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Pierre E Affaticati, Shao-Bo Dai, Panwajee Payongsri, Helen C Hailes, Kai Tittmann, Paul A Dalby
The S385Y/D469T/R520Q variant of E. coli transketolase was evolved previously with three successive smart libraries, each guided by different structural, bioinformatical or computational methods. Substrate-walking progressively shifted the target acceptor substrate from phosphorylated aldehydes, towards a non-phosphorylated polar aldehyde, a non-polar aliphatic aldehyde, and finally a non-polar aromatic aldehyde. Kinetic evaluations on three benzaldehyde derivatives, suggested that their active-site binding was differentially sensitive to the S385Y mutation...
October 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
Ming Dai, Xueliang Xiao, Xin Chen, Haoming Lin, Wanqing Wu, Siping Chen
With the increasing aging population as well as health concerns, chronic heart disease has become the focus of public attention. A comfortable, low-powered, and wearable electrocardiogram (ECG) system for continuously monitoring the elderly's ECG signals over several hours is important for preventing cardiovascular diseases. Traditional ECG monitoring apparatus is often inconvenient to carry, has many electrodes to attach to the chest, and has a high-power consumption. There is also a challenge to design an electrocardiograph that satisfies requirements such as comfort, confinement, and compactness...
October 14, 2016: Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine
Rachel N Fish, Magnolia Bostick, Alisa Lehman, Andrew Farmer
RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) is a powerful method for analyzing cell state, with minimal bias, and has broad applications within the biological sciences. However, transcriptome analysis of seemingly homogenous cell populations may in fact overlook significant heterogeneity that can be uncovered at the single-cell level. The ultra-low amount of RNA contained in a single cell requires extraordinarily sensitive and reproducible transcriptome analysis methods. As next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies mature, transcriptome profiling by RNA-seq is increasingly being used to decipher the molecular signature of individual cells...
October 10, 2016: Current Protocols in Molecular Biology
Emily L Newman, Georgia Gunner, Polly Huynh, Darrel Gachette, Stephen J Moss, Trevor G Smart, Uwe Rudolph, Joseph F DeBold, Klaus A Miczek
BACKGROUND: Alcohol use disorders are associated with single-nucleotide polymorphisms in GABRA2, the gene encoding the GABAA receptor α2-subunit in humans. Deficient GABAergic functioning is linked to impulse control disorders, intermittent explosive disorder, and to drug abuse and dependence, yet it remains unclear whether α2-containing GABAA receptor sensitivity to endogenous ligands is involved in excessive alcohol drinking. METHODS: Male wild-type (Wt) C57BL/6J and point-mutated mice rendered insensitive to GABAergic modulation by benzodiazepines (BZD; H101R), allopregnanolone (ALLO) or tetrahydrodeoxycorticosterone (THDOC; Q241M), or high concentrations of ethanol (EtOH) (S270H/L277A) at α2-containing GABAA receptors were assessed for their binge-like, moderate, or escalated chronic drinking using drinking in the dark, continuous access (CA) and intermittent access (IA) to alcohol protocols, respectively...
September 26, 2016: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Jun Li, Dajeong Yim, Woo-Dong Jang, Juyoung Yoon
Crown ethers, discovered by the winner of the Nobel Prize Charles Pedersen, are cyclic chemical compounds that consist of a ring or multiple rings containing several ether groups that are capable of binding alkali ions. A smart fluorescent probe containing a crown ether moiety could be developed as a sensor for metal ions, anions and other bio-molecules and be further applied to monitor the relevant biological process in vivo. This review highlights recent advances which can be divided into seven parts: (i) fluorescent probes containing a simple crown ether or an aza-crown ether structure; (ii) fluorescent probes containing an azathia crown ether; (iii) fluorescent probes containing a cryptand; (iv) fluorescent probes containing two or more binding sites; (v) crown ether derivatives-metal complex assisted chemosensing of bioactive species; (vi) crown ether-based chemosensors for bioactive molecular detection; and (vii) efforts to improve biological relevance...
