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Smart containers

William F Pickard, Barbara Abraham-Shrauner
The heat exchanger is important in practical thermal processes, especially those of (i) the molten-salt storage schemes, (ii) compressed air energy storage schemes and (iii) other load-shifting thermal storage presumed to undergird a Smart Grid. Such devices, although central to the utilization of energy from sustainable (but intermittent) renewable sources, will be unfamiliar to many scientists, who nevertheless need a working knowledge of them. This tutorial paper provides a largely self-contained conceptual introduction for such persons...
March 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Rikkert J Nap, Estefania Gonzalez Solveyra, Igal Szleifer
When engineering nanomaterials for application in biological systems, it is important to understand how multivalent ions, such as calcium, affect the structural and chemical properties of polymer-modified nanoconstructs. In this work, a recently developed molecular theory was employed to study the effect of surface curvature on the calcium-induced collapse of end-tethered weak polyelectrolytes. In particular, we focused on cylindrical and spherical nanoparticles coated with poly(acrylic acid) in the presence of different amounts of Ca2+ ions...
April 13, 2018: Biomaterials Science
I S Pretorius, J D Boeke
Historians of the future may well describe 2018 as the year that the world's first functional synthetic eukaryotic genome became a reality. Without the benefit of hindsight, it might be hard to completely grasp the long-term significance of a breakthrough moment in the history of science like this. The role of synthetic biology in the imminent birth of a budding Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast cell carrying 16 man-made chromosomes causes the world of science to teeter on the threshold of a future-defining scientific frontier...
June 1, 2018: FEMS Yeast Research
Ferran Paredes, Cristian Herrojo, Javier Mata-Contreras, Miquel Moras, Alba Núñez, Eloi Ramon, Ferran Martín
A chipless radio-frequency identification (chipless-RFID) and sensing system, where tags are read by proximity (near-field) through a switch, is presented. The tags consist of a set of identical resonant elements (split-ring resonators or SRRs), printed or etched at predefined and equidistant positions, forming a linear chain, each SRR providing a bit of information. The logic state ('1' or '0') associated with each resonator depends on whether it is present or not in the predefined position. The reader is an array of power splitters used to feed a set of SRR-loaded transmission lines (in equal number to the number of resonant elements, or bits, of the tag)...
April 9, 2018: Sensors
Lucille Babel, Laure Guénée, Céline Besnard, Svetlana V Eliseeva, Stéphane Petoud, Claude Piguet
Metal-containing (bio)organic polymers are materials of continuously increasing importance for applications in energy storage and conversion, drug delivery, shape-memory items, supported catalysts, organic conductors and smart photonic devices. The embodiment of luminescent components provides a revolution in lighting and signaling with the ever-increasing development of polymeric light-emitting devices. Despite the unique properties expected from the introduction of optically and magnetically active lanthanides into organic polymers, the deficient control of the metal loading currently limits their design to empirical and poorly reproducible materials...
January 14, 2018: Chemical Science
Justyna Pordzik, Katarzyna Pisarz, Salvatore De Rosa, Axel Dyve Jones, Ceren Eyileten, Ciro Indolfi, Lukasz Malek, Marek Postula
Platelet activation plays a pivotal role in the development and progression of atherosclerosis, which often leads to potentially fatal ischemic events at later stages of the disease. Platelets and platelet microvesicles (PMVs) contain large amounts of microRNA (miRNA), which contributes largely to the pool of circulating miRNAs. Hence, they represent a promising option for the development of innovative diagnostic biomarkers, that can be specific for the underlying etiology. Circulating miRNAs can be responsible for intracellular communication and may have a biological effect on target cells...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Bowen Ren, Xueyun Chen, Ye Ma, Shoukang Du, Saibo Qian, Yongjie Xu, Zhilin Yan, Jianliang Li, Yang Jia, Huaping Tan, Zhonghua Ling, Yong Chen, Xiaohong Hu
For practical adipose regeneration, the challenge is to dynamically deliver the key adipogenic insulin-like growth factors in hydrogels to induce adipogenesis. In order to achieve dynamic release, smart hydrogels to sense the change in the blood glucose concentration is required when glucose concentration increases. In this study, a heparin-based hydrogel has been developed for use in dynamic delivery of heparin nanospheres containing insulin-like growth factor. The gel scaffold was facilely prepared in physiological conditions by the formation of boronate-maltose ester cross-links between boronate and maltose groups of heparin derivatives...
