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Jung-Ah Lim, Jangsup Moon, Tae-Joon Kim, Jin-Sun Jun, Byeongsu Park, Jung-Ick Byun, Jun-Sang Sunwoo, Kyung-Il Park, Soon-Tae Lee, Keun-Hwa Jung, Ki-Young Jung, Manho Kim, Daejong Jeon, Kon Chu, Sang Kun Lee
Seizure clustering is a common and significant phenomenon in patients with epilepsy. The clustering of spontaneous recurrent seizures (SRSs) in animal models of epilepsy, including mouse pilocarpine models, has been reported. However, most studies have analyzed seizures for a short duration after the induction of status epilepticus (SE). In this study, we investigated the detailed characteristics of seizure clustering in the chronic stage of a mouse pilocarpine-induced epilepsy model for an extended duration by continuous 24/7 video-EEG monitoring...
2018: PloS One
Daniel Schwarzkopf, Carolin Fleischmann-Struzek, Hendrik Rüddel, Konrad Reinhart, Daniel O Thomas-Rüddel
BACKGROUND: Sepsis is a major cause of preventable deaths in hospitals. Feasible and valid methods for comparing quality of sepsis care between hospitals are needed. The aim of this study was to develop a risk-adjustment model suitable for comparing sepsis-related mortality between German hospitals. METHODS: We developed a risk-model using national German claims data. Since these data are available with a time-lag of 1.5 years only, the stability of the model across time was investigated...
2018: PloS One
Dawei Cai, Zongjian Liu, Guangqi Kong
BACKGROUND Circular RNAs (circRNAs) have emerged as important regulators in carcinogenesis and metastasis. However, the knowledge of circRNAs in bladder cancer remains limited. This study aimed to investigate the role and mechanism of circRNAs in the development and progression of bladder cancer. MATERIAL AND METHODS Three pairs of bladder carcinomas (including high- and low-grade tumors) and adjacent normal tissues were collected from patients. The total RNAs were extracted from these samples and subjected to Clariom D microarray assays to detect the differentially expressed circRNAs and mRNAs...
March 20, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Yarden Shalev, Shannon M Soucy, R Thane Papke, J Peter Gogarten, Jerry Eichler, Uri Gophna
Within the Haloferax genus, both the surface (S)-layer protein, and the glycans that can decorate it, vary between species, which can potentially result in many different surface types, analogous to bacterial serotypes. This variation may mediate phenotypes, such as sensitivity to different viruses and mating preferences. Here, we describe S-layer glycoproteins found in multiple Haloferax strains and perform comparative genomics analyses of major and alternative glycosylation clusters of isolates from two coastal sites...
March 20, 2018: Genes
Fangying Song, Ning Liu, Minghao Liu, Yihua Chen, Ying Huang
Mycemycins A-E are new members of the dibenzoxazepinone (DBP) family, derived from the gntR gene-disrupted deep sea strain Streptomyces olivaceus FXJ8.012Δ1741 and the soil strain Streptomyces sp. FXJ1.235. In this paper, we report the identification of the gene clusters and pathways' inference for mycemycin biosynthesis in the two strains. Bioinformatics analyses of the genome sequences of S. olivaceus FXJ8.012Δ1741 and S . sp. FXJ1.235 predicted two divergent mycemycin gene clusters, mym and mye , respectively...
March 20, 2018: Marine Drugs
Yinfang Wang, Yitong Huang, Youbin Liu, Jinping Li, Yilong Hao, Peihao Yin, Zongjun Liu, Jingzhou Chen, Ying Wang, Nanping Wang, Peng Zhang
Mitochondria are dynamic organelles that are able to change their morphology and cellular distribution by either fission or fusion. However, the molecular mechanisms controlling mitochondrial dynamics in vascular endothelial cells (ECs) remain largely unknown. In this study, we observed that knock down of microtubule-associated tumor suppressor 1 (MTUS1) in ECs inhibited tube formation and migration, accompanied with decreased promigratory signalings. We showed that MTUS1 was localized in the outer membrane of mitochondria in ECs...
March 20, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Ruth Ruscheweyh, Heike Wersching, Harald Kugel, Benedikt Sundermann, Anja Teuber
Individual differences in sensitivity to pain are large and have clinical and scientific importance. Although heavily influenced by situational factors, they also relate to genetic factors and psychological traits, and are reflected by differences in functional activation in pain-related brain regions. Here, we used voxel-based morphometry to investigate if individual pain sensitivity is related to local grey matter volumes. Pain sensitivity was determined using (1) index finger pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) and (2) pain intensity ratings of imagined painful situations as assessed by the Pain Sensitivity Questionnaire (PSQ) in 501 population-based subjects participating in the BiDirect Study...