September 26, 2016: Chemical Society Reviews
Tingjie Yin, Jiyong Liu, Zekai Zhao, Lihui Dong, Han Cai, Lifang Yin, Jianping Zhou, Meirong Huo
Co-delivery systems capable of transporting hydrophobic chemotherapeutics and hydrophilic siRNA to the same cell population with simultaneous burst release of both drugs to maximize synergistic anticancer efficacy remains elusive. In this light, a multifunctional nanoparticle (HA-PSR) consisting of a redox-sensitive core and detachable crosslinked hyaluronic acid (HA) shell was developed. Octyl modified PEI containing disulfide linkages (PSR) were synthesized as the core materials for co-encapsulation of chemotherapeutics and siRNA, while a HAase-sensitive thiolated HA (HA-SH) was collaboratively assembled to the anionic shell for CD44-mediated active targeting along with enhanced and detachable protection for drug loaded inner cores...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Danyang Liu, Sijia Wang, Shouhong Xu, Honglai Liu
Azobenzene-contained glycolipids GlyAzoCns, newly structured azobenzene derivatives, which have an azobenzene moiety between the galactosyl and carbon chains of various sizes, have been synthesized. The GlyAzoCns undergo reversible photo-induced isomerization in both ethanol solution (free state) and liposomal bilayer (restricted state) upon irradiation with UV and Vis-light alternately. The drug release of Liposome@Gly induced by isomerization was found to be an instantaneous behavior. The photo-induced control of DOX release from liposome was investigated in various modes...
September 26, 2016: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Alexander Ryabchun, Ivan Raguzin, Joachim Stumpe, Valery Shibaev, Alexey Bobrovsky
The past two decades witnessed tremendous progress in the field of creation of different types of responsive materials. Cholesteric polymer networks present a very promising class of smart materials due to the combination of the unique optical properties of cholesteric mesophase and high mechanical properties of polymer networks. In the present work we demonstrate the possibility of fast and reversible photocontrol of the optical properties of cholesteric polymer networks. Several cholesteric photopolymerizable mixtures are prepared, and porous cholesteric network films with different helix pitches are produced by polymerization of these mixtures...
October 12, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
David E Messenger, Nathan J Curtis, Adam Jones, Emma L Jones, Neil J Smart, Nader K Francis
OBJECTIVE: To perform a systematic review of published literature for the factors reported to predict outcomes of enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) programmes following laparoscopic colorectal surgery. BACKGROUND: ERAS programmes and the use of laparoscopy have been widely adopted in colorectal surgery bringing short-term patient benefit. However, there is a minority of patients that do not benefit from these strategies and their identification is not well characterised...
September 8, 2016: Surgical Endoscopy
Jessica R L Lieffers, Helen Haresign, Christine Mehling, Rhona M Hanning
BACKGROUND: Little is known about use of goal setting and tracking tools within online programs to support nutrition and physical activity behaviour change. In 2011, Dietitians of Canada added "My Goals," a nutrition and physical activity behaviour goal setting and tracking tool to their free publicly available self-monitoring website (eaTracker® ( )). My Goals allows users to: a) set "ready-made" SMART (Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Realistic, Time-related) goals (choice of n = 87 goals from n = 13 categories) or "write your own" goals, and b) track progress using the "My Goals Tracker...
2016: BMC Public Health
Etienne Couturier
Thin vegetal shells have recently been a significant source of inspiration for the design of smart materials and soft actuators. Herein is presented a novel analytical family of isometric deformations with a family of θ-folds crossing a family of parallel z-folds; it contains the isometric deformations of a banana-shaped surface inspired by a seedpod, which converts a vertical closing into either an horizontal closing or an opening depending on the location of the fold. Similarly to the seedpod, optimum shapes for opening ease are the most elongated ones...
August 2016: Proceedings. Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
Chen-Yi Lin, Yuan-Hung Kao, Wei-Bin Lee, Rong-Chang Chen
With the popularity of smart handheld devices and the emergence of cloud computing, users and companies can save various data, which may contain private data, to the cloud. Topics relating to data security have therefore received much attention. This study focuses on data stream environments and uses the concept of a sliding window to design a reversible privacy-preserving technology to process continuous data in real time, known as a continuous reversible privacy-preserving (CRP) algorithm. Data with CRP algorithm protection can be accurately recovered through a data recovery process...
2016: SpringerPlus
Alexander S Timin, Kirill V Lepik, Albert R Muslimov, Dmitry A Gorin, Boris V Afanasyev, Gleb B Sukhorukov
In this report, we investigated intracellular redox induced drug release in cancerous cells and human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) as an example of healthy cells using redox-responsive microcapsules with covalently bonded anti-cancer drug (doxorubicin) via the amine-reactive cross-linker, 3,3'-dithiobis(sulfosuccinimidyl propionate) containing disulfide bond. Such rationally designed capsules with incorporated redox-sensitive cross-linker are capable of controllable Dox release in the presence of glutathione (GSH) due to a thiol-cleavable disulfide bonds...