April 3, 2018: Journal of Biomaterials Science. Polymer Edition
Gujie Qian, Rong Fan, Michael D Short, Russell Schumann, Jun Li, Roger St C Smart, Andrea R Gerson
Although the acid generating properties of pyrite (FeS2) have been studied extensively, the impact of galvanic interaction on pyrite oxidation, and the implications for acid and metalliferous drainage, remains largely unexplored. The relative galvanic effects on pyrite dissolution were found to be consistent with relative sulfide mineral surface area ratios with sphalerite (ZnS) having greater negative impact in batch leach tests (sulfide minerals only, controlled pH) and galena (PbS) having greater negative impact in kinetic leach column tests (KLCs, uncontrolled pH, >85 wt% silicate minerals)...
April 2, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Gleb Zilberstein, Roman Zilberstein, Uriel Maor, Pier Giorgio Righetti
A non-invasive mini-sensor for blood glucose concentration assessment has been developed. The monitoring is performed by gently pressing a wrist or fingertip onto the chemochromic mixture coating a thin glass or polymer film positioned on the back panel of a smart watch with PPG/HRM (photoplethysmographic/heart rate monitoring sensor). The various chemochromic components measure the absolute values of the following metabolites present in the sweat: acetone, acetone beta-hydroxybutirate, aceto acetate, water, carbon dioxide, lactate anion, pyruvic acid, Na and K salts...
April 2, 2018: Electrophoresis
Hua Jin, Mo Sun, Leilei Shi, Xinyuan Zhu, Wei Huang, Deyue Yan
As one of the promising prodrug strategies, amphiphilic polymeric prodrugs can be constructed by conjugating some small molecular hydrophobic anticancer drugs onto a hydrophilic biodegradable and biocompatible polymer, which further self-assembles into nanoparticles with controllable drug loading. Here, a biocompatible and biodegradable polyphosphoester and a broad-spectrum anticancer drug camptothecin (CPT) were selected as model compounds. We first designed and synthesized a novel cyclic phosphoester monomer (CPTSP) containing a disulfide bond linker and CPT as a side group...
March 29, 2018: Biomaterials Science
Thomas Kriechbaumer, Hans-Arno Jacobsen
Energy metering has gained popularity as conventional meters are replaced by electronic smart meters that promise energy savings and higher comfort levels for occupants. Achieving these goals requires a deeper understanding of consumption patterns to reduce the energy footprint: load profile forecasting, power disaggregation, appliance identification, startup event detection, etc. Publicly available datasets are used to test, verify, and benchmark possible solutions to these problems. For this purpose, we present the BLOND dataset: continuous energy measurements of a typical office environment at high sampling rates with common appliances and load profiles...
March 27, 2018: Scientific Data
Indranil Sinha, Partha Sarathi Mukherjee
The scholastic significance of supramolecular chemistry continues to grow with the recent development of catalytic transformations in confined space of supramolecular architectures. It has come a long way from a natural cavity containing molecules to modern smart materials capable of manipulating reaction pathways. The rise of self-assembled coordination complexes provided a diverse array of host structures. Starting from purely organic compounds to metalloligand surrogates, supramolecular host cavities were tuned according to the requirement of the reactions...
March 26, 2018: Inorganic Chemistry
Arvind Gautam, Miguel A Callejas, Amit Acharyya, Swati Ghosh Acharyya
This study introduced a shape memory alloy (SMA)-based smart knee spacer for total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Subsequently, a 3D CAD model of a smart tibial component of TKA was designed in Solidworks software, and verified using a finite element analysis in ANSYS Workbench. The two major properties of the SMA (NiTi), the pseudoelasticity (PE) and shape memory effect (SME), were exploited, modelled, and analysed for a TKA application. The effectiveness of the proposed model was verified in ANSYS Workbench through the finite element analysis (FEA) of the maximum deformation and equivalent (von Mises) stress distribution...
