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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926991/human-mitochondrial-nucleases
#1
REVIEW
Francesco Bruni, Robert N Lightowlers, Zofia M Chrzanowska-Lightowlers
Mitochondria are cytosolic organelles that have many essential roles including ATP production via oxidative phosphorylation, apoptosis, iron-sulphur cluster biogenesis, heme and steroid synthesis, calcium homeostasis and regulation of cellular redox state. One of the unique features of these organelles is the presence of an extra-chromosomal mitochondrial genome (mtDNA), together with all the machinery required to replicate and transcribe mtDNA. The accurate maintenance of mitochondrial gene expression is essential for correct organellar metabolism, and is in part dependent on the levels of mtDNA and mt-RNA, which are regulated by balancing synthesis against degradation...
December 7, 2016: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926936/scaling-properties-of-dimensionality-reduction-for-neural-populations-and-network-models
#2
Ryan C Williamson, Benjamin R Cowley, Ashok Litwin-Kumar, Brent Doiron, Adam Kohn, Matthew A Smith, Byron M Yu
Recent studies have applied dimensionality reduction methods to understand how the multi-dimensional structure of neural population activity gives rise to brain function. It is unclear, however, how the results obtained from dimensionality reduction generalize to recordings with larger numbers of neurons and trials or how these results relate to the underlying network structure. We address these questions by applying factor analysis to recordings in the visual cortex of non-human primates and to spiking network models that self-generate irregular activity through a balance of excitation and inhibition...
December 2016: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926928/an-interactome-centered-protein-discovery-approach-reveals-novel-components-involved-in-mitosome-function-and-homeostasis-in-giardia-lamblia
#3
Samuel Rout, Jon Paulin Zumthor, Elisabeth M Schraner, Carmen Faso, Adrian B Hehl
Protozoan parasites of the genus Giardia are highly prevalent globally, and infect a wide range of vertebrate hosts including humans, with proliferation and pathology restricted to the small intestine. This narrow ecological specialization entailed extensive structural and functional adaptations during host-parasite co-evolution. An example is the streamlined mitosomal proteome with iron-sulphur protein maturation as the only biochemical pathway clearly associated with this organelle. Here, we applied techniques in microscopy and protein biochemistry to investigate the mitosomal membrane proteome in association to mitosome homeostasis...
December 2016: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926852/polar-localization-of-the-serine-chemoreceptor-of-escherichia-coli-is-nucleoid-exclusion-dependent
#4
Ramakanth Neeli-Venkata, Sofia Startceva, Teppo Annila, Andre S Ribeiro
We studied whether nucleoid exclusion contributes to the segregation and retention of Tsr chemoreceptor clusters at the cell poles. Using live time-lapse, single-cell microscopy measurements, we show that the single-cell spatial distributions of Tsr clusters have heterogeneities and asymmetries that are consistent with nucleoid exclusion and cannot be explained by the diffusion-and-capture mechanism supported by Tol-Pal complexes at the poles. Also, in cells subjected to ampicillin, which enhances relative nucleoid lengths, Tsr clusters locate relatively closer to the cell extremities, whereas in anucleated cells (deletion mutants for mukB), the Tsr clusters are closer to midcell...
December 6, 2016: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926845/membrane-bound-alpha-synuclein-clusters-induce-impaired-lipid-diffusion-and-increased-lipid-packing
#5
Aditya Iyer, Nathalie Schilderink, Mireille M A E Claessens, Vinod Subramaniam
The aggregation of membrane-bound α-synuclein (αS) into oligomers and/or amyloid fibrils has been suggested to cause membrane damage in in vitro model phospholipid membrane systems and in vivo. In this study, we investigate how αS interactions that precede the formation of well-defined aggregates influence physical membrane properties. Using three truncated variants of αS with different aggregation propensities and comparable phospholipid membrane binding affinities we show, using fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) and fluorescence anisotropy measurements, that formation of αS clusters on supported lipid bilayers (SLBs) impairs lateral lipid diffusion and increases lipid packing beneath the αS clusters...
December 6, 2016: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926817/description-of-immundisolibacter-cernigliae-gen-nov-sp-nov-a-high-molecular-weight-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbon-degrading-bacterium-within-the-class-gammaproteobacteria-and-proposal-of-immundisolibacterales-ord-nov-and-immundisolibacteraceae-fam-nov
#6
Elizabeth M Corteselli, Michael D Aitken, David R Singleton
The bacterial strain TR3.2T was isolated from aerobic bioreactor-treated soil from a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-contaminated site in Salisbury, North Carolina, USA. Strain TR3.2T was identified as a member of "Pyrene Group 2" or "PG2", a previously uncultivated cluster of organisms associated with the degradation of high-molecular-weight PAHs by stable-isotope probing. Based on its 16S rRNA gene sequence the strain was classified as a member of the class Gammaproteobacteria but possessed only 90...
