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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913686/micrognathia-in-mouse-models-of-ciliopathies
#1
REVIEW
Hadeel Adel Al-Lami, William B Barrell, Karen J Liu
Defects in the development of the mandible can lead to micrognathia, or small jaw, which manifests in ciliopathic conditions, such as orofaciodigital syndrome, Meckel-Gruber syndrome, and Bardet-Biedl syndrome. Although micrognathia occurs frequently in human and mouse ciliopathies, it has been difficult to pinpoint the underlying cellular causes. In this mini-review, we shed light on the tissue-specific contributions to ciliary dysfunction in the development of the mandible. First, we outline the steps involved in setting up the jaw primordium and subsequent steps in the outgrowth of the mandibular skeleton...
December 15, 2016: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913222/human-liver-regeneration-in-advanced-cirrhosis-is-organized-by-the-portal-tree
#2
Katalin Dezső, András Rókusz, Edina Bugyik, Armanda Szücs, András Szuák, Bence Dorogi, Mátyás Kiss, Ágnes Nemeskéri, Péter Nagy, Sándor Paku
BACKGROUND&AIMS: In advanced cirrhosis new hepatocytic nodules are generated by budding of ductules in areas of parenchymal extinction. However, the vascular alterations in the areas of parenchymal extinction, the blood supply and the structure of the new hepatocytic nodules have not been analyzed in detail. METHODS: Explanted human cirrhotic livers of three different etiologies and two experimental models of cirrhosis in rats were examined thoroughly. 3D reconstruction of the immunohistochemically stained serial sections and casting of human and experimental cirrhotic livers have been used to reveal the structural organization of the regenerative buds...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912884/synergism-of-coumarins-from-the-chinese-drug-zanthoxylum-nitidum-with-antibacterial-agents-against-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-mrsa
#3
Guo-Ying Zuo, Chun-Juan Wang, Jun Han, Yu-Qing Li, Gen-Chun Wang
BACKGROUND: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) poses a serious therapeutic challenge in current clinic and new drug development. Natural coumarins have diverse bioactivities and the potential of resistance modifying effects. PURPOSE: This study is to present in-depth evaluations of in vitro antimicrobial activities of four natural coumarins 5-geranyloxy-7-methoxycoumarin (Gm, 1), (5,7-dimethoxy-8-prenyloxycoumarin (artanin, Ar, 2)), isopimpinellin (Is, 3) and phellopterin (Ph, 4) from Zanthoxylum nitidum (Roxb...
December 15, 2016: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910985/uvb-radiation-vitamin-d-and-multiple-sclerosis
#4
H F DeLuca, L Plum
Acheson et al. (1960) observed an inverse relationship between sunlight exposure and the incidence of Multiple Sclerosis (MS). This led to the suggestion that increased levels of vitamin D caused by sunlight in some way suppresses MS. Further, super physiological doses of the metabolically active metabolite of vitamin D, i.e. 1α,25 dihydroxy vitamin D suppresses the animal model of MS i.e. experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). However, this response was accompanied by hypercalcemia. Hypercalcemia itself can suppress EAE...
December 2, 2016: Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909352/solid-phase-extraction-of-tritiated-contaminants-from-tritium-containing-waste-oils
#5
Andrzej Olejniczak, Jacek Fall, Katarzyna Olejniczak, Marina V Gustova, Alexandr G Shostenko
A solid phase extraction method for removing polar tritiated contaminants from tritium-containing waste oils has been developed. The composition of the degradation products present in the waste oil was determined. The results indicated that upon exposure to tritium gas, fragment methyl ketones, carboxylic acids, and lactones were the main polar products of the mineral-based oil oxidation. The nonpolar fragmentation products included n-alkanes, monomethylalkanes, and acyclic isoprenoids and were analogous to those formed during [Formula: see text]-irradiation of the oil...
2016: Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909218/erythrocyte-survival-is-controlled-by-microrna-142
#6
Natalia Rivkin, Elik Chapnik, Alexander Mildner, Gregory Barshtein, Ziv Porat, Elena Kartvelishvily, Tali Dadosh, Yehudit Birger, Gail Amir, Saul Yedgar, Shai Izraeli, Steffen Jung, Eran Hornstein
Hematopoietic-specific miR-142 is critical regulator of various blood cell lineages, but its role in erythrocytes is unexplored. Here, we characterize miR-142 impact on erythrocyte physiology and molecular cell biology, using a mouse loss of function allele. We report that miR-142 is required for maintaining the typical erythrocyte biconcave shape and structural resilience, for normal metabolism of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and for overall lifespan. miR-142 further controls actin filament homeostasis and membrane skeleton organization...
