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Bo Sun, Xubin Wang, Ruili Cao, Qi Zhang, Qiao Liu, Meifeng Xu, Ming Zhang, Xiangbo Du, Fangting Dong, Xianzhong Yan
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Fuzi, the processed lateral root of Aconitum carmichaelii Debeaux, is a traditional Chinese medicine used for its analgesic, antipyretic, anti-rheumatoid arthritis and anti-inflammation effects; however, it is also well known for its toxicity. Gancao, the root of Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch., is often used concurrently with Fuzi to alleviate its toxicity. However, the mechanism of detoxication is still not well clear. AIM OF THE STUDY: In this study, the effect of Gancao on the metabolic changes induced by Fuzi was investigated by NMR-based metabonomic approaches...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Daniel Ayanga, Daryl Shorter, Thomas R Kosten
Opioid Use Disorder (OUD) is a significant public health concern, negatively impacting the medical, psychological, and social domains of an individual's life as well as creating substantial burdens for society. Effective treatment interventions are necessary for reduction of OUD and its consequences. Pharmacotherapy represents a central component of management. Areas Covered: This review focuses on pharmacologic strategies for OUD treatment, discussing both primary as well as adjunctive therapy modalities. We will discuss both medications used during detoxification to treat withdrawal, as well as those used as maintenance therapy...
October 13, 2016: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
Elizabeth Welch, Karen Jones, James Caiels, Karen Windle, Rosalyn Bass
Personal health budgets (PHBs) in England have been viewed as a vehicle for developing a personalised patient-based strategy within the substance misuse care pathway. In 2009, the Department of Health announced a 3-year pilot programme of PHBs to explore opportunities offered by this new initiative across a number of long-term health conditions, and commissioned an independent evaluation to run alongside as well as a separate study involving two pilot sites that were implementing PHBs within the substance misuse service...
October 10, 2016: Health & Social Care in the Community
Huasheng Zhu, Jiandong Wu, Yingli Jiang, Jing Jin, Wei Zhou, Yu Wang, Guomin Han, Yang Zhao, Beijiu Cheng
Multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) proteins are a group of secondary active transporters, which widely exist in all living organisms and play important role in the detoxication of endogenous secondary metabolites and exogenous agents. However, to date, no systematic and comprehensive study of this family is reported in maize. Here, a total of 49 MATE genes (ZmMATE) were identified and divided into seven groups by phylogenetic analysis. Conserved intro-exon structures and motif compositions were investigated in these genes...
September 2016: Journal of Genetics
M D Dibirov, A I Isaev, A B Dzhadzhiev, A I Ashimova, T Ataev
UNLABELLED: The number of patients with acute pancreatitis and pancreatic necrosis has been steadily increasing. Mortality in infected pancreatic necrosis remains high. AIM: To develop measures to prevent infection of pancreatic necrosis by timely correction of intra-abdominal hypertension and the syndrome of intestinal failure. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Developed a package of measures, consisting of early intestinal lavage and enterosorption, intravenous highdoses of octreotide, epidural blockade, adequate detox and the start of effective antimicrobial therapy...
2016: Khirurgiia
Xiang Tu, YuanPing Deng, Jing Chen, Quan Hu, ChengShi He, James B Jordan, Sen Zhong
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Few studies have explored the anti-angiogenic effects of TCM - even more so, as it applies to cancer treatment research. Heat-clearing and detoxicating TCM is the most frequently used category in the treatment of cancerous tumors, but lacks sufficient validation studies. AIM OF THE STUDY: The present research (in our series of studies) aims to explore the anti-angiogenic effects of TCM; so we begin with heat-clearing and detoxicating TCM...
September 8, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Marija Matic, Biljana Dragicevic, Tatjana Pekmezovic, Sonja Suvakov, Ana Savic-Radojevic, Marija Pljesa-Ercegovac, Dejan Dragicevic, Jelena Smiljic, Tatjana Simic
Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN) is a chronic familial form of interstitial nephritis that might eventually lead to end stage renal disease. This nephropathy affects individuals living along of the Danube River and its tributaries in Serbia, Bosnia, Croatia, Bulgaria and Romania. The increased incidence of urinary tract tumors in the BEN areas is well described, but its specific genetic predisposition is still unclear. Certain nephrocarcinogenic compounds, including those associated with BEN, are metabolized by glutathione S-transferase (GST) superfamily of phase II detoxication enzymes...