December 7, 2016: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926792/the-transcription-factor-pparalpha-is-overexpressed-and-is-associated-with-a-favourable-prognosis-in-idh-wildtype-primary-glioblastoma
#7
H R Haynes, P White, K M Hares, J Redondo, K C Kemp, W G B Singleton, C L Killick-Cole, J R Stevens, K Garadi, S Guglani, A Wilkins, K M Kurian
AIMS: PPARα agonists are in current clinical use as hypolipidaemic agents and show significant antineoplastic effects in human glioblastoma models. To date however, the expression of PPARα in large-scale glioblastoma data sets has not been examined. We aimed to investigate the expression of the transcription factor PPARα in primary glioblastoma, the relationship between PPARα expression and patients' clinicopathological features and other molecular markers associated with gliomagenesis...
December 7, 2016: Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926790/molecular-surveillance-of-dengue-in-minas-gerais-provides-insights-on-dengue-virus-1-and-4-circulation-in-brazil
#8
Karina Rocha Dutra, Betânia Paiva Drumond, Izabela Maurício de Rezende, Maurício Lacerda Nogueira, Débora de Oliveira Lopes, Carlos Eduardo Calzavara Silva, Jaqueline Maria Siqueira Ferreira, Luciana Lara Dos Santos
Dengue, caused by any of the four types of Dengue virus (DENV) is the most important arbovirus in the world. In this study we performed a molecular surveillance of dengue during the greatest dengue outbreak that took place in Divinópolis, Minas Gerais state, Southeast Brazil, in 2013. Samples from 100 patients with clinical symptoms of dengue were studied and 26 were positive. The capsid/premembrane (CprM) and envelope gene sequences of some samples were amplified and sequenced. Molecular analyses demonstrated that two DENV-1 lineages, belonging to genotype V were introduced and co-circulated in Divinópolis...
November 5, 2016: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926531/an-annotated-list-of-bivalent-chromatin-regions-in-human-es-cells-a-new-tool-for-cancer-epigenetic-research
#9
Franck Court, Philippe Arnaud
CpG islands (CGI) marked by bivalent chromatin in stem cells are believed to be more prone to aberrant DNA methylation in tumor cells. The robustness and genome-wide extent of this instructive program in different cancer types remain to be determined. To address this issue we developed a user-friendly approach to integrate the stem cell chromatin signature in customized DNA methylation analyses. We used publicly available ChIP-sequencing datasets of several human embryonic stem cell (hESC) lines to determine the extent of bivalent chromatin genome-wide...
December 1, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926435/brain-correlates-of-the-intrinsic-subjective-cost-of-effort-in-sedentary-volunteers
#10
J Bernacer, I Martinez-Valbuena, M Martinez, N Pujol, E Luis, D Ramirez-Castillo, M A Pastor
One key aspect of motivation is the ability of agents to overcome excessive weighting of intrinsic subjective costs. This contribution aims to analyze the subjective cost of effort and assess its neural correlates in sedentary volunteers. We recruited a sample of 57 subjects who underwent a decision-making task using a prospective, moderate, and sustained physical effort as devaluating factor. Effort discounting followed a hyperbolic function, and individual discounting constants correlated with an indicator of sedentary lifestyle (global physical activity questionnaire; R=-0...
2016: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926378/automated-segmentation-of-white-matter-fiber-bundles-using-diffusion-tensor-imaging-data-and-a-new-density-based-clustering-algorithm
#11
Tahereh Kamali, Daniel Stashuk
OBJECTIVE: Robust and accurate segmentation of brain white matter (WM) fiber bundles assists in diagnosing and assessing progression or remission of neuropsychiatric diseases such as schizophrenia, autism and depression. Supervised segmentation methods are infeasible in most applications since generating gold standards is too costly. Hence, there is a growing interest in designing unsupervised methods. However, most conventional unsupervised methods require the number of clusters be known in advance which is not possible in most applications...
October 2016: Artificial Intelligence in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925796/a-severe-asthma-disease-signature-from-gene-expression-profiling-of-peripheral-blood-from-u-biopred-cohorts
#12
Jeannette Bigler, Michael Boedigheimer, James P R Schofield, Paul J Skipp, Julie Corfield, Anthony Rowe, Ana R Sousa, Martin Timour, Lori Twehues, Xuguang Hu, Graham Roberts, Andrew A Welcher, Wen Yu, Kian F Chung, Ian M Adcock, Peter J Sterk, Ratko Djukanović
RATIONALE: Stratification of asthma at the molecular level, especially using accessible biospecimens, could greatly enable patient selection for targeted therapy. OBJECTIVES: To determine the value of blood to identify transcriptional differences between clinically defined asthmatic and non-asthmatic groups, identify potential patient subgroups based on gene expression, and explore biological pathways associated with identified differences. METHODS: Transcriptomics profiles were generated by microarray analysis of blood from 610 asthmatic and control participants in U-BIOPRED...
