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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166704/the-prevalence-and-causes-of-visual-impairment-in-seven-year-old-children
#1
Soraya Ghaderi, Hassan Hashemi, Ebrahim Jafarzadehpur, Abbasali Yekta, Hadi Ostadimoghaddam, Ali Mirzajani, Mehdi Khabazkhoob
BACKGROUND: To report the prevalence and causes of visual impairment in seven-year-old children in Iran and its relationship with socio-economic conditions. METHODS: In a cross-sectional population-based study, first-grade students in the primary schools of eight cities in the country were randomly selected from different geographic locations using multistage cluster sampling. The examinations included visual acuity measurement, ocular motility evaluation, and cycloplegic and non-cycloplegic refraction...
November 22, 2017: Clinical & Experimental Optometry: Journal of the Australian Optometrical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166670/age-related-differences-in-the-respiratory-microbiota-of-chickens
#2
Laura Glendinning, Gerry McLachlan, Lonneke Vervelde
In this era of next generation sequencing technologies it is now possible to characterise the chicken respiratory microbiota without the biases inherent to traditional culturing techniques. However, little research has been performed in this area. In this study we characterise and compare buccal, nasal and lung microbiota samples from chickens in three different age groups using 16S rRNA gene analysis. Buccal and nasal swabs were taken from birds aged 2 days (n = 5), 3 weeks (n = 5) and 30 months (n = 6). Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples were also collected alongside reagent only controls...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166641/agrowastes-as-feedstock-for-the-production-of-endo-%C3%AE-xylanase-from-cohnella-sp-strain-ar92
#3
José H Pisa, Adriana P Manfredi, Nora I Perotti, Héctor G Romero, Javier D Breccia, María Alejandra Martínez
Members of Cohnella sp. isolated from a variety of environments have been shown to be glycoside hydrolase producers. Nevertheless, most evaluations of members of this genus are limited to their taxonomic description. The strain AR92, previously identified as belonging to the genus Cohnella, formed a well-supported cluster with C. thailandensis and C. formosensis (>80% bootstrap confidence). Its growth and xylanase production were approached by using a mineral-based medium containing alkali-pretreated sugarcane bagasse as the main carbon source, which was assayed as a convenient source to produce biocatalysts potentially fitting its degradation...
November 23, 2017: Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166618/ipsc-based-compound-screening-and-in%C3%A2-vitro-trials-identify-a-synergistic-anti-amyloid-%C3%AE-combination-for-alzheimer-s-disease
#4
Takayuki Kondo, Keiko Imamura, Misato Funayama, Kayoko Tsukita, Michiyo Miyake, Akira Ohta, Knut Woltjen, Masato Nakagawa, Takashi Asada, Tetsuaki Arai, Shinobu Kawakatsu, Yuishin Izumi, Ryuji Kaji, Nobuhisa Iwata, Haruhisa Inoue
In the process of drug development, in vitro studies do not always adequately predict human-specific drug responsiveness in clinical trials. Here, we applied the advantage of human iPSC-derived neurons, which offer human-specific drug responsiveness, to screen and evaluate therapeutic candidates for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Using AD patient neurons with nearly 100% purity from iPSCs, we established a robust and reproducible assay for amyloid β peptide (Aβ), a pathogenic molecule in AD, and screened a pharmaceutical compound library...
November 21, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166559/dynamic-nature-of-thiolate-monolayer-in-au25-sr-18-nanoclusters
#5
Giovanni Salassa, Annelies Sels, Fabrizio Mancin, Thomas Burgi
Thiolate monolayer, protecting gold nanocluster, is the principal responsible of their chemical behavior and their interaction with the environment. Understanding the parameters that influence the sta-bility and reactivity of the monolayer will enable its precise and controlled functionalization. Here we present a protocol for the investigation of the monolayer reactivity in Au25(SR)18 based on MALDI mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy. Thiol ex-change reaction between cluster and thiol molecules has been inves-tigated showing how this reaction is affected by the thiol affinity for Au25...
November 22, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166477/regional-differences-in-infection-control-conditions-in-a-sample-of-primary-health-care-services-in-brazil
#6
Mauro Henrique Nogueira Guimarães de Abreu, Vera Lúcia Silva Resende, Kyu Ha Lee, Antônio Thomaz Gonzaga da Matta-Machado, Jacqueline Rose Starr
International guidelines have pointed out the importance of the physical environment of health care facilities in preventing and controlling infection. We aimed to describe the physical environment of dental care facilities in Brazil in 2014, focusing on characteristics designed to control infections. Exactly 16,202 dental offices in the Brazilian Unified National Health System (SUS) participated in this survey. Trained researchers extracted information about the infection control characteristics of health facilities by using a structured instrument...
November 21, 2017: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166439/the-geographic-information-system-applied-to-study-schistosomiasis-in-pernambuco
#7
Verônica Santos Barbosa, Rodrigo Moraes Loyo, Ricardo José de Paula Souza E Guimarães, Constança Simões Barbosa
OBJECTIVE: Diagnose risk environments for schistosomiasis in coastal localities of Pernambuco using geoprocessing techniques. METHODS: A coproscopic and malacological survey were carried out in the Forte Orange and Serrambi areas. Environmental variables (temperature, salinity, pH, total dissolved solids and water fecal coliform dosage) were collected from Biomphalaria breeding sites or foci. The spatial analysis was performed using ArcGis 10.1 software, applying the kernel estimator, elevation map, and distance map...