December 1, 2016: Haematologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908800/sauruchinenols-a-and-b-unprecedented-monocyclic-diterpenes-with-new-carbon-skeleton-from-the-aerial-parts-of-saururus-chinensis
#7
Xiu Gao, Juan He, Xing-De Wu, Li-Yan Peng, Li-Dong Shao, Yan Li, Xiao Cheng, Qin-Shi Zhao
Sauruchinenols A (1) and B (2), two novel monocyclic diterpenes with unique carbon skeleton, as well as two new structurally related diterpenes, sauruchinenols C (3) and D (4), were isolated from the aerial part of Saururus chinensis. Their structures were elucidated based on the analysis of spectroscopic data. A hypothetical biogenetic pathway for sauruchinenols A and B was proposed.
November 28, 2016: Fitoterapia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908155/a-new-algorithm-for-estimating-the-rod-volume-fraction-and-the-trabecular-thickness-from-in-vivo-computed-tomography
#8
Felix Sebastian Leo Thomsen, Jaime Andrés Peña, Yongtao Lu, Gerd Huber, Michael Morlock, Claus-Christian Glüer, Claudio Augusto Delrieux
PURPOSE: Existing microstructure parameters are able to predict vertebral in vitro failure load, but for noisy in vivo data more complex algorithms are needed for a robust assessment. METHODS: A new algorithm is proposed for the microstructural analysis of trabecular bone under in vivo quantitative computed tomography (QCT). Five fractal parameters are computed: (1) the average local fractal dimension FD, (2) its standard deviation FD.SD, (3) the fractal rod volume ratio fRV/BV, (4) the average fractal trabecular thickness fTb...
December 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908019/a-chaotic-model-for-the-epidemic-of-ebola-virus-disease-in-west-africa-2013-2016
#9
Sylvain Mangiarotti, Marisa Peyre, Mireille Huc
An epidemic of Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) broke out in Guinea in December 2013. It was only identified in March 2014 while it had already spread out in Liberia and Sierra Leone. The spill over of the disease became uncontrollable and the epidemic could not be stopped before 2016. The time evolution of this epidemic is revisited here with the global modeling technique which was designed to obtain the deterministic models from single time series. A generalized formulation of this technique for multivariate time series is introduced...
November 2016: Chaos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907810/prediction-of-autosomal-str-typing-success-in-ancient-and-second-world-war-bone-samples
#10
Irena Zupanič Pajnič, Tomaž Zupanc, Jože Balažic, Živa Miriam Geršak, Oliver Stojković, Ivan Skadrić, Matija Črešnar
Human-specific quantitative PCR (qPCR) has been developed for forensic use in the last 10 years and is the preferred DNA quantification technique since it is very accurate, sensitive, objective, time-effective and automatable. The amount of information that can be gleaned from a single quantification reaction using commercially available quantification kits has increased from the quantity of nuclear DNA to the amount of male DNA, presence of inhibitors and, most recently, to the degree of DNA degradation. In skeletal remains samples from disaster victims, missing persons and war conflict victims, the DNA is usually degraded...
November 19, 2016: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906049/smad-dependent-mechanisms-of-inflammatory-bone-destruction
#11
REVIEW
Michelle Fennen, Thomas Pap, Berno Dankbar
Homeostatic bone remodelling becomes disturbed in a variety of pathologic conditions that affect the skeleton, including inflammatory diseases. Rheumatoid arthritis is the prototype of an inflammatory arthritis characterised by chronic inflammation, progressive cartilage destruction and focal bone erosions and is a prime example for a disease with disturbed bone homeostasis. The inflammatory milieu favours the recruitment and activation of osteoclasts, which have been found to be the cells that are primarily responsible for bone erosions in many animal models of inflammatory arthritis...
December 1, 2016: Arthritis Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905458/chernobyl-s-shield-dodo-skeleton-and-hiv-vaccines
#12
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 30, 2016: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904930/micrornas-in-bone-diseases
#13
REVIEW
L Gennari, S Bianciardi, D Merlotti
MicroRNAs are small, noncoding single-stranded RNAs that have emerged as important posttranscriptional regulators of gene expression, with an essential role in vertebrate development and different biological processes. This review highlights the recent advances in the function of miRNAs and their roles in bone remodeling and bone diseases. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small (∼22 nt), noncoding single-stranded RNAs that have emerged as important posttranscriptional regulators of gene expression. They are essential for vertebrate development and play critical roles in different biological processes related to cell differentiation, activity, metabolism, and apoptosis...
November 30, 2016: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904895/tritellurasumanene-ultrasound-assisted-one-pot-synthesis-and-extended-valence-adducts-with-bromine
#14
Shitao Wang, Xuexiang Li, Xueqing Hou, Yantao Sun, Xiangfeng Shao
Tritellurasumanene is synthesized from a triphenylene skeleton via ultrasound assisted one-pot reaction. This compound adopts a flat conjugated system and displays TeTe (3.83 Å) interactions in the solid state. Its optical properties and chemical reactivity are quite different from those of its trithia- and triselena-analogues.
