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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506909/the-selective-effect-of-glycyrrhizin-and-glycyrrhetinic-acid-on-topoisomerase-ii%C3%AE-and-apoptosis-in-combination-with-etoposide-on-triple-negative-breast-cancer-mda-mb-231-cells
#1
Yun Cai, Boxin Zhao, Qianying Liang, Yunqi Zhang, Jieying Cai, Guofeng Li
Triple negative breast cancer(TNBC) has generated growing interests due to its aggressive biologic behavior and absence of targeted therapy approach. Glycyrrhizin(GL) from licorice root and its metabolite, glycyrrhetinic acid(GA) have shown extensive bioactivities in clinic. Here, we demonstrate that GL and GA have contrary anti-cancer effect on TNBC MDA-MB-231 cells. Beside its inhibition of cell proliferation, GA at non-cytotoxic concentration showed synergistic effect in combination with anti-cancer drug, etoposide(VP-16)...
May 12, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505487/heroin-refusal-self-efficacy-and-preference-for-medication-assisted-treatment-after-inpatient-detoxification
#2
Shannon R Kenney, Genie L Bailey, Bradley J Anderson, Michael D Stein
OBJECTIVE: An individual's self-efficacy to refuse using heroin in high-risk situations is believed to minimize the likelihood for relapse. However, among individuals completing inpatient heroin detoxification, perceived refusal self-efficacy may also reduce one's perceived need for medication-assisted treatment (MAT), an effective and recommended treatment for opioid use disorder. In the current study, we examined the relationship between heroin refusal self-efficacy and preference for MAT following inpatient detoxification...
May 9, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490916/the-cannabis-withdrawal-syndrome-current-insights
#3
REVIEW
Udo Bonnet, Ulrich W Preuss
The cannabis withdrawal syndrome (CWS) is a criterion of cannabis use disorders (CUDs) (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders - Fifth Edition) and cannabis dependence (International Classification of Diseases [ICD]-10). Several lines of evidence from animal and human studies indicate that cessation from long-term and regular cannabis use precipitates a specific withdrawal syndrome with mainly mood and behavioral symptoms of light to moderate intensity, which can usually be treated in an outpatient setting...
2017: Substance Abuse and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468624/direct-hydrogen-production-from-dilute-acid-pretreated-sugarcane-bagasse-hydrolysate-using-the-newly-isolated-thermoanaerobacterium-thermosaccharolyticum-mj1
#4
Bin-Bin Hu, Ming-Jun Zhu
BACKGROUND: Energy shortage and environmental pollution are two severe global problems, and biological hydrogen production from lignocellulose shows great potential as a promising alternative biofuel to replace the fossil fuels. Currently, most studies on hydrogen production from lignocellulose concentrate on cellulolytic microbe, pretreatment method, process optimization and development of new raw materials. Due to no effective approaches to relieve the inhibiting effect of inhibitors, the acid pretreated lignocellulose hydrolysate was directly discarded and caused environmental problems, suggesting that isolation of inhibitor-tolerant strains may facilitate the utilization of acid pretreated lignocellulose hydrolysate...
May 3, 2017: Microbial Cell Factories
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450305/mechanisms-in-endocrinology-update-on-pathogenesis-of-primary-adrenal-insufficiency-beyond-steroid-enzyme-deficiency-and-autoimmune-adrenal-destruction
#5
Christa Flueck
Primary adrenal insufficiency (PAI) is potentially life threatening, but rare. In children genetic defects prevail, while adults suffer mostly from acquired forms. The spectrum of genetic defects has increased in recent years with the use of next generation sequencing methods and reaches now far beyond genetic defects in known enzymes of steroidogenesis. Cofactor disorders such as P450 oxidoreductase (POR) deficiency manifesting as a complex form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia with a broad clinical phenotype have come to the forth...