March 22, 2018: Medical Engineering & Physics
Ewa Wagner-Wysiecka, Natalia Łukasik, Jan F Biernat, Elżbieta Luboch
Azobenzene derivatives due to their photo- and electroactive properties are an important group of compounds finding applications in diverse fields. Due to the possibility of controlling the trans-cis isomerization, azo-bearing structures are ideal building blocks for development of e.g. nanomaterials, smart polymers, molecular containers, photoswitches, and sensors. Important role play also macrocyclic compounds well known for their interesting binding properties. In this article selected macrocyclic compounds bearing azo group(s) are comprehensively described...
2018: Journal of Inclusion Phenomena and Macrocyclic Chemistry
B Piyumi Wijesirigunawardana, B Gayani K Perera
The present study focused on using microencapsulation technique to develop an antioxidant and antibacterial active smart cotton fabric using encapsulated lime oil (LO). LO microcapsules were prepared via the complex coacervation method using chitosan and gum arabic wall materials. UV-Visible and FTIR spectrometry verified the successful encapsulation of LO. The synthesized LO microcapsules were irregular in shape and differed in size between 15-160 μm according to the optical and SEM images. The loading of the microcapsules was found to be 2943 ± 128 μL/g with a loading efficiency of 82 ± 4%...
March 2018: Acta Chimica Slovenica
Mindy Elizabeth Hair, Adrianna I Mathis, Erica K Brunelle, Lenka Halámková, Jan Halámek
Sweat is a biological fluid present on the skin surface of every individual and is known to contain amino acids as well as other low molecular weight compounds. Each individual is inherently different from one another based on certain factors including, but not limited to, his/her genetic make-up, environment, and lifestyle. As such, the biochemical composition of each person greatly differs. The concentrations of the biochemical content within an individual's sweat are largely controlled by metabolic processes within the body that fluctuate regularly based on attributes such as age, gender, and activity levels...
March 21, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
María Andrea Hernández-Castañeda, Smart Mbagwu, Kehinde Adebayo Babatunde, Michael Walch, Luis Filgueira, Pierre-Yves Mantel
Malaria is a life-threatening disease caused by Plasmodium parasites, with P. falciparum being the most prevalent on the African continent and responsible for most malaria-related deaths globally. Several factors including parasite sequestration in tissues, vascular dysfunction, and inflammatory responses influence the evolution of the disease in malaria-infected people. P. falciparum-infected red blood cells (iRBCs) release small extracellular vesicles (EVs) containing different kinds of cargo molecules that mediate pathogenesis and cellular communication between parasites and host...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Ane Alberdi Aramendi, Alyssa Weakley, Asier Aztiria Goenaga, Maureen Schmitter-Edgecombe, Diane J Cook
In the context of an aging population, tools to help elderly to live independently must be developed. The goal of this paper is to evaluate the possibility of using unobtrusively collected activity-aware smart home behavioral data to automatically detect one of the most common consequences of aging: functional health decline. After gathering the longitudinal smart home data of 29 older adults for an average of > 2 years, we automatically labeled the data with corresponding activity classes and extracted time-series statistics containing 10 behavioral features...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Informatics
Haeree Park, Yeongkyu Choi, M T Jeena, Eungjin Ahn, Yuri Choi, Myeong-Gyun Kang, Chae Gyu Lee, Tae-Hyuk Kwon, Hyun-Woo Rhee, Ja-Hyoung Ryu, Byeong-Su Kim
Owing to the unique advantages of combining the characteristics of hydrogels and nanoparticles, nanogels are actively investigated as a promising platform for advanced biomedical applications. In this work, a self-cross-linked hyperbranched polyglycerol nanogel is synthesized using the thiol-disulfide exchange reaction based on a novel disulfide-containing polymer. A series of structural analyses confirm the tunable size and cross-linking density depending on the type of polymer (homo- or copolymer) and the amount of reducing agent, dithiothreitol, used in the preparation of the nanogels...
March 15, 2018: Macromolecular Bioscience
Wenjun Zhan, Yangcui Qu, Ting Wei, Changming Hu, Yue Pan, Qian Yu, Hong Chen
Smart bioactive surfaces that can modulate interactions with biological systems are of great interest. In this work, a surface with switchable bioactivity in response to sugars has been developed. It is based on dynamic covalent bonding between phenylboronic acid (PBA) and secondary hydroxyls on the "wide" rim of β-cyclodextrin. The system reported consists of gold surface modified with PBA-containing polymer brushes and a series of functional β-cyclodextrin derivatives conjugated to diverse bioactive ligands (CD-X)...
March 13, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
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