December 1, 2016: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902701/heads-shoulders-elbows-knees-and-toes-modular-gdf5-enhancers-control-different-joints-in-the-vertebrate-skeleton
#15
Hao Chen, Terence D Capellini, Michael Schoor, Doug P Mortlock, A Hari Reddi, David M Kingsley
Synovial joints are crucial for support and locomotion in vertebrates, and are the frequent site of serious skeletal defects and degenerative diseases in humans. Growth and differentiation factor 5 (Gdf5) is one of the earliest markers of joint formation, is required for normal joint development in both mice and humans, and has been genetically linked to risk of common osteoarthritis in Eurasian populations. Here, we systematically survey the mouse Gdf5 gene for regulatory elements controlling expression in synovial joints...
November 2016: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901312/female-white-footed-mice-peromyscus-leucopus-trade-off-offspring-skeletal-quality-for-self-maintenance-when-dietary-calcium-intake-is-low
#16
Christina M Schmidt, Wendy R Hood
During gestation and lactation in mammals, calcium and other minerals are transferred from female to offspring to support skeletal ossification. To meet mineral requirements, females commonly mobilize mineral from their own skeleton to augment dietary intake. Because the fitness costs of bone loss are expected to limit the amount of endogenous mineral that females transfer to their young, the amount of mineral allocated to offspring is predicted to be influenced by the availability of mineral in the female's diet...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological Genetics and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900869/-evaluation-of-five-years-of-treatment-of-erdheim-chester-disease-with-anakinra-case-report-and-overview-of-literature
#17
Zdeněk Adam, Hana Petrášová, Zdeněk Řehák, Renata Koukalová, Marta Krejčí, Luděk Pour, Eva Vetešníková, Aleš Čermák, Sabina Ševčíková, Petr Szturz, Zdeněk Král, Jiří Mayer
: Erdheim-Chester disease is a histiocytic neoplasm of diseases from the group of non-Langerhans-cell histiocytoses, formed by infiltrates of foamy histiocytes. These pathological histiocytes produce pro-inflammatory cytokines. Therefore Erdheim-Chester disease is called inflammatory histiocytary neoplasm. The disease is accompanied by clinical symptoms of systemic inflammatory response, i.e. B symptoms. Imaging examinations detect typical osteosclerotic changes affecting diaphyses and metaphyses of the lower long bones and fibrotic changes which affect the aorta wall and the vessels leading from it...
2016: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900568/control-of-phosphate-balance-by-the-kidney-and-intestine
#18
REVIEW
Ichiro Kaneko, Sawako Tatsumi, Hiroko Segawa, Ken-Ichi Miyamoto
The prevention and correction of hyperphosphatemia are major goals of the treatment of chronic kidney disease (CKD)-bone mineral disorders, and thus, Pi balance requires special attention. Pi balance is maintained by intestinal absorption, renal excretion, and bone accretion. The kidney is mainly responsible for the plasma Pi concentration. In CKD, reduced glomerular filtration rate leads to various Pi metabolism abnormalities, and Pi absorption in the small intestine also has an important role in Pi metabolism...
November 30, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900520/nuclear-medicine-imaging-of-multiple-myeloma-particularly-in-the-relapsed-setting
#19
REVIEW
Esther G M de Waal, Andor W J M Glaudemans, Carolien P Schröder, Edo Vellenga, Riemer H J A Slart
Multiple myeloma (MM) is characterized by a monoclonal plasma cell population in the bone marrow. Lytic lesions occur in up to 90 % of patients. For many years, whole-body X-ray (WBX) was the method of choice for detecting skeleton abnormalities. However, the value of WBX in relapsing disease is limited because lesions persist post-treatment, which restricts the capacity to distinguish between old, inactive skeletal lesions and new, active ones. Therefore, alternative techniques are necessary to visualize disease activity...
November 29, 2016: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899572/c3-symmetric-opioid-scaffolds-are-ph-responsive-dna-condensation-agents
#20
Natasha McStay, Zara Molphy, Alan Coughlan, Attilio Cafolla, Vickie McKee, Nicholas Gathergood, Andrew Kellett
Herein we report the synthesis of tripodal C3-symmetric opioid scaffolds as high-affinity condensation agents of duplex DNA. Condensation was achieved on both supercoiled and canonical B-DNA structures and identified by agarose electrophoresis, viscosity, turbidity and atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements. Structurally, the requirement of a tris-opioid scaffold for condensation is demonstrated as both di- (C2-symmetric) and mono-substituted (C1-symmetric) mesitylene-linked opioid derivatives poorly coordinate dsDNA...
November 28, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
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