April 27, 2017: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424803/use-of-a-flumazenil-infusion-to-treat-chlordiazepoxide-toxicity
#6
I R Wallace, E C Campbell, M Trimble
"Alcohol detox" is a common presentation to acute medical services and is usually managed via standardised guidelines and protocols. We present a case of chlordiazepoxide toxicity, requiring repeated bolus doses and subsequently 24 hours of an intravenous infusion of flumazenil in response to guideline directed management of an alcohol withdrawal state. The use of prolonged flumazenil infusions to treat benzodiazepine toxicity is infrequently described. Chlordiazepoxide is metabolised in the hepatic microsomal pathway and hepatic impairment can lead to accumulation of toxic metabolites, which may have been the explanation for toxicity in this case...
2017: Acute Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408246/renal-protective-effect-and-action-mechanism-of-huangkui-capsule-and-its-main-five-flavonoids
#7
Hong-Die Cai, Shu-Lan Su, Da-Wei Qian, Sheng Guo, Wei-Wei Tao, Xu Dong Cong, Renmao Tang, Jin-Ao Duan
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The flower of Abelmoschus manihot (Linn.) Medicus (A. manihot), as a traditional Chinese Herbal medicine, was used widely in China with efficacy of inducing diuresis for treating strangurtia, and subdhing swelling and detoxicating. It has been reported that Huangkui capsule, prepared by the extract of the flower of A. manihot, can reduce the content of urinary protein, serum creatinine and serum urea nitrogen in nephropathy rats and processes renoprotective activity, while the action mechanism need to illuminate deeply...
April 10, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406517/biochemical-studies-of-inositol-n-acetylglucosaminyltransferase-involved-in-mycothiol-biosynthesis-in-corynebacterium-diphtheria
#8
Yuchuan Guo, Lizhen Wang, Jiatong Guo, Guofeng Gu, Zhongwu Guo
Mycothiol (MSH) is the predominant low molecular weight thiol produced by actinomycetes, and it plays a pivotal role in the bacterial detoxication process. 1L-myo-Inositol-1-phosphate (1L-Ins-1-P) α-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase (GlcNAc-T), known as MshA, is the only glycosyltransferase involved in MSH biosynthesis. In this work, the MshA from Corynebacterium diphtheria, named as CdMshA, was expressed, purified, and studied in detail. Its enzymatic activity to transfer GlcNAc to 1L-Ins-1-P was confirmed by the isolation and rigorous characterization of its reaction product 3-phospho-1-d-myo-inositol-2-acetamido-2-deoxy-α-d-glucopyranoside...
May 3, 2017: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402675/mechanistic-insight-into-the-molecular-tio2-mediated-gas-phase-detoxication-of-dmmp-a-theoretical-approach
#9
Tamalika Ash, Tanay Debnath, Avik Ghosh, Abhijit Kumar Das
The detoxication of DMMP (dimethyl methylphosphonate) mediated by molecular TiO2 has been investigated computationally using density functional theory (DFT). From our previous studies, it is evident that the unimolecular detoxication of OPCs (organophosphorus compounds) is kinetically unfeasible at room temperature due to the significantly high activation barrier. Thus, the aim of our work is to find out whether molecular TiO2 can make any significant impact on the kinetic feasibility of the detoxication processes or not...
April 27, 2017: Chemical Research in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385078/paris-polyphylla-suppresses-proliferation-and-vasculogenic-mimicry-of-human-osteosarcoma-cells-and-inhibits-tumor-growth-in-vivo
#10
Nan Yao, Ke Ren, Yimin Wang, Qiaomei Jin, Xiao Lu, Yan Lu, Cuihua Jiang, Dongjian Zhang, Jun Lu, Chen Wang, Jiege Huo, Yong Chen, Jian Zhang
Paris polyphylla, a traditional antipyretic-detoxicate chinese medicinal herb, has been applied extensively in cancer treatments for nearly 2000 years. The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the potential anti-osteosarcoma effects of Paris polyphylla ethanol extract (PPEE) and to investigate its underlying mechanisms. The antiproliferation activity of PPEE was tested on 143B, MG-63, U-2 OS and hFOB1.19 cells using MTT assay. The pro-apoptotic and cell cycle arrest effects of PPEE were confirmed by Hoechst 33342 staining and flow cytometry...
