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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334694/home-alone-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-on-the-effects-of-individual-housing-on-body-weight-food-intake-and-visceral-fat-mass-in-rodents
#1
REVIEW
L Schipper, L Harvey, E M van der Beek, G van Dijk
Rats and mice are widely used to study environmental effects on psychological and metabolic health. Study designs differ widely and are often characterized by varying (social) housing conditions. In itself, housing has a profound influence on physiology and behaviour of rodents, affecting energy balance and sustainable metabolic health. However, evidence for potential long-term consequences of individual versus social housing on body weight and metabolic phenotype is inconsistent. We conducted a systematic literature review and meta-analyses assessing effects of individual versus social housing of rats and mice, living under well-accepted laboratory conditions, on measures of metabolic health, including body weight, food intake and visceral adipose tissue mass...
January 15, 2018: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334499/cognitive-function-and-its-risk-factors-among-older-us-adults-living-at-home
#2
William Dale, Ashwin A Kotwal, Joseph W Shega, L Philip Schumm, David W Kern, Jayant M Pinto, Kelly M Pudelek, Linda J Waite, Martha K McClintock
BACKGROUND: The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) has not been administered to a representative national sample, precluding comparison of patient scores to the general population and for risk factor identification. METHODS: A validated survey-based adaptation of the MoCA (MoCA-SA) was administered to a probability sample of home-dwelling US adults aged 62 to 90, using the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (n=3129), yielding estimates of prevalence in the United States...
January 12, 2018: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334436/assessment-of-the-effects-of-a-novel-stabilized-stannous-fluoride-dentifrice-on-gingivitis-in-a-two-month-positive-controlled-clinical-study
#3
Tao He, Rachelle Eusebio, C R Goyal, Jimmy G Qaqish
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to compare the antibleeding/antigingivitis effectiveness of a newly formulated 0.454% stabilized stannous fluoride dentifrice and a marketed positive control triclosan-containing dentifrice in adults with mild-to-moderate gingivitis. METHODS: This single-center, two-month, randomized and controlled, double-blind, parallel group clinical trial involved adults with preexisting mild-to-moderate gingivitis. Baseline bleeding and gingivitis levels were assessed with the Gingival Bleeding Index (GBI) and Lobene Modified Gingival Index (MGI)...
December 2017: Journal of Clinical Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334435/comparative-antiplaque-effect-of-two-antimicrobial-dentifrices-laboratory-and-clinical-evaluations
#4
Lynn R Friesen, C R Goyal, Jimmy G Qaqish, Tao He, Rachelle Eusebio, Marianne Zsiska, Teresa Farmer, Eva Schneiderman
OBJECTIVES: To compare the effect of a stannous fluoride dentifrice versus a triclosan-containing dentifrice on the reduction of plaque using in vitro and clinical models. METHODS: Both investigations evaluated a novel 0.454% stabilized stannous fluoride dentifrice (Crest® Pro-Health™ smooth formula) versus a sodium fluoride/triclosan positive control dentifrice (Colgate® Total®). The in vitro evaluation utilized the Plaque Glycolysis and Regrowth Model (PGRM), wherein the metabolic effects (acid production/glycolysis inhibition) of the dentifrices were assessed on plaque biofilms grown on glass rods after three days growth and a single dentifrice treatment...