2016: Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine
Tamalika Ash, Tanay Debnath, Tahamida Banu, Abhijit Kumar Das
A mechanistic investigation has been carried out to explore all possible gas phase unimolecular isomerization as well as decomposition pathways of toxic organophosphorus compounds (OPCs), namely, sarin (GB) and soman (GD), which are better known as nerve agents. We have identified a total of 13 detoxication pathways for sarin, where the α-H, β-H, and γ-H take part in the H-transfer process. However, for soman, due to the presence of ω-H, three additional detoxication pathways are obtained, where the ω-H is involved in the H-transfer process...
September 19, 2016: Chemical Research in Toxicology
Jie Pi, Xuelin Li, Ting Zhang, Deliang Li
Effects of acute exposure to sublethal waterborne cadmium (Cd) on energy homeostasis in filter-feeding fishes have rarely been studied. The response patterns of energy substances were investigated in juvenile silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) exposed to sublethal waterborne Cd for 96 h. The results showed the 96hLC50 of Cd on juvenile silver carp was 1.723 mg/L. Sublethal acute exposure of Cd significantly affected the energy homeostasis of juvenile silver carp, including increase in plasma glucose and lactate, and decrease in plasma triglyceride, muscle glycogen and triglyceride and liver glycogen...
October 2016: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
David C Warhurst, John C Craig, K Saki Raheem
Antimalarial chloroquine (CQ) prevents haematin detoxication when CQ-base concentrates in the acidic digestive vacuole through protonation of its p-aminopyridine (pAP) basic aromatic nitrogen and sidechain diethyl-N. CQ export through the variant vacuolar membrane export channel, PFCRT, causes CQ-resistance in Plasmodium falciparum but 3-methyl CQ (sontochin SC), des-ethyl amodiaquine (DAQ) and bis 4-aminoquinoline piperaquine (PQ) are still active. This is determined by changes in drug accumulation ratios in parasite lipid (LAR) and in vacuolar water (VAR)...
2016: PloS One
Y Ding, X L Xiong, L Zhao, H R Li
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role of farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and its downstream molecules small heterodimer partner (SHP), UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B4 (UGT2B4), and bile salt export pump (BSEP) in rats with acute cholestatic hepatitis. METHODS: A total of 20 Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into normal control group and model group, with 10 rats in each group. The rats in the model group were given a single dose (50 mg/kg) ofα-naphthyl isothiocyanate by gavage to establish the animal model of acute cholestatic hepatitis...
June 2016: Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing za Zhi, Zhonghua Ganzangbing Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Hepatology
Shu Dong, Qi-Long Chen, Ya-Nan Song, Yang Sun, Bin Wei, Xiao-Yan Li, Yi-Yang Hu, Ping Liu, Shi-Bing Su
The classic toxicity of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) is to induce liver lesion and liver fibrosis. Liver fibrosis is a consequence of chronic liver lesion, which can progress into liver cirrhosis even hepatocarcinoma. However, the toxicological mechanisms of CCl4-induced liver fibrosis remain not fully understood. We combined transcriptomic and proteomic analysis and biological network technology, predicted toxicological targets and regulatory networks of CCl4 in liver fibrosis. Wistar rats were treated with CCl4 for 9 weeks...
2016: Journal of Toxicological Sciences
Jiayu Gao, Xiao Yang, Weiping Yin
Spina Gleditsiae is an important herb with various medicinal properties in traditional and folk medicinal systems of East Asian countries. In China through the centuries, it has been traditionally used as a source of drugs for anticancer, detoxication, detumescence, apocenosis, and antiparasites effects. Recently, an increasing number of studies have been reported regarding its chemical constituents and pharmacological activities. To further evidence the traditional use, phytochemicals, and pharmacological mechanisms of this herb, a systematic literature review was performed herein for Spina Gleditsiae...
2016: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Jiaolin Bao, Renbo Ding, Lidi Zou, Chao Zhang, Kai Wang, Fang Liu, Peng Li, Meiwan Chen, Jian-Bo Wan, Huanxing Su, Yitao Wang, Chengwei He
Forsythiae Fructus, the fruits of Forsythia suspensa (Thunb.) Vahl, Lianqiao in Chinese, is one of the most fundamental herbs in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). It is a typical heat-clearing and detoxicating herb, according to TCM theory. In this study, we investigated the antitumor effect of Forsythiae Fructus aqueous extract (FAE) on B16-F10 melanoma cells in vivo. The transplanted B16-F10 melanoma in C57BL/6 mice was established and used for the evaluation of the in vivo antitumor effect of FAE. FAE strongly inhibited the growth of B16-F10 cells in vitro and the tumor in vivo...
