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Shuqi Pu, Xiaojie Wu, Xiaoying Yang, Yunzhan Zhang, Yunkai Dai, Yueling Zhang, Xiaoting Wu, Yan Liu, Xiaona Cui, Haiyong Jin, Jianhong Cao, Ruliu Li, Jiazhong Cai, Qizhi Cao, Ling Hu, Yong Gao
Xenobiotic nuclear receptors (XNRs) are nuclear receptors that characterized by coordinately regulating the expression of genes encoding drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters to essentially eliminate and detoxify xenobiotics and endobiotics from the body, including the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR), the farnesoid X receptor (FXR), the liver X receptor (LXR), the pregnane X receptor (PXR) and the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR). Heretofore, increasing evidences have suggested that these five XNRs are not only involved in the regulation of xeno-/endo-biotics detoxication but also the development of human diseases, such as cancer, obesity and diabetes...
June 10, 2018: Current Drug Metabolism
Rattanamanee Chomchan, Sunisa Siripongvutikorn, Pattaravan Maliyam, Bandhita Saibandith, Panupong Puttarak
Cadmium (Cd) contamination in food is a problem endangering human health. Cd detoxication is an interesting topic particularly using food which provides no side effects. Ricegrass juice is a squeezed juice from young rice leaves which is introduced as a functional drink rich in polyphenol components. Se-enrichment into ricegrass is initiated to provide extra advantages of their functional properties. The protective role of ricegrass juice (RG) and Se-enriched ricegrass juice (Se-RG) against Cd toxicity during pre-, co- and post-treatment on HEK293 kidney cells were investigated...
May 28, 2018: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
S Bryn Austin, Selena Hua Liu, Nathan Tefft
Abuse of widely available, over-the-counter (OTC) drugs and supplements such as diet pills, laxatives, and diuretics by adolescents for weight control is well-documented, yet manufacturers and retailers can sell them to minors without restriction. The aim of our study was to estimate the effect of added taxation of OTC drugs and dietary supplements sold for weight loss on household purchases of these products. With data from 60,538 U.S. households in the 2012 waves of the Nielsen/IRi National Consumer Panel (NCP) and the Nielsen/IRi Retail Scanner (NRS) datasets, we conducted analyses in 2017 to tally annual quantities and expenditures on OTC drugs or dietary supplements making weight-loss, cleanse/detox, or diuretic claims...
May 26, 2018: Preventive Medicine
S Chen, M Lu, N Zhang, X Zou, M Mo, S Zheng
Detoxication enzymes play an important role in insect resistance to xenobiotics such as insecticides and phytochemicals. We studied the pathway for activating the expression of glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) in response to selected xenobiotics. An assay of the promoter activity of GST epsilon 1 (Slgste1) of Spodoptera litura led to the discovery of a cis-regulating element. An antioxidant response element was activated in response to indole-3-carbinol (I3C) and chlorpyrifos (CPF) and was able to bind with the xenobiotic sensor protein nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2-related factor 2 (SlNrf2)...
May 10, 2018: Insect Molecular Biology
M Benjamin Barth, Katja Buchwalder, Akito Y Kawahara, Xin Zhou, Shanlin Liu, Nicolas Krezdorn, Björn Rotter, Ralf Horres, Anna K Hundsdoerfer
Background: The European spurge hawkmoth, Hyles euphorbiae (Lepidoptera, Sphingidae), has been intensively studied as a model organism for insect chemical ecology, cold hardiness and evolution of species delineation. To understand species isolation mechanisms at a molecular level, this study aims at determining genetic factors underlying two adaptive ecological trait candidates, phorbol ester (TPA) detoxification and seasonal cold acclimation. Method: A draft transcriptome of H...
2018: Frontiers in Zoology
Lindsay Reed, Volker M Arlt, David H Phillips
Many chemical carcinogens require metabolic activation via xenobiotic-metabolising enzymes in order to exert their genotoxic effects. Evidence from numerous in-vitro studies, utilising reconstituted systems, microsomal fractions and cultured cells, implicate cytochrome P450 enzymes as being the predominant enzymes responsible for the metabolic activation of many procarcinogens. With the development of targeted gene disruption methodologies, knockout mouse models have been generated that allow investigation of the in-vivo roles of P450 enzymes in the metabolic activation of carcinogens...
