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Rika Ozawa, Hiroki Endo, Mei Iijima, Koichi Sugimoto, Junji Takabayashi, Tetsuo Gotoh, Gen-Ichiro Arimura
Two genotypes coexist among Kanzawa spider mites, one of which causes red scars and the other of which causes white scars on leaves, and they elicit different defense responses in host plants. Based on RNA-Seq analysis, we revealed here that the expression levels of genes involved in the detoxification system were higher in Red strains than White strains. The corresponding enzyme activities as well as performances for acaricide resistance and host adaptation toward Laminaceae were also higher in Red strains than White strains, indicating that Red strains were superior in trait(s) of the detox system...
February 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
M W Anders
Exposure to diacetyl and related α-diketones causes respiratory-tract damage in humans and experimental animals. Chemical toxicity is often associated with covalent modification of cellular nucleophiles by electrophilic chemicals. Electrophilic α-diketones may covalently modify nucleophilic arginine residues in critical proteins and, thereby, produce the observed respiratory-tract pathology. The major pathway for the biotransformation of α-diketones is reduction to α-hydroxyketones (acyloins), which is catalyzed by NAD(P)H-dependent enzymes of the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) and the aldo-keto reductase (AKR) superfamilies...
February 5, 2017: Toxicology
Óscar Herrero, Gloria Morcillo, Rosario Planelló
Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant used worldwide as a plasticizer and solvent in many formulations. Based on available toxicological data, it has been classified as toxic for reproduction and as an endocrine disruptor. Despite this, ecotoxicological studies in aquatic wildlife organisms are still scarce. In the present work, the toxic molecular alterations caused by DEHP in aquatic larvae of the midge Chironomus riparius have been studied, by analyzing the transcriptional activity of genes related to some vital cellular pathways, such as the ribosomal machinery (rpL4, rpL13), the cell stress response (hsc70, hsp70, hsp40, hsp27), the ecdysone hormone pathway (EcR), the energy metabolism (GAPDH), and detoxication processes (CYP4G)...
2017: PloS One
Ana M O Azevedo, Sarah A P Pereira, Marieta L C Passos, Susana P F Costa, Paula C A G Pinto, André R T S Araujo, M Lúcia M F S Saraiva
Acylase I (ACY I) plays a role in the detoxication and bioactivation of xenobiotics as well in other physiological functions. In this context, an automated ACY I assay for the evaluation of ionic liquids' (ILs) toxicity was developed. The assay was implemented in a sequential injection analysis (SIA) system and was applied to eight commercially available ILs. The SIA methodology was based on the deacetylation of N-acetyl-l-methionine with production of l-methionine, which was determined using fluorescamine...
January 16, 2017: Chemosphere
Junkang Wu, Huijie Lu, Guangcan Zhu, Lianghui Chen, Yan Chang, Ran Yu
The ZnO nanoparticle (NP) effects on typical ammonia-oxidizing bacteria, Nitrosomonas europaea in a chemostat bioreactor, and the cells' toxicity adaptation and recovery potentials were explored. Hardly any inhibition was observed when the NP concentration was high up to 10 mg/L. The cells exposed to 50 mg/L ZnO NPs displayed time-dependent impairment and recovery potentials in terms of cell density, membrane integrity, nitrite production rate, and ammonia monooxygenase activity. The 6-h NP stress impaired cells were nearly completely restored during a 12-h recovery incubation, while the longer exposure time would cause irretrievable cell damage...
January 10, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Dennis G Fisher, Grace L Reynolds, Laura H D'Anna, David W Hosmer, Kholoud Hardan-Khalil
Among substance abusers in the US, the discrepancy in the number who access substance abuse treatment and the number who need treatment is sizable. This results in a major public health problem of access to treatment. The purpose of this study was to examine characteristics of Persons Who Use Drugs (PWUDs) that either hinder or facilitate access to treatment. 2646 participants were administered the Risk Behavior Assessment (RBA) and the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale. The RBA included the dependent variable which was responses to the question "During the last year, have you ever tried, but been unable, to get into a drug treatment or detox program?" In multivariate analysis, factors associated with being unable to access treatment included: Previously been in drug treatment (OR=4...