December 2017: Journal of Clinical Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334338/at-home-genital-nerve-stimulation-for-individuals-with-sci-and-neurogenic-detrusor-overactivity-a-pilot-feasibility-study
#5
Dennis J Bourbeau, Kenneth J Gustafson, Steven W Brose
OBJECTIVE: Neurogenic bladder dysfunction, including neurogenic detrusor overactivity (NDO) is one of the most clinically significant problems for persons with spinal cord injury (SCI), affecting health and quality of life. Genital nerve stimulation (GNS) can acutely inhibit NDO-related reflex bladder contractions and increase bladder capacity. However, it is unknown if GNS can improve urinary continence or help meet individuals' bladder management goals during sustained use, which is required for GNS to be clinically effective...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332945/the-human-skin-microbiome
#6
REVIEW
Allyson L Byrd, Yasmine Belkaid, Julia A Segre
Functioning as the exterior interface of the human body with the environment, skin acts as a physical barrier to prevent the invasion of foreign pathogens while providing a home to the commensal microbiota. The harsh physical landscape of skin, particularly the desiccated, nutrient-poor, acidic environment, also contributes to the adversity that pathogens face when colonizing human skin. Despite this, the skin is colonized by a diverse microbiota. In this Review, we describe amplicon and shotgun metagenomic DNA sequencing studies that have been used to assess the taxonomic diversity of microorganisms that are associated with skin from the kingdom to the strain level...
January 15, 2018: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332687/similarities-and-differences-in-estimates-of-sleep-duration-by-polysomnography-actigraphy-diary-and-self-reported-habitual-sleep-in-a-community-sample
#7
Karen A Matthews, Sanjay R Patel, Elizabeth J Pantesco, Daniel J Buysse, Thomas W Kamarck, Laisze Lee, Martica H Hall
OBJECTIVES: To compare estimates of sleep duration defined by polysomnography (PSG), actigraphy, daily diary, and retrospective questionnaire and to identify characteristics associated with differences between measures. DESIGN: Cross-sectional. SETTING: Community sample. PARTICIPANTS: The sample consisted of 223 Black, White, and Asian middle- to older-aged men and women residing in the Pittsburgh, PA area. INTERVENTIONS: Not applicable...
February 2018: Sleep Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332020/predictors-of-improvements-in-mental-health-from-mindfulness-meditation-in-stressed-older-adults
#8
Barry S Oken, Elena Goodrich, Daniel Klee, Tabatha Memmott, Jeffrey Proulx
Context • The benefits of a mindfulness meditation (MM) intervention are most often evidenced by improvements in self-rated stress and mental health. Given the physiological complexity of the psychological stress system, it is likely that some people benefit significantly, whereas others do not. Clinicians and researchers could benefit from further exploration to determine which baseline factors can predict clinically significant improvements from MM. Objectives • The study intended to determine (1) whether the baseline measures for participants who significantly benefitted from MM training were different from the baseline measures of participants who did not, and (2) whether a classification analysis using a decision-tree, machine-learning approach could be useful in predicting which individuals would be most likely to improve...
January 2018: Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331823/pre-pregnancy-maternal-depressive-symptoms-and-low-birth-weight-and-preterm-birth-outcomes-assessment-of-adolescent-background-characteristics-and-birth-outcomes-in-adulthood
#9
Stephen Nkansah-Amankra
PURPOSE: In the United States and other countries of the world , high prevalence of pre-pregnancy depressive symptoms and depression during pregnancy is an important public health concern, as they are associated with low birth weight (LBW) and preterm birth (PTB) outcomes in adulthood. However, the relationships among pre-pregnancy depressive symptoms, low birth weight, preterm birth outcomes and household characteristics have not been well established. METHODS: The study used data from 7120 adolescent female participants in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health data from Waves I (1994-1995 in-school interview), II (1996 as in-home), III (2001-2002 as in-home interview), IV (2008 as in-home interview) and Wave V is currently underway...
December 13, 2017: Midwifery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330643/antihypertensive-medication-and-dementia-risk-in-older-adult-african-americans-with-hypertension-a-prospective-cohort-study
#10
Michael D Murray, Hugh C Hendrie, Kathleen A Lane, Mengjie Zheng, Roberta Ambuehl, Shanshan Li, Frederick W Unverzagt, Christopher M Callahan, Sujuan Gao
BACKGROUND: African Americans are especially at risk of hypertension and dementia. Antihypertensive medications reduce the risk of cardiovascular events, but may also reduce the risk of dementia. OBJECTIVE: To assess the longitudinal effects of antihypertensive medications and blood pressure on the onset of incident dementia in a cohort of African Americans. DESIGN: Prospective cohort. PARTICIPANTS: 1236 community-dwelling patients from an inner-city public health care system, aged 65 years and older, with a history of hypertension but no history of dementia, and who had at least three primary care visits and a prescription filled for any medication...