April 6, 2017: American Journal of Chinese Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356881/association-of-gsto1-and-gsto2-polymorphism-with-risk-of-end-stage-renal-disease-development-and-patient-survival
#11
Slavica Cimbaljevic, Sonja Suvakov, Marija Matic, Marija Pljesa-Ercegovac, Tatjana Pekmezovic, Tanja Radic, Vesna Coric, Tatjana Damjanovic, Nada Dimkovic, Rodoljub Markovic, Ana Savic-Radojevic, Tatjana Simic
BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) is associated with long-term cardiovascular complications. The cytosolic family of glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) is involved in the detoxication of various toxic compounds and antioxidant protection. GST omega class members, GSTO1 and GSTO2 possess, unlike other GSTs, dehydroascorbate reductase and deglutathionylation activities. The aim of this study was to clarify the role of genetic polymorphisms of GSTO1 (rs4925) and GSTO2 (rs156697) as risk determinants for ESRD development, as well as in the survival of these patients...
September 2016: Journal of Medical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28352354/antifreeze-poisoning-a-case-report
#12
Xiaofei Wu, Guoyu Lu, Benquan Qi, Ran Wang, Daohua Guo, Xiaolin Liu
The current study reported the case of a 35-year-old male that presented with antifreeze poisoning. The clinical manifestations, laboratory investigations and treatments were analyzed, and the obtained results were compared with those in previous reports. Subsequent to consuming antifreeze, the patient mainly presented nausea and agitation, without disturbance of consciousness. Laboratory investigations indicated severe metabolic acidosis, renal dysfunction and hyperkalemia. The patient underwent hemodialysis and his condition was significantly improved on the day of admission...
February 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240222/intraspecific-variation-among-tetranychid-mites-for-ability-to-detoxify-and-to-induce-plant-defenses
#13
Rika Ozawa, Hiroki Endo, Mei Iijima, Koichi Sugimoto, Junji Takabayashi, Tetsuo Gotoh, Gen-Ichiro Arimura
Two genotypes coexist among Kanzawa spider mites, one of which causes red scars and the other of which causes white scars on leaves, and they elicit different defense responses in host plants. Based on RNA-Seq analysis, we revealed here that the expression levels of genes involved in the detoxification system were higher in Red strains than White strains. The corresponding enzyme activities as well as performances for acaricide resistance and host adaptation toward Laminaceae were also higher in Red strains than White strains, indicating that Red strains were superior in trait(s) of the detox system...
February 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179188/diacetyl-and-related-flavorant-%C3%AE-diketones-biotransformation-cellular-interactions-and-respiratory-tract-toxicity
#14
M W Anders
Exposure to diacetyl and related α-diketones causes respiratory-tract damage in humans and experimental animals. Chemical toxicity is often associated with covalent modification of cellular nucleophiles by electrophilic chemicals. Electrophilic α-diketones may covalently modify nucleophilic arginine residues in critical proteins and, thereby, produce the observed respiratory-tract pathology. The major pathway for the biotransformation of α-diketones is reduction to α-hydroxyketones (acyloins), which is catalyzed by NAD(P)H-dependent enzymes of the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) and the aldo-keto reductase (AKR) superfamilies...
February 5, 2017: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166271/transcriptional-deregulation-of-genetic-biomarkers-in-chironomus-riparius-larvae-exposed-to-ecologically-relevant-concentrations-of-di-2-ethylhexyl-phthalate-dehp
#15
Óscar Herrero, Gloria Morcillo, Rosario Planelló
Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant used worldwide as a plasticizer and solvent in many formulations. Based on available toxicological data, it has been classified as toxic for reproduction and as an endocrine disruptor. Despite this, ecotoxicological studies in aquatic wildlife organisms are still scarce. In the present work, the toxic molecular alterations caused by DEHP in aquatic larvae of the midge Chironomus riparius have been studied, by analyzing the transcriptional activity of genes related to some vital cellular pathways, such as the ribosomal machinery (rpL4, rpL13), the cell stress response (hsc70, hsp70, hsp40, hsp27), the ecdysone hormone pathway (EcR), the energy metabolism (GAPDH), and detoxication processes (CYP4G)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126569/assessment-of-ionic-liquids-toxicity-through-the-inhibition-of-acylase-i-activity-on-a-microflow-system
#16
Ana M O Azevedo, Sarah A P Pereira, Marieta L C Passos, Susana P F Costa, Paula C A G Pinto, André R T S Araujo, M Lúcia M F S Saraiva
Acylase I (ACY I) plays a role in the detoxication and bioactivation of xenobiotics as well in other physiological functions. In this context, an automated ACY I assay for the evaluation of ionic liquids' (ILs) toxicity was developed. The assay was implemented in a sequential injection analysis (SIA) system and was applied to eight commercially available ILs. The SIA methodology was based on the deacetylation of N-acetyl-l-methionine with production of l-methionine, which was determined using fluorescamine...