March 16, 2018: Pain
Sergio Torres-Rueda, Mwita Wambura, Helen A Weiss, Marya Plotkin, Katharine Kripke, Joseph Chilongani, Hally Mahler, Evodius Kuringe, Maende Makokha, Augustino Hellar, Carl Schutte, Kokuhumbya J Kazaura, Daimon Simbeye, Gerry Mshana, Natasha Larke, Gissenge Lija, John Changalucha, Anna Vassall, Richard Hayes, Jonathan M Grund, Fern Terris-Prestholt
BACKGROUND: Although voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) reduces the risk of HIV acquisition, demand for services is lower among men in most at-risk age groups (ages 20-34 years). A randomised controlled trial was conducted to assess the effectiveness of locally-tailored demand creation activities (including mass media, community mobilisation and targeted service delivery) in increasing uptake of campaign-delivered VMMC among men aged 20-34 years. We conducted an economic evaluation to understand the intervention's cost and cost-effectiveness...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Andrew Bastawrous, Wanjiku Mathenge, John Buchan, Fatima Kyari, Tunde Peto, Hillary Rono, Helen A Weiss, David Macleod, Allen Foster, Matthew Burton, Hannah Kuper
PURPOSE: Glaucoma is a leading cause of blindness in people of African descent. Minimal data is available from African population-based cohort studies. The primary aims of this study were to describe the normative distribution of glaucoma features to enable glaucoma classification and to assess risk factors for those with glaucoma at follow-up among people aged ≥50 years in Kenya. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Random cluster sampling with probability proportionate to size was used to select a representative cross-sectional sample of adults aged ≥50 years in 2007-8 in Nakuru District, Kenya...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Glaucoma
Li-Jung Lin, Hsin-Yen Yen
BACKGROUND: The rising population of older adults is transforming Taiwan society. Although many long-term care facilities now operate for older adults, the transition from the home environment to long-term facilities may cause multiple issues, including relocation stress syndrome, for new residents. Autonomy is a critical element of the human experience. Leisure, as an expression of autonomy, has been shown to enhance self-image and promote feelings of competence and mastery. PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between participation in leisure activities and adjustment to residential care using the continuity theory...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Nursing Research: JNR
Huan Liu, Gang Wang, Wei Li, Xingzhong Liu, Erwei Li, Wen-Bing Yin
Trichoderma hypoxylon is a fungicolous species which produces rich secondary metabolites. However, no genetic transformation method is available for further studies. Here, we developed a marker-less transformation system based on the complementation of an uridine/uracil biosynthetic gene by protoplast transformation. An uridine/uracil auxotrophic mutant of Δthpyr4 was obtained by using a positive screening protocol with 5'-fluoroorotic acid as a selective reagent. To improve the homologous integration rates, the orthologues of ku70 and lig4 which play critical roles in non-homologous end-joining recombination were disrupted...
March 19, 2018: Microbiology
G López, C Díaz-Cárdenas, J David Alzate, L N Gonzalez, N Shapiro, T Woyke, N C Kyrpides, S Restrepo, S Baena
Three morphologically similar thermo-acidophilic strains, USBA-GBX-501, USBA-GBX-502 and USBA-GBX-503T , were isolated from acidic thermal springs at the National Natural Park Los Nevados (Colombia). All isolates were spore-forming, Gram-stain-positive and motile, growing aerobically at 25-55 °C (optimum ~45 °C) and at pH 1.5-4.5 (optimum pH ~3.0). Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequences of these isolates showed an almost identical sequence (99.0 % similarity) and they formed a robust cluster with the closest relative Alicyclobacillus tolerans DSM 16297T with a sequence similarity of 99...
March 20, 2018: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Kae Akita, Seiichiro Hasezawa, Takumi Higaki
We previously found that sucrose solution immersion treatment permitted ectopic guard cell differentiation, resulting in clustered stomatal guard cells. Using this system, we examined the effects of sucrose solution-induced stomatal clustering on guard cell cortical microtubules and the stomatal response to fusicoccin. Confocal observation revealed that the radial orientation of cortical microtubules was largely maintained in clustered guard cells. Outward movement of cortical microtubule plus-ends was also kept in the clustered guard cells...