January 12, 2018: Journal of General Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330585/potentially-inappropriate-medications-in-community-dwelling-older-adults-undertaken-as-a-comprehensive-geriatric-risk-assessment
#11
Sharmin S Bala, Sujita W Narayan, Prasad S Nishtala
PURPOSE: The prescription of potentially inappropriate medications (PIMs) is associated with an increase in adverse events, prescribing cascades, high health-care costs, morbidity, and mortality in the elderly. The overarching objective of this study is to examine the prevalence of PIMs in the elderly, applying the 2012 American Geriatrics Society Beers criteria for the study period 2012-2014, and the updated 2015 Beers criteria for 2015. METHODS: The study population (N = 70,479) included a continuously recruited national cohort of community-dwelling older (aged ≥ 65 years) New Zealanders who had undertaken the International Resident Assessment Instrument-Home Care (interRAI-HC) assessments between September 2012 and October 2015...
January 12, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325943/neurosurgical-care-availability-and-access-in-low-and-middle-income-countries
#12
Maria Punchak, Swagoto Mukhopadhyay, Sonal Sachdev, Ya-Ching Hung, Sophie Peeters, Abbas Rattani, Michael Dewan, Walter D Johnson, Kee B Park
BACKGROUND: An estimated 5 billion people worldwide lack access to basic surgical care. In particular, the vast majority of low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) currently struggle to provide adequate neurosurgical services. Significant barriers exist, including limited access to trained medical, nursing and allied health staff, lack of equipment, and availability of services at reasonable distance and at reasonable cost to patients. An accurate assessment of current neurosurgical capacity in LIMCs is an essential first step in tackling this deficit...
January 8, 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325520/factors-associated-with-low-patient-satisfaction-in-out-of-hours-primary-care-in-denmark-a-population-based-cross-sectional-study
#13
Mette Tranberg, Peter Vedsted, Bodil Hammer Bech, Morten Bondo Christensen, Søren Birkeland, Grete Moth
BACKGROUND: Low patient satisfaction with the quality of out-of-hours primary care (OOH-PC) has been linked with several individual and organizational factors. However, findings have been ambiguous and may not apply to the Danish out-of-hours (OOH) setting in which general practitioners (GPs) perform the initial telephone triage. This study aimed to identify patient-related, GP-related and organizational factors associated with low patient satisfaction. METHODS: The study was based on data from a 1-year population-based survey of OOH-PC (LV-KOS) in the Central Denmark Region in 2010-2011...
January 11, 2018: BMC Family Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325486/intensive-client-centred-occupational-therapy-in-the-home-improves-older-adults-occupational-performance-results-from-a-danish-randomized-controlled-trial
#14
Tove Lise Nielsen, Niels Trolle Andersen, Kirsten Schultz Petersen, Helene Polatajko, Claus Vinther Nielsen
BACKGROUND: There is growing interest in enabling older adults' occupational performance. We tested whether 11 weeks of intensive client-centred occupational therapy (ICC-OT) was superior to usual practice in improving the occupational performance of home-dwelling older adults. METHODS: An assessor-masked randomized controlled trial among adults 60 + with chronic health issues, who received or applied for homecare services. Recruitment took place September 2012 to April 2014...