May 3, 2018: Carcinogenesis
Yuan Zhang, Dan-Yang Mi, Jin Wang, Yan-Ping Luo, Xu Yang, Shi Dong, Xing-Ming Ma, Kai-Zhong Dong
Sophora moorcroftiana (S. moorcroftiana) is an endemic leguminous dwarf shrub in Tibet, China. Decoctions of the seeds have been used in Chinese folk medicine for dephlogistication, detoxication, and infectious diseases. The present study aimed to investigate the constituent and biological effects of polysaccharides from S. moorcroftiana seeds in Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans). Polysaccharides from S. moorcroftiana seeds (SMpol) were extracted with 60% ethanol and constituent was analyzed by GC-MS. SMpol was composed of glucose, galactose and inositol in the molar ratio of 35...
April 2018: Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines
Zhonghao Wan, Meng Li, Qian Zhang, Zixi Fan, Francis Verpoort
Magnetic chitosan particles (MCS) were chemically grafted by m-phenylenediamine (mPD) forming a distinctive shell layer with abundant nitrogenous functional groups and used as an adsorbent for the effective removal of Cr(VI) from aqueous solution. By interaction among functional groups in the facile oxidative polymerization process, the grafting of mPD and its polymers on MCS surface was innovatively realized. Through Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy, energy dispersive spectrometer, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, etc...
April 20, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Menachem M Sofer, Alexander Kaptsan, Jonathan Anson
OBJECTIVES: Currently, Israel has a single governmental inpatient dual diagnosis detoxification unit. We provide a cross-section of patient profiles in this study as well as explore possible associations between clinical/demographic factors and the unplanned early discharge of patients from the unit, aiming at improving rehabilitation success rates. METHODS: In this retrospective study, medical records of all patients admitted to the unit between January 1, 2012, and July 1, 2013, were examined (N = 323)...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Dual Diagnosis
Lucie Bacakova, Marta Vandrovcova, Ivana Kopova, Ivan Jirka
Zeolites are microporous tectosilicates of natural or synthetic origin, which have been extensively used in various technological applications, e.g. as catalysts and as molecular sieves, for separating and sorting various molecules, for water and air purification, including removal of radioactive contaminants, for harvesting waste heat and solar heat energy, for adsorption refrigeration, as detergents, etc. These applications of zeolites were typically related with their porous character, their high adsorption capacity, and their ion exchange properties...
May 1, 2018: Biomaterials Science
Ashlea Bartram, Scott Hanson-Easey, Jaklin Eliott
BACKGROUND: In Australia, recent years have seen a rise in the popularity of temporary abstinence campaigns, in which people pledge to abstain from alcohol for a month while raising funds for charity. In addition to their fundraising aims, such initiatives have been viewed as tools for broader behavioural and cultural change around alcohol, encouraging participants to reflect on their drinking and make longer-term changes to their behaviour. The extent to which these initiatives promote enduring change may depend on how they portray the experience of temporarily abstaining from alcohol, and how they position participants...
March 7, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
İhsan Yikilgan, Sinem Akgul, Ahmet Hazar, Cemile Kedıcı Alp, Serdar Baglar, Oya Bala
PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of three fresh detox juices, including an orange, green, and red beverage, on the color stability and surface roughness of three anterior esthetic resin-based composites (RBCs). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Disk-shaped specimens were prepared with three different esthetic RBCs (Amaris, G-aenial Anterior, Clearfil Majesty ES-2) according to the manufacturers' instructions. Forty specimens were prepared for each RBC, and all specimens were stored in artificial saliva at 37°C for 24 hours...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Prosthodontics: Official Journal of the American College of Prosthodontists
Andrew H Rogers, Jafar Bakhshaie, Hantin Lam, Kirsten J Langdon, Joseph W Ditre, Michael J Zvolensky
Pain problems are of significant public health concern, and with opioid-related problems and death due to overdose at an all-time high, there is significant public health importance to identify risk factors that link instances of pain to opioid misuse among persons with pain whether or not they have been prescribed opioids for pain management. Severe pain and pain-related problems have been associated with increased risk for opioid misuse, and recent research indicates that pain-related anxiety (worry about the negative consequences of pain) may contribute to a more debilitating pain experience...
February 26, 2018: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy
Sharon E Murphy, Linda B von Weymarn, Marc Parenteau, Irina Stepanov, Maarit Tiirikainen, Loic LeMarchand, Sungshim L Park
At similar smoking levels, African American's lung cancer risk is as much as twice that of whites. We hypothesized that racial/ethnic differences in UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT)-catalyzed glucuronidation of 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL), a detoxication pathway for the tobacco-specific lung carcinogen 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) may contribute to this variable risk. UGT2B10 catalyzes NNAL- N-glucuronidation, and a UGT2B10 splice variant is common among African Americans...