2017: Revista de Saúde Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166403/integration-of-molecular-typing-results-into-tuberculosis-surveillance-in-germany-a-pilot-study
#8
Marta Andrés, Elke Göhring-Zwacka, Lena Fiebig, Martin Priwitzer, Elvira Richter, Sabine Rüsch-Gerdes, Walter Haas, Stefan Niemann, Bonita Brodhun
An integrated molecular surveillance for tuberculosis (TB) improves the understanding of ongoing TB transmission by combining molecular typing and epidemiological data. However, the implementation of an integrated molecular surveillance for TB is complex and requires thoughtful consideration of feasibility, demand, public health benefits and legal issues. We aimed to pilot the integration of molecular typing results between 2008 and 2010 in the German Federal State of Baden-Württemberg (population 10.88 Million) as preparation for a nationwide implementation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166319/cardiometabolic-impact-of-changing-sitting-standing-and-stepping-in-the-workplace
#9
Elisabeth Ah Winkler, Sebastien Chastin, Elizabeth G Eakin, Neville Owen, Anthony D LaMontagne, Marj Moodie, Paddy C Dempsey, Bronwyn A Kingwell, David W Dunstan, Genevieve N Healy
BACKGROUND: According to cross-sectional and acute experimental evidence, reducing sitting time should improve cardio-metabolic health risk biomarkers. Furthermore, the improvements obtained may depend on whether sitting is replaced with standing or ambulatory activities. Based on data from the Stand Up Victoria multi-component workplace intervention, we examined this issue using compositional data analysis - a method that can examine and compare all activity changes simultaneously. METHODS: Participants receiving the intervention (n=136 ≥0...
November 21, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166193/traditional-method-of-initial-diarrhea-treatment-in-children
#10
Kristian Ade Chandra, Dessie Wanda
Diarrhea is the most common cause of death in children. For diarrhea, home treatment should be administered by parents to prevent diarrheal complications. The purpose of this research was to investigate the traditional method of diarrhea treatment in Tegal regency, Central Java, Indonesia. A descriptive study was conducted with the aim of describing the traditional method of home treatment for diarrhea in children. The study sample included families with children who were experiencing or had experienced diarrhea and had received traditional medicine...
2017: Compr Child Adolesc Nurs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166189/the-utilization-of-traditional-medicine-to-treat-fever-in-children-in-western-javanese-culture
#11
Tiany Futihat Maulida, Dessie Wanda
Fever regularly affects toddlers and may make their parents uneasy. This study aimed to identify common traditional medicines used by parents to treat their children's fever at home. The study was conducted in Karyasari, Leuwiliang, Bogor District. It was descriptive in design, and the instrument used was a questionnaire developed by the authors. A group of 106 respondents was selected through the cluster sampling method. All respondents were female; the youngest was 20 years old, and the oldest was 53 years old...
2017: Compr Child Adolesc Nurs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166129/initial-observations-of-intra-and-inter-fractional-motion-variation-in-mr-guided-lung-sbrt
#12
David H Thomas, Anand Santhanam, Amar U Kishan, Minsong Cao, James Lamb, Yugang Min, Dylan O'Connell, Yingli Yang, Nzhde Agazaryan, Percy Lee, Daniel Low
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate variations in intra- and inter-fractional tumor motion, and the effect on ITV contour accuracy, using deformable image registration of real-time 2D-sagital cine-mode MRI acquired during lung SBRT treatments. METHODS: Five lung tumor patients underwent free breathing SBRT treatments on the ViewRay system, with dose prescribed to a planning target volume (PTV; defined as a 3-6 mm expansion of the 4DCT-ITV). Sagittal slice cine-MR images (3.5x3...