December 7, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925779/retraction-distinct-phenotypes-of-cigarette-smokers-identified-by-cluster-analysis-of-patients-with-severe-asthma
#13
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925743/subhalo-abundance-matching-in-f-r-gravity
#14
Jian-Hua He, Baojiu Li, Carlton M Baugh
Using the liminality N-body simulations of Shi et al., we present the first predictions for galaxy clustering in f(R) gravity using subhalo abundance matching. We find that, for a given galaxy density, even for an f(R) model with f_{R0}=-10^{-6}, for which the cold dark matter clustering is very similar to the cold dark matter model with a cosmological constant (ΛCDM), the predicted clustering of galaxies in the f(R) model is very different from ΛCDM. The deviation can be as large as 40% for samples with mean densities close to that of L_{*} galaxies...
November 25, 2016: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925730/intrinsic-ferromagnetism-in-the-diluted-magnetic-semiconductor-co-tio_-2
#15
H Saadaoui, X Luo, Z Salman, X Y Cui, N N Bao, P Bao, R K Zheng, L T Tseng, Y H Du, T Prokscha, A Suter, T Liu, Y R Wang, S Li, J Ding, S P Ringer, E Morenzoni, J B Yi
Here we present a study of magnetism in Co_{0.05}Ti_{0.95}O_{2-δ} anatase films grown by pulsed laser deposition under a variety of oxygen partial pressures and deposition rates. Energy-dispersive spectrometry and transmission electron microscopy analyses indicate that a high deposition rate leads to a homogeneous microstructure, while a very low rate or postannealing results in cobalt clustering. Depth resolved low-energy muon spin rotation experiments show that films grown at a low oxygen partial pressure (≈10^{-6}  torr) with a uniform structure are fully magnetic, indicating intrinsic ferromagnetism...
November 25, 2016: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925714/how-many-body-correlations-and-%C3%AE-clustering-shape-6-he
#16
Carolina Romero-Redondo, Sofia Quaglioni, Petr Navrátil, Guillaume Hupin
The Borromean ^{6}He nucleus is an exotic system characterized by two halo neutrons orbiting around a compact ^{4}He (or α) core, in which the binary subsystems are unbound. The simultaneous reproduction of its small binding energy and extended matter and point-proton radii has been a challenge for ab initio theoretical calculations based on traditional bound-state methods. Using soft nucleon-nucleon interactions based on chiral effective field theory potentials, we show that supplementing the model space with ^{4}He+n+n cluster degrees of freedom largely solves this issue...
November 25, 2016: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925708/determinants-of-the-use-of-dietary-supplements-among-secondary-and-high-school-students
#17
Karolina Gajda, Monika Zielińska, Anna Ciecierska, Jadwiga Hamułka
Background: All over the world, including Poland, the sale of dietary supplements is increasing. More and more often, people including children and youths, use dietary supplements on their own initiative and without any medical indications or knowledge in this field. Objectives: Analysis of the conditions of using the dietary supplements with vitamins and minerals among secondary school and high school students in Poland. Material and methods: The study included 396 students aged 13-18 years (249 girls and 147 boys)...
2016: Roczniki Państwowego Zakładu Higieny
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925599/sparse-regularization-in-fuzzy-c-means-for-high-dimensional-data-clustering
#18
Xiangyu Chang, Qingnan Wang, Yuewen Liu, Yu Wang
In high-dimensional data clustering practices, the cluster structure is commonly assumed to be confined to a limited number of relevant features, rather than the entire feature set. However, for high-dimensional data, identifying the relevant features and discovering the cluster structure are still challenging problems. To solve these problems, this paper proposes a novel fuzzy c-means (FCM) model with sparse regularization (ℓq(0<q≤1)-norm regularization), by reformulating the FCM objective function into the weighted between-cluster sum of square form and imposing the sparse regularization on the weights...
December 1, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Cybernetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925590/modality-invariant-image-classification-based-on-modality-uniqueness-and-dictionary-learning
#19
Seungryong Kim, Rui Cai, Kihong Park, Sunok Kim, Kwanghoon Sohn
We present a unified framework for image classification of image sets taken under varying modality conditions. Our method is motivated by a key observation that the image feature distribution is simultaneously influenced by the semantic-class and the modality category label, which limits the performance of conventional methods for that task. With this insight, we introduce modality uniqueness as a discriminative weight that divides each modality cluster from all other clusters. By leveraging the modality uniqueness, our framework is formulated as unsupervised modality clustering and classifier learning based on modality-invariant similarity kernel...
December 2, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925506/aliphatic-and-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-pahs-in-soils-of-the-northwest-qinling-mountains-patterns-potential-risk-and-an-appraisal-of-the-pah-ratios-to-infer-their-source
#20
Yanhong Liu, Yingqin Wu, Yanqing Xia, Tianzhu Lei, Chuntao Tian, Xiaohuan Hou
Surface soils from the tourist areas of the northwest Qinling Mountains were analyzed to determine the concentrations, probable sources and potential risks of hydrocarbons. Concentrations of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons ranged from 4.18 to 3240 ng g(-1) and 0.0462 to 101 ng g(-1) dry weight, respectively. The extent of soil contamination by hydrocarbons was generally typified by unpolluted to slightly polluted levels. The incremental lifetime cancer risks (ILCRs) for exposure to soil-borne PAHs indicated complete safety for tourists...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering
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