2016: American Journal of Chinese Medicine
Cuiqiong Wang, Zhongyuan Li, Hui Wang, Haiyan Qiu, Minghui Zhang, Shuang Li, Xuegang Luo, Yajian Song, Hao Zhou, Wenjian Ma, Tongcun Zhang
BACKGROUND: Contamination of food and feed by Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) has posed serious economic and health problem worldwide, developing biological methods for AFB1 degradation is highly required. RESULTS: Among three AFB1 degrading microorganisms isolated from moldy peanut, Fusarium sp. WCQ3361 could remove AFB1 extremely effective with a degradation ratio of 70.20% after 1 min and 95.38% after 24 h. Its degradation ratio was not much affected by temperature change (0-90 °C), and it also displayed excellent thermostability, maintained 99...
July 6, 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Yan Li, Zhongkang Wang, Xuee Liu, Zhangyong Song, Ren Li, Changwen Shao, Youping Yin
Iron is an indispensable factor for the dimorphic insect pathogenic Nomuraea rileyi to form persistent microsclerotia which can replace conidia or blastospores for commercial mass production. There are two high affinity iron acquisition pathways in N. rileyi, siderophore-assisted iron mobilization and reductive iron assimilation systems. Transcription of the two iron uptake pathways related genes is induced under iron-limiting conditions. Stage-specific iron uptake-related genes expression during microsclerotia development shows siderophore-mediated iron acquisition genes are rigorously upregulated specifically during the formation and mature period while reductive iron assimilation related genes just display a higher expression at the late maturation period...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Julie E Bauman, Yan Zang, Malabika Sen, Changyou Li, Lin Wang, Patricia A Egner, Jed W Fahey, Daniel P Normolle, Jennifer R Grandis, Thomas W Kensler, Daniel E Johnson
Chronic exposure to carcinogens represents the major risk factor for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Beverages derived from broccoli sprout extracts (BSE) that are rich in glucoraphanin and its bioactive metabolite sulforaphane promote detoxication of airborne pollutants in humans. Herein, we investigated the potential chemopreventive activity of sulforaphane using in vitro models of normal and malignant mucosal epithelial cells and an in vivo model of murine oral cancer resulting from the carcinogen 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4NQO)...
July 2016: Cancer Prevention Research
Hyeon-Ju Ryoo, Esther K Choo
INTRODUCTION: Visits to the emergency department (ED) for use of illicit drugs and opioids have increased in the past decade. In the ED, little is known about how gender may play a role in drug-related visits and referrals to treatment. This study performs gender-based comparison analyses of drug-related ED visits nationwide. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional analysis with data collected from 2004 to 2011 by the Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN). All data were coded to capture major drug categories and opioids...
May 2016: Western Journal of Emergency Medicine
Iris Mangas, Jorge Estevez, Eugenio Vilanova, Tanos Celmar Costa França
Organophosphorus compounds (OPs) are a large and diverse class of chemicals mainly used as pesticides and chemical weapons. People may be exposed to OPs in several occasions, which can produce several distinct neurotoxic effects depending on the dose, frequency of exposure, type of OP, and the host factors that influence susceptibility and sensitivity. These neurotoxic effects are mainly due to the interaction with enzyme targets involved in toxicological or detoxication pathways. In this work, the toxicological relevance of known OPs targets is reviewed...
June 13, 2016: Toxicology
Soundara Viveka Thangaraj, Vidyarani Shyamsundar, Arvind Krishnamurthy, Pratibha Ramani, Kumaresan Ganesan, Muthulakshmi Muthuswami, Vijayalakshmi Ramshankar
Oral Tongue Squamous cell carcinoma (OTSCC), the most frequently affected oral cancer sub-site, is associated with a poor therapeutic outcome and survival despite aggressive multi- modality management. Till date, there are no established biomarkers to indicate prognosis and outcome in patients presenting with tongue cancer. There is an urgent need for reliable molecular prognostic factors to enable identification of patients with high risk of recurrence and treatment failure in OTSCC management. In the current study, we present the meta-analysis of OTSCC microarray based gene expression profiles, deriving a comprehensive molecular portrait of tongue cancer biology, showing the relevant genes and pathways which can be pursued further to derive novel, tailored therapeutics as well as for prognostication...
2016: PloS One
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