November 1, 2016: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Jian Jiao, Chang Liu, Xian Li, Jie Liu, Donghua Di, Ying Zhang, Qinfu Zhao, Siling Wang
In this paper, a smart nanocarrier (MSNs-SS-CDPAA) is developed for redox-responsive controlled drug delivery and in vivo bioimaging by grafting fluorescent carbon dots to the surface of mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) via disulfide bonds. The polyanion polymer poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) was used to prepare the carboxyl-abundant carbon dots (CDPAA) by hydrothermal polymerization. The negatively charged CDPAA were anchored to the openings of MSNs containing the disulfide bonds through amidation and were used as gatekeepers for trapping the drugs within the pores...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Ameya R Narkar, Brett Barker, Matthew Clisch, Jingfeng Jiang, Bruce P Lee
A smart adhesive capable of binding to a wetted surface was prepared by copolymerizing dopamine methacrylamide (DMA) and 3-acrylamido phenylboronic acid (AAPBA). pH was used to control the oxidation state and the adhesive property of the catechol side chain of DMA and to trigger the catechol-boronate complexation. FTIR spectroscopy confirmed the formation of the complex at pH 9, which was not present at pH 3. The formation of the catechol-boronate complex increased the cross-linking density of the adhesive network...
August 9, 2016: Chemistry of Materials: a Publication of the American Chemical Society
Muhammad Jbara, Shay Laps, Suman Kumar Maity, Ashraf Brik
The design and synthesis of biomolecules that are responsive to external stimuli is of great interest in various research areas, such as in the preparation of smart biomaterial and chemical biology. Polypeptide backbone disassembly as a response to a particular stimulus is of interest, as it leads to a complete loss of the protein tertiary structure and, as a result, to a loss of function. In this study, a strategy based on palladium-assisted efficient cleavage of backbone thiazolidine linkage in peptides and proteins was developed...
October 10, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
B L Huang, X K Zhang, Y Y Li, D Y Li, M Y Ma, D T Cai, W H Wu, B Q Huang
Eruca vesicaria subsp sativa is one of the most tolerant Cruciferae species to drought, and dehydration-responsive element-binding protein 2A (DREB2A) is involved in responses to salinity, heat, and particularly drought. In this study, a gene encoding EvDREB2A was cloned and characterized in E. vesicaria subsp sativa. The full-length EvDREB2A cDNA sequence contained a 388-bp 5'-untranslated region (UTR), a 348-bp 3'-UTR, and a 1002-bp open reading frame that encoded 334 amino acid residues. The theoretical isoelectric point of the EvDREB2A protein was 4...
2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
M A Zaimy, A Jebali, B Bazrafshan, S Mehrtashfar, S Shabani, A Tavakoli, S H Hekmatimoghaddam, A Sarli, H Azizi, P Izadi, B Kazemi, A Shojaei, A Abdalaian, J Tavakkoly-Bazzaz
The aim of this study was to evaluate an engineered nanostructure to silence five important oncogenes, including BAG1, MDM2, Bcl-2, BIRC5 (survivin) and XIAP, in acute myeloid leukemia subtype 2 (AML-M2). The smart nanostructures were functionalized gold nanoparticles (FGNs) containing five antisense oligonucleotides (AOs) and one anti-CD33(+)/CD34(+) aptamer. First, the best AO for each gene was selected with the OligoWalk online software, and then different arrangements of AOs were evaluated with the RNAstructure software...
September 2016: Cancer Gene Therapy
Lorena Tavano, Rita Muzzalupo
Delivering chemotherapy specifically, effectively and safely to tumor remains a significant challenge in recent years. Although cancer cells are more vulnerable than normal to the effect of anticancer agents, these drugs are non-selective and can cause injury to normal tissues. Different approaches i.e. passive, active and magnetic targeting, smart devices with appropriate stimuli-sensitive properties or drugs combinations, have been already proposed as single methods, contributing to minimize severe side effects and enhancing tumor-targeting efficacy...
November 1, 2016: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Abdolrahim Abbaszad Rafi, Mehrdad Mahkam, Soodabeh Davaran, Hamed Hamishehkar
A smart pH-responsive drug nano-carrier for controlled release of anti-cancer therapeutics was developed through a facile route. The nano-carrier consisted of two main parts: first, the nano-container part (that mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MCM-41) were selected for this aim); and second, pH-sensitive gatekeepers (that a pH-sensitive polymer, Poly4-vinylpyridine, played this role). In the first step, MCM-41 was synthesized via template assisted sol-gel process. In the second step, polymerizable functional groups were attached onto pore entrances rather than inside walls...
October 10, 2016: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
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