November 22, 2017: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166118/photofragmentation-of-gas-phase-acetic-acid-and-acetamide-clusters-in-the-vacuum-ultraviolet-region
#13
Marta Berholts, Hanna Myllynen, Kuno Kooser, Eero Itälä, Sari Granroth, Helena Levola, Joakim Laksman, Shabnam Oghbaiee, Bart Oostenrijk, Ergo Nõmmiste, Edwin Kukk
Photofragmentation of gas-phase acetamide and acetic acid clusters produced by a supersonic expansion source has been studied using time-of-flight mass spectrometry and the partial ion yield (PIY) technique combined with tunable vacuum-ultraviolet synchrotron radiation. Appearance energies of the clusters and their fragments were experimentally determined from the PIY measurements. The effect of clusterization conditions on the formation and fragmentation of acetic acid clusters was investigated. Ab initio quantum mechanical calculations were performed on both samples' dimers to find their neutral and ionized geometries as well as proton transfer energy barriers leading to the optimal geometries...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166116/theoretical-study-of-photodetachment-spectroscopy-of-hydrogenated-boron-cluster-anion-h2b7-and-its-deuterated-isotopomer
#14
Rudraditya Sarkar, S Mahapatra
Photodetachment spectroscopy of H2B7(-) and its deuterated isotopomer probing the energetically low-lying electronic states of the respective neutral cluster is theoretically investigated in this paper. The theoretical methodology is based on detailed quantum chemistry calculations of electronic state energies, construction of a vibronic coupling model in the diabatic electronic basis, and nuclear dynamics calculations from first principles using time-dependent and time-independent quantum mechanical methods...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166115/resonant-electron-attachment-to-mixed-hydrogen-oxygen-and-deuterium-oxygen-clusters
#15
Michael Renzler, Lorenz Kranabetter, Erik Barwa, Lukas Grubwieser, Paul Scheier, Andrew M Ellis
Low energy electron attachment to mixed (H2)x/(O2)y clusters and their deuterated analogs has been investigated for the first time. These experiments were carried out using liquid helium nanodroplets to form the clusters, and the effect of the added electron was then monitored via mass spectrometry. There are some important differences between electron attachment to the pure clusters and to the mixed clusters. A particularly notable feature is the formation of HO2(-) and H2O(-) ions from an electron-induced chemical reaction between the two dopants...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166093/a-study-of-the-dense-uniform-electron-gas-with-high-orders-of-coupled-cluster
#16
Verena A Neufeld, Alex J W Thom
We investigate the accuracies of different coupled cluster levels in a finite model solid, the 14 electron spin-non-polarised uniform electron gas. For densities between rs = 0.5 a0 and rs = 5 a0, we calculate ground state correlation energies with stochastic coupled cluster ranging from coupled cluster singles and doubles (CCSD) to coupled cluster including all excitations up to quintuples (CCSDTQ5). We find the need to add triple excitations for an accuracy of 0.01 eV/electron beyond rs = 0.5 a0. Quadruple excitations start being significant past rs = 3 a0...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166082/ionic-versus-metallic-bonding-in-alnnam-and-alnmgm-m-%C3%A2-3-n-m-%C3%A2-15-clusters
#17
Cameron J Grover, Arthur C Reber, Shiv N Khanna
First principles electronic structure studies on the ground state geometries, stability, and the electronic structure of AlnNam and AlnMgm (m ≤ 3, n + m ≤ 15) clusters have been carried out to examine the nature of bonding between Na or Mg and Al. Identifying whether the bonding is ionic or metallic in bulk materials is typically straightforward; however, in small clusters where quantum confinement is important, the nature of bonding may become unclear. We have performed a critical analysis of the bonding in these bimetallic clusters using charge analysis, electrical dipole moments, hybridization of the atomic orbitals, the Laplacian of the charge density at the bond critical points, and the change in the bonding energy between neutral and anionic forms of the cluster...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166070/effect-of-the-diradical-character-on-static-polarizabilities-and-two-photon-absorption-cross-sections-a-closer-look-with-spin-flip-equation-of-motion-coupled-cluster-singles-and-doubles-method
#18
Kaushik D Nanda, Anna I Krylov
We present static polarizabilities and two-photon absorption (2PA) cross sections for the low-lying electronic states of prototypical diradicals such as benzynes and analogues of m-xylylene and p-quinodimethane computed with the spin-flip equation-of-motion coupled-cluster singles and doubles (EOM-SF-CCSD) method. The static polarizabilities were calculated as analytic second derivatives of the EOM energies, and the 2PA cross sections were calculated using the expectation-value approach. We explain the trends in the nonlinear responses of the SF target states by constructing few-states models based on truncated sum-over-states expressions for these nonlinear properties...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166056/understanding-the-effects-of-electronic-polarization-and-delocalization-on-charge-transport-levels-in-oligoacene-systems
#19
Christopher Sutton, Naga Rajesh Tummala, Travis Kemper, Saadullah G Aziz, John Sears, Veaceslav Coropceanu, Jean-Luc Brédas
Electronic polarization and charge delocalization are important aspects that affect the charge-transport levels in organic materials. Here, using a quantum mechanical/embedded-charge (QM/EC) approach based on a combination of the long-range corrected ωB97X-D exchange-correlation functional (QM) and charge model 5 (CM5) point-charge model (EC), we evaluate the vertical detachment energies and polarization energies of various sizes of crystalline and amorphous anionic oligoacene clusters. Our results indicate that QM/EC calculations yield vertical detachment energies and polarization energies that compare well with the experimental values obtained from ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy measurements...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166049/interaction-of-rigid-c3n-with-he-potential-energy-surface-bound-states-and-rotational-spectrum
#20
Miguel Lara-Moreno, Thierry Stoecklin, Philippe Halvick
A two-dimensional rigid rotor model of the potential energy surface is developed for the collision of C3N(-) with He. Ab initio calculations are performed at the coupled cluster level with single and double excitations and using a perturbative treatment of triple excitations. An augmented correlation consistent polarized valence quadruple zeta basis set complemented with a set of mid-bond functions is chosen for these calculations. The global T-shaped minimum (De = 62.114 cm(-1)) is found at the intermolecular distance R = 6...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
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