April 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074222/regulation-of-membrane-fixation-and-energy-production-conversion-for-adaptation-and-recovery-of-zno-nanoparticle-impacted-nitrosomonas-europaea
#17
Junkang Wu, Huijie Lu, Guangcan Zhu, Lianghui Chen, Yan Chang, Ran Yu
The ZnO nanoparticle (NP) effects on typical ammonia-oxidizing bacteria, Nitrosomonas europaea in a chemostat bioreactor, and the cells' toxicity adaptation and recovery potentials were explored. Hardly any inhibition was observed when the NP concentration was high up to 10 mg/L. The cells exposed to 50 mg/L ZnO NPs displayed time-dependent impairment and recovery potentials in terms of cell density, membrane integrity, nitrite production rate, and ammonia monooxygenase activity. The 6-h NP stress impaired cells were nearly completely restored during a 12-h recovery incubation, while the longer exposure time would cause irretrievable cell damage...
April 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017185/failure-to-get-into-substance-abuse-treatment
#18
Dennis G Fisher, Grace L Reynolds, Laura H D'Anna, David W Hosmer, Kholoud Hardan-Khalil
Among substance abusers in the US, the discrepancy in the number who access substance abuse treatment and the number who need treatment is sizable. This results in a major public health problem of access to treatment. The purpose of this study was to examine characteristics of Persons Who Use Drugs (PWUDs) that either hinder or facilitate access to treatment. 2646 participants were administered the Risk Behavior Assessment (RBA) and the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale. The RBA included the dependent variable which was responses to the question "During the last year, have you ever tried, but been unable, to get into a drug treatment or detox program?" In multivariate analysis, factors associated with being unable to access treatment included: Previously been in drug treatment (OR=4...
February 2017: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008985/an-exceptionally-facile-two-step-structural-isomerization-and-detoxication-via-a-water-assisted-double-lossen-rearrangement
#19
Feng Li, Chun-Hua Huang, Lin-Na Xie, Na Qu, Jie Shao, Bo Shao, Ben-Zhan Zhu
N-hydroxyphthalimide (NHPI), which is best known as an organocatalyst for efficient C-H activation, has been found to be oxidized by quinoid compounds to its corresponding catalytically active nitroxide-radical. Here, we found that NHPI can be isomerized into isatoic anhydride by an unusually facile two-step method using tetrachloro-1,4-benzoquinone (TCBQ, p-chloranil), accompanied by a two-step hydrolytic dechlorination of highly toxic TCBQ into the much less toxic dihydroxylation product, 2,5-dichloro-3,6-dihydroxy-1,4-benzoquinone (chloranilic acid)...
December 23, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27823623/the-water-extract-of-veratrilla-baillonii-could-attenuate-the-subacute-toxicity-induced-by-aconitum-brachypodum
#20
You Yu, Xue-Jia Yi, Zhi-Yi Mei, Jun Li, Xian-Ju Huang, Guang-Zhong Yang, Li-Qun Ma, Yue Gao
BACKGROUND: Aconitum brachypodum Diels (Family Ranunculaceae) is a Chinese ethnodrug and is well known for both its therapeutic application and high toxicity. However, no detoxication strategy is available for the complete elimination of the toxicity of Aconitum plants. Veratrilla baillonii Franch is believed to possess antitoxic effects on the toxicity induced by Aconitum plants and has been clinically used for hundreds of time by Naxi and Lisu nationalities in Yunnan Province of China...
December 1, 2016: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
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