February 2017: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
Feng Li, Chun-Hua Huang, Lin-Na Xie, Na Qu, Jie Shao, Bo Shao, Ben-Zhan Zhu
N-hydroxyphthalimide (NHPI), which is best known as an organocatalyst for efficient C-H activation, has been found to be oxidized by quinoid compounds to its corresponding catalytically active nitroxide-radical. Here, we found that NHPI can be isomerized into isatoic anhydride by an unusually facile two-step method using tetrachloro-1,4-benzoquinone (TCBQ, p-chloranil), accompanied by a two-step hydrolytic dechlorination of highly toxic TCBQ into the much less toxic dihydroxylation product, 2,5-dichloro-3,6-dihydroxy-1,4-benzoquinone (chloranilic acid)...
December 23, 2016: Scientific Reports
You Yu, Xue-Jia Yi, Zhi-Yi Mei, Jun Li, Xian-Ju Huang, Guang-Zhong Yang, Li-Qun Ma, Yue Gao
BACKGROUND: Aconitum brachypodum Diels (Family Ranunculaceae) is a Chinese ethnodrug and is well known for both its therapeutic application and high toxicity. However, no detoxication strategy is available for the complete elimination of the toxicity of Aconitum plants. Veratrilla baillonii Franch is believed to possess antitoxic effects on the toxicity induced by Aconitum plants and has been clinically used for hundreds of time by Naxi and Lisu nationalities in Yunnan Province of China...
December 1, 2016: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
Wynton D McClary, John P Sumida, Michele Scian, Lorela Paço, William M Atkins
Cytochrome P4503A4 (CYP3A4) is a peripheral membrane protein that plays a major role in enzymatic detoxification of many drugs and toxins. CYP3A4 has an integral membrane N-terminal helix and a localized patch comprised of the G' and F' helix regions that are embedded in the membrane, but the effects of membrane composition on CYP3A4 function are unknown. Here, circular dichroism and differential scanning calorimetry were used to compare the stability of CYP3A4 in lipid bilayer nanodiscs with varying ratios of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine to 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC)...
November 15, 2016: Biochemistry
Bo Sun, Xubin Wang, Ruili Cao, Qi Zhang, Qiao Liu, Meifeng Xu, Ming Zhang, Xiangbo Du, Fangting Dong, Xianzhong Yan
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Fuzi, the processed lateral root of Aconitum carmichaelii Debeaux, is a traditional Chinese medicine used for its analgesic, antipyretic, anti-rheumatoid arthritis and anti-inflammation effects; however, it is also well known for its toxicity. Gancao, the root of Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch., is often used concurrently with Fuzi to alleviate its toxicity. However, the mechanism of detoxication is still not well clear. AIM OF THE STUDY: In this study, the effect of Gancao on the metabolic changes induced by Fuzi was investigated by NMR-based metabonomic approaches...
December 4, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Daniel Ayanga, Daryl Shorter, Thomas R Kosten
Opioid Use Disorder (OUD) is a significant public health concern, negatively impacting the medical, psychological, and social domains of an individual's life as well as creating substantial burdens for society. Effective treatment interventions are necessary for reduction of OUD and its consequences. Pharmacotherapy represents a central component of management. Areas covered: This review focuses on pharmacologic strategies for OUD treatment, discussing both primary as well as adjunctive therapy modalities. We will discuss both medications used during detoxification to treat withdrawal, as well as those used as maintenance therapy...
December 2016: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
Elizabeth Welch, Karen Jones, James Caiels, Karen Windle, Rosalyn Bass
Personal health budgets (PHBs) in England have been viewed as a vehicle for developing a personalised patient-based strategy within the substance misuse care pathway. In 2009, the Department of Health announced a 3-year pilot programme of PHBs to explore opportunities offered by this new initiative across a number of long-term health conditions, and commissioned an independent evaluation to run alongside as well as a separate study involving two pilot sites that were implementing PHBs within the substance misuse service...
October 10, 2016: Health & Social Care in the Community
Huasheng Zhu, Jiandong Wu, Yingli Jiang, Jing Jin, Wei Zhou, Yu Wang, Guomin Han, Yang Zhao, Beijiu Cheng
Multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) proteins are a group of secondary active transporters, which widely exist in all living organisms and play important role in the detoxication of endogenous secondary metabolites and exogenous agents. However, to date, no systematic and comprehensive study of this family is reported in maize. Here, a total of 49 MATE genes (ZmMATE) were identified and divided into seven groups by phylogenetic analysis. Conserved intro-exon structures and motif compositions were investigated in these genes...