March 20, 2018: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Minghui Li, Yan Zhou, Tiansong Xia, Xin Zhou, Zebo Huang, Huo Zhang, Wei Zhu, Qiang Ding, Shui Wang
PURPOSE: Novel noninvasive biomarkers with high sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of breast cancer (BC) are urgently needed in clinics. The aim of this study was to explore whether miRNAs from the miR-106a-363 cluster can be detected in the circulation of BC patients and whether these miRNAs can serve as potential diagnostic biomarkers. METHODS: The expression of 12 miRNAs from the miR-106a-363 cluster was evaluated using qRT-PCR in 400 plasma samples (from 200 BC patients and 200 healthy controls (HCs)) and 406 serum samples (from 204 BC patients and 202 HCs) via a three-phase study...
March 20, 2018: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
J Daniel Kelly, Eugene T Richardson, Michael Drasher, M Bailor Barrie, Sahr Karku, Mohamed Kamara, Katrina Hann, Kerry Dierberg, Allan Hubbard, Christina P Lindan, Paul E Farmer, George W Rutherford, Sheri D Weiser
Studies have shown that people suffering from food insecurity are at higher risk for infectious and noncommunicable diseases and have poorer health outcomes. No study, however, has examined the association between food insecurity and outcomes related to Ebola virus disease (EVD). We conducted a cross-sectional study in two Ebola-affected communities in Kono district, Sierra Leone, from November 2015 to September 2016. We enrolled persons who were determined to have been exposed to Ebola virus. We assessed the association of food insecurity, using an adapted version of the Household Food Insecurity Access Scale, a nine-item scale well validated across Africa, with having been diagnosed with EVD and having died of EVD, using logistic regression models with cluster-adjusted standard errors...
March 19, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Mariachiara Buonocore, Margherita Bechi, Paola Uberti, Marco Spangaro, Federica Cocchi, Carmelo Guglielmino, Laura Bianchi, Antonella Rita Mastromatteo, Marta Bosia, Roberto Cavallaro
OBJECTIVES: Cognitive reserve (CR), defined as individual differences in the ability to cope with brain damage, seem to be associated to the several psychopathological features in psychiatric patients, such as the functional outcome. This study aims to identify different profiles of CR by combining intelligence quotient (IQ) and premorbid functioning, two measures independently associated to CR in previous works, as well as to explore CR effect on both Theory of Mind (ToM) baseline performance and improvement after socio-cognitive trainings...
March 20, 2018: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
Defne Alfandari, Chris Vriend, Dirk J Heslenfeld, Niek J Versfeld, Sophia E Kramer, Adriana A Zekveld
Speech comprehension depends on the successful operation of a network of brain regions. Processing of degraded speech is associated with different patterns of brain activity in comparison with that of high-quality speech. In this exploratory study, we studied whether processing degraded auditory input in daily life because of hearing impairment is associated with differences in brain volume. We compared T1-weighted structural magnetic resonance images of 17 hearing-impaired (HI) adults with those of 17 normal-hearing (NH) controls using a voxel-based morphometry analysis...
January 2018: Trends in Hearing
Min Wang, Dandan Chen, Qunfei Zhao, Wen Liu
The species Streptomyces lincolnensis is known as a producer of lincomycin A, a clinically important lincosamide antibiotic with activity against Gram-positive bacteria. Here, we report that S. lincolnensis produces a new cysteate-containing lactone product, cysteoamide (1), which arises from non-ribosomal peptide synthetase-programmed sequential assembly of the monomers phenylacetic acid, valine, cysteate, threonine, β-hydroxyleucine and β-alanine and subsequent intramolecular cyclization to form a lactone ring...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Organic Chemistry
Dejian Zhou, Xing Zhu, Sanduo Zheng, Dan Tan, Meng-Qiu Dong, Keqiong Ye
Assembly of eukaryotic ribosome is a complicated and dynamic process that involves a series of intermediates. It is unknown how the highly intertwined structure of 60S large ribosomal subunits is established. Here, we report the structure of an early nucleolar pre-60S ribosome determined by cryo-electron microscopy at 3.7 Å resolution, revealing a half-assembled subunit. Domains I, II and VI of 25S/5.8S rRNA pack tightly into a native-like substructure, but domains III, IV and V are not assembled. The structure contains 12 assembly factors and 19 ribosomal proteins, many of which are required for early processing of large subunit rRNA...
March 19, 2018: Protein & Cell
F Willeboordse, F G Schellevis, M C Meulendijk, J G Hugtenburg, P J M Elders
Background Implementation of clinical medication reviews in daily practice is scarcely evaluated. The Opti-Med intervention applied a structured approach with external expert teams (pharmacist and physician) to conduct medication reviews. The intervention was effective with respect to resolving drug related problems, but did not improve quality of life. Objective The objective of this process evaluation was to gain more insight into the implementation fidelity of the intervention. Setting Process evaluation alongside a cluster randomized trial in 22 general practices and 518 patients of 65 years and over...
March 20, 2018: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy
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