March 19, 2018: Chemical Research in Toxicology
Matt Albertolle, Thanh T N Phan, Ambra Pozzi, F Peter Guengerich
The lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) provides an oxidizing environment to aid in the formation of disulfide bonds, which is tightly regulated by both antioxidant proteins and small molecules. On the cytoplasmic side of the ER, cytochrome P450 (P450) proteins have been identified as a superfamily of enzymes that are important in the formation of endogenous chemicals as well as in the detoxication of xenobiotics. Our previous report described oxidative inhibition of P450 Family 4 enzymes via oxidation of the heme-thiolate cysteine to a sulfenic acid (-SOH) (Albertolle, M...
January 26, 2018: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
Shigeyuki Uno, Daniel W Nebert, Makoto Makishima
The Western diet contributes to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) pathogenesis. Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), a prototypical environmental pollutant produced by combustion processes, is present in charcoal-grilled meat. Cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) metabolizes BaP, resulting in either detoxication or metabolic activation in a context-dependent manner. To elucidate a role of CYP1A1-BaP in NAFLD pathogenesis, we compared the effects of a Western diet, with or without oral BaP treatment, on the development of NAFLD in Cyp1a1(-/-) mice versus wild-type mice...
March 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Yi-Hsin Lin, Ming-Chieh Yang, Ssu-Hsueh Tseng, Rosie Jiang, Andrew Yang, Emily Farmer, Shiwen Peng, Talia Henkle, Yung-Nien Chang, Chien-Fu Hung, T-C Wu
Human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) is the etiologic factor for cervical cancer and a subset of oropharyngeal cancers. Although several prophylactic HPV vaccines are available, no effective therapeutic strategies to control active HPV diseases exist. Tumor implantation models are traditionally used to study HPV-associated buccal tumors. However, they fail to address precancerous phases of disease progression and display tumor microenvironments distinct from those observed in patients. Previously, K14-E6/E7 transgenic mouse models have been used to generate spontaneous tumors...
January 23, 2018: Cancer Immunology Research
Taotao Qiu, Xing Shen, Zhen Tian, Riming Huang, Xiangmei Li, Juan Wang, Rong Wang, Yuanming Sun, Yiguo Jiang, Hongtao Lei, Huidong Zhang
Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 ) causes hepatotoxic, genotoxic, and immunotoxic effects in a variety of species. Although various neutralizing agents of AFB1 toxicity have been studied, the egg yolk immunoglobulin (IgY) detoxification of small molecular toxins and the mechanisms underlying such effects have not yet been reported. In this investigation, anti-AFB1 IgY against AFB1 was successfully raised, and a competitive indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was established with a sensitive half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50, 2...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Qingchen Luo, Qiuhui Wei, Ruibin Wang, Yang Zhang, Fan Zhang, Yuan He, Guangxiao Yang, Guangyuan He
Calcineurin B-like protein (CBL), the Ca2+ sensor, and its interacting protein kinases (CIPKs) play essential roles in plants' response to stress. However, few studies have focused on the functions of CIPKs in low-temperature response. In the present study, BdCIPK31, a cold-responsive CIPK in Brachypodium distachyon, was found to participate in low-temperature response. Ectopic expression of BdCIPK31 conferred cold tolerance in transgenic tobaccos. Further analyses indicated that expression of BdCIPK31 improved ROS detoxication and omsoprotectant biosynthesis in transgenic plants under low-temperature treatment, suggesting that the BdCIPK31 functions positively in plant adaption to the cold-induced oxidative and osmotic stresses...
February 1, 2018: Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica
Kelly Brogan
This case report illustrates the relationship between gut, hormonal, and brain function in that dietary change, mindfulness interventions, and detoxification led to resolution of disabling psychiatric symptoms. In this case, a single Caucasian female resolved her symptoms of bipolar disorder (BD) including psychotic features and suicidality, posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms from childhood torture, disordered eating, fibromyalgia, and irritable bowel syndrome through lifestyle interventions. This patient survived a severe trauma history only to develop alcohol dependence, disordered eating, and depressive symptoms, which were treated with a polypharmaceutical psychiatric approach...
October 2017: Advances in Mind-body Medicine
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