimuli including temperature, pH, and sugar. This diode was fabricated by immobilizing poly[2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate]-co-[4-vinyl phenylboronic acid] (P(DMAEMA-co-VPBA)) onto the wall of a single glass conical nanopore channel via surface-initiator atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP). The copolymer brushes contain functional groups sensitive to pH, temperature and sugar that can induce charge and configuration change to affect the status of the pore wall...
January 7, 2017: Nanoscale
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