September 2016: Journal of Genetics
M D Dibirov, A I Isaev, A B Dzhadzhiev, A I Ashimova, T Ataev
UNLABELLED: The number of patients with acute pancreatitis and pancreatic necrosis has been steadily increasing. Mortality in infected pancreatic necrosis remains high. AIM: To develop measures to prevent infection of pancreatic necrosis by timely correction of intra-abdominal hypertension and the syndrome of intestinal failure. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Developed a package of measures, consisting of early intestinal lavage and enterosorption, intravenous highdoses of octreotide, epidural blockade, adequate detox and the start of effective antimicrobial therapy...
2016: Khirurgiia
Xiang Tu, YuanPing Deng, Jing Chen, Quan Hu, ChengShi He, James B Jordan, Sen Zhong
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Few studies have explored the anti-angiogenic effects of TCM - even more so, as it applies to cancer treatment research. Heat-clearing and detoxicating TCM is the most frequently used category in the treatment of cancerous tumors, but lacks sufficient validation studies. AIM OF THE STUDY: The present research (in our series of studies) aims to explore the anti-angiogenic effects of TCM; so we begin with heat-clearing and detoxicating TCM...
December 24, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Marija Matic, Biljana Dragicevic, Tatjana Pekmezovic, Sonja Suvakov, Ana Savic-Radojevic, Marija Pljesa-Ercegovac, Dejan Dragicevic, Jelena Smiljic, Tatjana Simic
Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN) is a chronic familial form of interstitial nephritis that might eventually lead to end stage renal disease. This nephropathy affects individuals living along of the Danube River and its tributaries in Serbia, Bosnia, Croatia, Bulgaria and Romania. The increased incidence of urinary tract tumors in the BEN areas is well described, but its specific genetic predisposition is still unclear. Certain nephrocarcinogenic compounds, including those associated with BEN, are metabolized by glutathione S-transferase (GST) superfamily of phase II detoxication enzymes...
2016: Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine
Tamalika Ash, Tanay Debnath, Tahamida Banu, Abhijit Kumar Das
A mechanistic investigation has been carried out to explore all possible gas phase unimolecular isomerization as well as decomposition pathways of toxic organophosphorus compounds (OPCs), namely, sarin (GB) and soman (GD), which are better known as nerve agents. We have identified a total of 13 detoxication pathways for sarin, where the α-H, β-H, and γ-H take part in the H-transfer process. However, for soman, due to the presence of ω-H, three additional detoxication pathways are obtained, where the ω-H is involved in the H-transfer process...
September 19, 2016: Chemical Research in Toxicology
Jie Pi, Xuelin Li, Ting Zhang, Deliang Li
Effects of acute exposure to sublethal waterborne cadmium (Cd) on energy homeostasis in filter-feeding fishes have rarely been studied. The response patterns of energy substances were investigated in juvenile silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) exposed to sublethal waterborne Cd for 96 h. The results showed the 96hLC50 of Cd on juvenile silver carp was 1.723 mg/L. Sublethal acute exposure of Cd significantly affected the energy homeostasis of juvenile silver carp, including increase in plasma glucose and lactate, and decrease in plasma triglyceride, muscle glycogen and triglyceride and liver glycogen...
October 2016: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
David C Warhurst, John C Craig, K Saki Raheem
Antimalarial chloroquine (CQ) prevents haematin detoxication when CQ-base concentrates in the acidic digestive vacuole through protonation of its p-aminopyridine (pAP) basic aromatic nitrogen and sidechain diethyl-N. CQ export through the variant vacuolar membrane export channel, PFCRT, causes CQ-resistance in Plasmodium falciparum but 3-methyl CQ (sontochin SC), des-ethyl amodiaquine (DAQ) and bis 4-aminoquinoline piperaquine (PQ) are still active. This is determined by changes in drug accumulation ratios in parasite lipid (LAR) and in vacuolar water (VAR)...
2016: PloS One
Y Ding, X L Xiong, L Zhao, H R Li
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role of farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and its downstream molecules small heterodimer partner (SHP), UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B4 (UGT2B4), and bile salt export pump (BSEP) in rats with acute cholestatic hepatitis. METHODS: A total of 20 Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into normal control group and model group, with 10 rats in each group. The rats in the model group were given a single dose (50 mg/kg) ofα-naphthyl isothiocyanate by gavage to establish the animal model of acute cholestatic hepatitis...
June 2016: Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing za Zhi, Zhonghua Ganzangbing Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Hepatology
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