January 12, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324565/assessment-of-child-lead-exposure-in-a-philadelphia-community-2014
#15
Timothy Dignam, Ana Pomales, Lora Werner, E Claire Newbern, James Hodge, Jay Nielsen, Aaron Grober, Karen Scruton, Rand Young, Jack Kelly, Mary Jean Brown
INTRODUCTION: Several urban neighborhoods in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, have a history of soil, household lead paint, and potential lead-emitting industry contamination. OBJECTIVES: To (1) describe blood lead levels (BLLs) in target neighborhoods, (2) identify risk factors and sources of lead exposure, (3) describe household environmental lead levels, and (4) compare results with existing data. METHODS: A simple, random, cross-sectional sampling strategy was used to enroll children 8 years or younger living in selected Philadelphia neighborhoods with a history of lead-emitting industry during July 2014...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Public Health Management and Practice: JPHMP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324561/nursing-minimum-data-sets-for-documenting-nutritional-care-for-adults-in-primary-healthcare-a-scoping-review
#16
Sasja Jul Håkonsen, Preben Ulrich Pedersen, Merete Bjerrum, Ann Bygholm, Micah D J Peters
OBJECTIVE: To identify all published nutritional screening instruments that have been validated in the adult population in primary healthcare settings and to report on their psychometric validity. INTRODUCTION: Within health care, there is an urgent need for the systematic collection of nursing care data in order to make visible what nurses do and to facilitate comparison, quality assurance, management, research and funding of nursing care. To be effective, nursing records should accurately and comprehensively document all required information to support safe and high quality care of patients...
January 2018: JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324431/a-descriptive-qualitative-study-to-assess-patient-experiences-following-stoma-reversal-after-rectal-cancer-surgery
#17
Maria Reinwalds, Andrea Blixter, Eva Carlsson
Standard surgical treatment for patients operated for rectal cancer is abdominoperineal excision of the tumor result- ing in a permanent colostomy or an anterior resection, often with construction of a temporary loop ileostomy. Both options impact bowel function. Living with a permanent colostomy has been studied in depth, but knowledge is limited about patients' experiences living with a resected rectum after stoma reversal and how it affects daily life. A qualitative study was conducted to describe the rst 4 to 6 weeks after reversal of a temporary loop ileostomy due to rectal cancer...
December 2017: Ostomy/wound Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323422/community-interest-and-feasibility-of-using-a-novel-smartphone-based-formaldehyde-exposure-detection-technology
#18
Jessica Castner, Gretchen E Gehrke, Nicholas Shapiro, Karen C Dannemiller
OBJECTIVE: This study is the first community engagement phase of a project to develop a residential formaldehyde detection system. The objectives were to conduct a feasibility assessment for device use, and identify factors associated with concerns about environmental exposure and community interest in this device. DESIGN AND SAMPLE: A cross-sectional, internet-based survey employing community-based participatory research principles was utilized. 147 individuals participated from a focused Waycross, Georgia (58...
January 11, 2018: Public Health Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322576/a-mixed-method-thematic-review-health-related-decision-making-by-the-older-person
#19
REVIEW
Lindy King, Ann Harrington, Ecushla Linedale, Elizabeth Tanner
AIMS: To undertake a mixed method thematic literature review that explored how elderly adults approached decision making in regard to their health care following discharge. BACKGROUND: A critical time for appropriate health decisions occurs during hospital discharge planning with nursing staff. However, little is known how the 89% of elderly living at home make decisions regarding their health care. Research into older adults' management of chronic conditions emerges as an important step to potentially encourage symptom monitoring, prevent missed care and detect deterioration...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321026/lay-health-worker-experiences-administering-a-multi-level-combination-intervention-to-improve-pmtct-retention
#20
Abby DiCarlo, Ruby Fayorsey, Masila Syengo, Duncan Chege, Martin Sirengo, William Reidy, Juliana Otieno, Jackton Omoto, Mark P Hawken, Elaine J Abrams
BACKGROUND: The recent scale-up of prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) services has rapidly accelerated antiretroviral therapy (ART) uptake among pregnant and postpartum women in sub-Saharan Africa. The Mother and Infant Retention for Health (MIR4Health) study evaluates the impact of a combination intervention administered by trained lay health workers to decrease attrition among HIV-positive women initiating PMTCT services and their infants through 6 months postpartum...
January 10, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
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